FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Reza Shah
The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Shah of Iran
Reign December 15, 1925 - September 16, 1941
Born March 16, 1878
Alasht, Savad Kooh, Mazandaran
Died July 26, 1944, aged 66
Johannesburg, South Africa
Predecessor Ahmad Shah Qajar
Successor Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Consort Maryam Khanum
Tadj ol-Molouk
Turan (Qamar al Molk) Amir Soleimani
Esmat Dowlatshahi
Issue Fatemeh, Shams, Mohammad, Ashraf, Ali, Gholam, Abdul, Ahmad, Mahmud, Fatimeh, Hamid Reza Pahlavi
Royal House Pahlavi dynasty
Father Abbas Ali Khan
Mother Noush Afrin

Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British and Soviet forces. His reign lasted almost 16 years. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Rezashah. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Photo of Savadkooh, Spring of 2003 Alasht is one of five major places of savadkooh land which is located in the Mazandaran, Alasht is one of the places of mazandaran with the wealth of natural resources. ... Savad Kooh (Persian: سوادکوه), is a county in Mazandaran province of Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... Tadj ol-Molouk (1896-1982) was the wife of Reza Pahlavi of Iran who was Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... Born on October 26th, 1919, H.I.H. Princess (Shahdokht) Ashraf ul-Mulk (H.I.H. Princess Ashraf Pahlavi) was the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last shah of Iran and the Pahlavi Dynasty. ... Ali Reza Pahlavi (1 March 1922 - 17 October 1954) was Reza Shah Pahlavis second son, and the brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty, and founded the Pahlavi Dynasty. He was later designated by the Parliament as Reza Shah the Great. Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ... Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (king or emperor) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


He established a secular government that valued nationalism, but was anti-communist and authoritarian with strict censorship and state propaganda. [2] Secularism in Iran first started in 1924 when Reza Shah was crowned the new monarch. ... Derafsh Kaviani, one of the nationalist symbols introduced by Ferdowsi. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Censorship is the removal or withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ...


Reza Shah introduced many socio-economic reforms, reorganizing the army, government administration, and finances. [1] However, his attempts of modernisation reforms have been crticised by some for being "too fast" [3] and "superficial".[4] As a result of his modernization of Iran, traditional discriminatory practices towards Zoroastrians, Baha'is, Jews, and Christians were abolished. [5]

Contents

Name

In the early stages of his life, Reza Shah was known as Reza Savad-Koohi, because of his birth place (see below). Later on, when he joined the military, he became known as Reza Khan, and later as Reza Khan Mirpanj (Persian: رضا خان میرپنج), his full military title at the time. Upon becoming minister of war, he was known as Reza Khan Sardar Sepah, which in Persian roughly means Reza Khan, head of the armed forces. Upon securing his position as the Shah of Persia, he chose the surname Pahlavi (surnames did not exist in Persia before this date, and were introduced as one of the modernization measures during his reign [6]). From then on, he was referred to as Reza Shah Pahlavi.


Early life

Reza Pahlavi was born in the city of Alasht in Savad Kooh county, Mazandaran in 1878. His father, Colonel Abbas Ali Khan, was an ethnic Mazandarani and had been a member of the provincial army. When Reza Khan was fifteen years old, he joined the Persian Cossack Brigade, in which, years later, he would become a commander. His mother was a Persian-speaker from Yerevan, Armenia. Photo of Savadkooh, Spring of 2003 Alasht is one of five major places of savadkooh land which is located in the Mazandaran, Alasht is one of the places of mazandaran with the wealth of natural resources. ... Savad Kooh (Persian: سوادکوه), is a county in Mazandaran province of Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ... The Mazandarani people (or Tabari people) are a group of Northwestern Iranian people who mostly speak Mazandarani and inhabit Mazandaran. ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ...


He also served in the Iranian Army, where he gained the rank of gunnery sergeant under Qajar Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma's command. He rose through the ranks, eventually holding a commission as a Brigadier General in the Persian Cossack Brigade. He was the last and only Iranian commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade. He was also one of the last individuals to become an officer of the Nishan-e-Aqdas prior to the collapse of the Qajar dynasty in 1925.[7] // Introduction The Iranian Army is the national army of Iran and called the Artesh. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Abdol Hossein Mirza was the patriarch of one of the most prominent Qajar Dynasty families, the Farmanfarmaians, and one of the most influential politicians of his time. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... The Nishan-e-Aqdas (Imperial Order or Most Sacred Order of the Aqdas) was an Imperial Iranian Order founded in 1870 by the Qajar Shah of Iran Nassereddin. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ...


Rise to power

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ...

The 1921 Coup

Reza Shah during his time as Minister of War.
Reza Shah during his time as Minister of War.

On February 21, 1921, Reza Khan staged a coup d'état together with Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee, to get control over a country which had practically no functioning central government at the time. Image File history File links Reza_Shah_MoW.jpg‎ License Source: Taken from the Farsi Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Reza_Shah_MoW.jpg‎ License Source: Taken from the Farsi Wikipedia. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Seyyed Ziaeddin Tabatabaee (Persian: سید ضیاءالدین طباطبایی) (1888 - 1969) was a Persian politician and the Prime Minister of Persia from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty. ...


Commanding a Russian-trained Cossack Brigade, Reza Khan marched his troops from Qazvin, 150 kilometres to the west of Tehran, and seized key parts of the capital city almost without opposition and forced the government to resign.[8] craftsmanship at Shazdeh Hosein shrine. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران Tehrān), population (as of 2006) 7,354,000 (metropolitan: 12,651,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometres (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ...


With the success of the coup, Tabatabaee became the Prime Minister of Iran. Reza Khan's first role in the new government was as commander of the army, which, in April 1921, he combined with the post of Minister of War. At the same time, he took the title Reza Khan Sardar Sepah (رضا خان سردار سپه). As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ...


In 1921 there were a number of revolts against the coup[9] In June 1920, a soviet socialist republic had established in Gilan by Mīrzā Kūchak Khān, as the prime minister. Kurds of Khorasan also revolted in the same year. [10] Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mirza Kuchek Khan before starting the rebellion (around 1914). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ...


According to some sources, the involvement of the British Empire through the office of General Edmund Ironside helped Reza Khan come to power in the 1920s. This was noted as early as March 1921 by the American embassy and relayed to the Iran desk at the Foreign Office [11] A British Embassy report from 1932 even states that the British put Reza Shah "on the throne". [12] [13] [14][15] Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside (b. ...


Overthrow of the Qajar dynasty

Personal flag of Reza Shah from 1925 to 1944.
Personal flag of Reza Shah from 1925 to 1944.

On October 26, 1923, Reza had seized control of Iran and forced the young Ahmad Shah Qajar to exile in Europe. As the Prime Minister, Reza Khan wanted to secure his power in opposition to any potential restoration of Qajar house. He now hoped to create a republic and his military junta started a massive propaganda campaign for establishment of a republic.[16][17] However, the idea of a republic was fiercely opposed by the powerful clergymen, and the feudal landlords.[18]. Some leaders of the National Assembly of Iran, known as the Majlis, particularly Hassan Modarres and the young Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh forcefully opposed Reza Khan’s plan to consolidate his autocracy. His supremacy was imposed by 1925 with the subjugation of all tribal insurrections and nationalists’ unrest. He maneuvered against Qajar dynasty and in October forced the parliament to depose the young King. He assured the landlords and the conservative clergy that he would defend Islamic law and would not undertake any radical reform. The Majlis, convening as a constituent assembly on December 12, 1925, declared him the Shah.[8][16] Image File history File links Reza_shah_flag. ... Image File history File links Reza_shah_flag. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Seyyed Hassan Modarres (Persian: سید حسن مدرس)‎ (1870? - December 1, 1937), was an Persian/Iranian cleric and politician. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Three days later, on December 15, 1925, he took his imperial oath and thus became the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was not until April 25, 1926 that Reza Shah would receive his coronation and first place the Imperial Crown on his head. At the same ceremony his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was proclaimed the Crown Prince of Persia – to rule after his father.[19] December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... The Pahlavi coronation. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...


Reign and modernization

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Reza Shah at the opening ceremony of the University of Tehran's Faculty of Medicine.
Reza Shah at the opening ceremony of the University of Tehran's Faculty of Medicine.

During Reza Shah's sixteen years of rule, major developments, such as large road construction projects and the Trans-Iranian Railway were built, modern education was introduced and the University of Tehran was established.[20] The government sponsored European educations for many Iranian students. [21] These industrial reforms in Iran were often also advantageous for British interest. For example, in spite of the fact that economically an east-west railway system was justifiable, Reza Shah constructed an uneconomical north-south system that was beneficial for the British who had a military presence in the south of Iran and wanted to transfer their troops to Russia and the Indian subcontinent as part of their strategic defence plan.[17] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links OpeningCeremony-TehranUMedicine. ... Image File history File links OpeningCeremony-TehranUMedicine. ... Tehran University is the largest university in Iran, with 32,000 students. ... The Trans-Iranian Railway was a major railway building project started in the 1930s and finished in 1939, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, to construct a basic network of railways joining the capital Tehran to the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. ... Tehran University is the largest university in Iran, with 32,000 students. ...


On 21 March 1935, Reza Shah Pahlavi issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence in accordance with the fact that Persia was a term used for a country called Iran in Persian. Opponents claimed that this act brought cultural damage to the country and separated Iran from its past in the West (see Iran naming dispute). The name “Iran” means “Land of the Aryans”. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... Iran has been the subject of a naming dispute in common Western usage. ...


Along with the modernization of the nation, Reza Shah was the ruler during the time of the Women's Awakening (1936-1941). This movement sought the elimination of the Islamic veil from Iranian society. Supporters held that the veil impeded physical exercise and the ability of women to enter society and contribute to the progress of the nation. This move met opposition from the religious establishment.[citation needed] The unveiling issue and the Women's Awakening are linked to the Marriage Law of 1931 and the Second Congress of Eastern Women in Tehran in 1932.


By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah's constructive, but dictatorial style of rule had caused intense dissatisfaction to the Shi'a clergy throughout Iran, thus widening the gap between religion and government.[22] He forbade photographing aspects of Iran he considered backwards, like camels, he banned traditional dress and chadors in favour of Western dress. [23] Women who resisted this compulsory unveiling had their veils forcibly removed. He dealt harshly with opposition: troops were sent to massacre protesters at mosques and nomads who refused to settle; newspapers were closed and liberals imprisoned.[23] He also used his power to vastly increase his fortune, becoming the biggest landowner in Iran, proprietor of nearly three thousand villages, as well as many factories and enterprises.[23] Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus gigas Camelus hesternus Camelus sivalensis Camels are even-toed ungulates in the genus Camelus. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


By the late 1930s, Reza Shah had become increasingly despotic and disliked [24] . The parliament assented to his decrees [25]the free press was suppressed, and swift incarceration of the political leaders like Mossadegh and murder of some like Teymourtash, and Davar halted the formation of any democratic process. He treated the urban middle class, the managers and technocrats with iron-hand, as a result his state-owned industries remained unproductive and inefficient[26] . The bureaucracy fell apart before him since anyone could be whisked away to prison at any moment for disobeying his whims [27] He confiscated land from the Qajars and from the rivals to usurp it into his own estates.[citation needed] The corruption continued under his rule and even became institutionalized.[citation needed] Progress toward modernization was spotty and isolated [28]. He became totally dependent on his military force, and the army, which in return regularly received up to 50 percent of the public revenue to guarantee its loyalty. [29] Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Abdolhossein Teymourtash. ... Davar (Hebrew: דבר, meaning thing or word) was a Hebrew language daily newspaper published in Israel from 1925 until 1994. ...


Relations with Germany

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

According to W. Andrew Terrill, Reza Shah had been impressed enormously with European fascism[30]. In 1935, Reza Pahlavi announced that all Western countries should use the name of "Iran" in their languages too. Opponents claim that this act brought cultural damage to the country and separated Iran from its past in the West, and caused many people to confuse it with Iraq (an Arab state west of Iran). During World War II, in fact, Winston Churchill ordered that the name "Persia" be used for all government documents so as to avoid this confusion. For many westerners, "Persia" became a dead empire that does not exist anymore. Members of the Persian intelligentsia were not happy with this decree either, because of the allegedly pro-Nazi incentive behind it [31]. After Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi Economics minister, commented on the Aryan origin of Persians, Reza Shah's ambassador in Germany encouraged him to issue the above mentioned decree asking all foreign delegates to use the word "Iran" (meaning "Land of the Aryans") instead of "Persia" in formal correspondence.[32] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German financial expert and Minister of Economics from 1935 until 1937. ...


As The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country. In its decision it was influenced by the Nazi revival of interest in the so-called Aryan races, cradled in ancient Persia. As the Ministry of Foreign Affairs set forth in its memorandum on the subject, 'Perse,' the French designation of Persia, connoted the weakness and tottering independence of the country in the nineteenth century, when it was the chessboard of European imperialistic rivalry. 'Iran,' by contrast, conjured up memories of the vigor and splendor of its historic past."[33] Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Norouz (also spelled Norooz, Noruz, Naw-Rúz or Nowrouz) is the traditional Iranian festival of the New Year which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Deposition and Death

In August 1941, the Allied powers United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, occupied Iran by a massive air, land, and naval assault subsequently forcing Reza Shah to abdicate in favour of his son (see also Persian Corridor). Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The...


The invasion was allegedly in fear that Reza Shah was about to align his petroleum-rich country with Nazi Germany [34] during the war: However, Reza Shah's earlier Declaration of Neutrality [35] and refusal to allow Iranian territory to be used to train, supply, and act as a transport corridor to ship arms to Russia for its war effort against Germany, was the strongest motive for the allied invasion of Iran. Due to this event, Iran attained the war-time pseudo-name of "The Bridge to Victory". Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


The Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially replaced his father on the throne on September 16, 1941. Reza Shah was soon forced into exile, first to Mauritius, then to Johannesburg, South Africa, where he either died, or was allegedly poisoned[citation needed] by British agents, on July 26, 1944, aged 66. After his death, his body was flown back to Iran, and a mausoleum was built in his honor, where his body was buried. The Majlis later designated the title "the Great" to be added to his name. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


Following the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Reza Shah's mausoleum was destroyed under the direction of Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali, which was sanctioned by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.[36] 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali (صادق خلخالی in Persian) (1927? - November 26, 2003) was a hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mosavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah...


Family

Reza Shah's first wife, whom he married in 1894, was Maryam Khanum (died 1904). They had one daughter: 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...

His second wife was Tadj ol-Molouk, by whom he had five children: 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Aga Khan III, founder of the Muslim League The Aga Khan III (Persian: آغا خان الثالث), GCIE, PC, (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957), also known as Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah, (Persian: سلطان محمد شاه), was the 48th Imam of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... Tadj ol-Molouk (1896-1982) was the wife of Reza Pahlavi of Iran who was Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. ...

In 1922 (divorced 1923), Reza Shah married Turan (Qamar al Molk) Amir Soleimani (1904 – 1995), by whom he had one son:[37] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Born on October 26th, 1919, H.I.H. Princess (Shahdokht) Ashraf ul-Mulk (H.I.H. Princess Ashraf Pahlavi) was the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last shah of Iran and the Pahlavi Dynasty. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ali Reza Pahlavi (1 March 1922 - 17 October 1954) was Reza Shah Pahlavis second son, and the brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • Gholam Reza Pahlavi (b. 1923)

Reza Shah's fourth wife was Esmat Dowlatshahi (1904-1995), by whom he had five children: {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

See also

A close aide to Reza Khan, who himself eventually became a victim of the Pahlavi regime. ... Mohammad Hosein Airom was known for his brutal methods. ... Abdolhossein Teymourtash. ... Sar Lashgar Karim Agha Buzarjomehri (1886-?) was a leading military general and supporter of Reza Pahlavi. ... Major General Mahmud Khan Pulādeen (also can be spelled Pouladeen) was a senior military leader of the Reza Pahlavi era. ... Like many other generals, the famed Major General Jahanbani fell out of favor by Reza Khan. ... Colonel Pesian at the height of his power. ... Sheikh Khazal Khan Lieutenant-General Sheikh Khazal Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan (1863?-1936), styled His Eminence, Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas), was the ruler of a virtually autonomous sheikhdom (officially called the Sheikhdom of Mohammerah... Sepahbod Amir Ahmadi Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi was a military leader and cabinet Minister of Iran. ... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ...

References

  1. ^ a b The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Reza Shah
  2. ^ Michael P. Zirinsky; "Imperial Power and Dictatorship: Britain and the Rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926", International Journal of Middle East Studies 24 (1992), 639-663, Cambridge University Press
  3. ^ The Origins of the Iranian Revolution by Roger Homan. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 56, No. 4 (Autumn, 1980), pp. 673-677 Link
  4. ^ Richard W. Cottam, Nationalism in Iran, University of Pittsburgh Press, ISBN o-8229-3396-7
  5. ^ Littman (1979), p. 2
  6. ^ Albrecht Schnabel and Amin Saikal (2003), Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges URL pp91
  7. ^ Christopher Buyers, Persia, The Qajar Dynasty: Orders & Decorations
  8. ^ a b The Pahlavi Era of Iran para. 2, 3
  9. ^ Makki Hossein, The History of Twenty Years, Vol.2, Preparations For Change of Monarchy, Mohammad-Ali Elmi Press, 1945 pp, 87-90, 358-451,
  10. ^ On these postwar movements see especially Cottam, Richard W Nationalism in Iran: Updated through 1978, 2nd ed. Pittsburg. University of Pittsburg Press. 1979
  11. ^ Zirinsky M.P. Imperial Power and dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah 1921-1926. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 24, 1992. p.646
  12. ^ FO 371 16077 E2844 dated 8 June 1932
  13. ^ Ansari, Ali M. Modern Iran since 1921. Longman. 2003 ISBN 0-582-35685-7 p.26-31
  14. ^ For fine discussions of this period and Ironsides's key role, see R.H. Ullman, Anglo-Soviet Relations 1917-1921, 3 (Princeton, 1972)
  15. ^ D. Wright, The English amongst the Persians (London, 1977), pp. 180-84. Ironside's diary is the main document
  16. ^ a b Nikki R Keddie; Yann Richard (1981). Roots of Revolution; An Interpretive History of Modern Iran. New Haven: Yale University Press, Page 91. ISBN 0300026064. 
  17. ^ a b Makki Hossein (1324 (1945)). History of Iran in Twenty Years, Vol. II, Preparation for the Change of Monarchy. Tehran: Nasher Publication, Printed by Mohammad Ali Elmi, PP 484-485. 
  18. ^ ibid, keddie, page 91 and Makki page 497. See also Sullivan, William H, Mission to Iran, W.W.Norton and Company,1981 page48
  19. ^ Timeline: Iran; A chronology of key events. bbc.co.uk (January 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007 February 4.
  20. ^ [Suspect, POV, not pier reviewed, http://www.tufts.edu/as/stu-org/persian/irannew.html Iran]: Recent History, The Education System
  21. ^ Suspect, POV, not from Pier Reviewed Source,John Stanton, Iran's Reza Pahlavi: A Puppet of the US and Israel?
  22. ^ Rajaee,Farhang, Islamic Values and World View: Farhang Khomeyni on Man, the State and International Politics, Volume XIII (PDF), University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-3578-X
  23. ^ a b c Kapuściński, Ryszard. Shah of Shahs. Translated from Polish by William R. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. New York: Vintage International, 1992.
  24. ^ Nikki R. Keddie and Yann Richard, Roots of Revolution, 1981, Yale University, ISBN 0-300-02606-4
  25. ^ Barry Rubin, Paved with Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran, Oxford University Press Inc. 1980, ISBN 0-14-00-5964-4 and Richard W Cottam, Nationalism in Iran, University of Pittsburgh Press 1979. ISBN 0-8229-3596-7
  26. ^ See: Barry Rubin Paved With Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran, Oxford University Presss. Inc. 1980, and also Penguin Books 1981 pages 14 and 15
  27. ^ Barry Rubin, Paved with Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran, Oxford University Press Inc. 1980, ISBN 0-14-00-5964-4
  28. ^ Nikki R. Keddie and Yann Richard, Roots of Revolution, 1981, Yale University, ISBN 0-300-02606-4
  29. ^ See: Barry Rubin Paved With Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran, Oxford University Presss. Inc. 1980, and also Penguin Books 1981 pages 14 and 15
  30. ^ W. Andrew Terrill, Regional Fears of Western Primacy and the Future of U.S. Middle Eastern Basing Policy, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, December 2006
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ The History of Iran, Elton Daniel, p.3
  33. ^ Oliver McKee Jr., New Names of Places: Change of Santo Domingo to Trujillo City Recalls Others, The New York Times, 26 June 1933, p. XX9.
  34. ^ Keith Eubank, Summit at Teheran (New York, NY: William Morrow, 1985), pp. 161-197
  35. ^ Mohsen M. Milani (1994), The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. ISBN 0813384761
  36. ^ Obituary: Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali – Hardline cleric known as the "hanging judge" of Iran by Adel Darwish, The Independent, Nov 29, 2003.
  37. ^ History of Iran: Reza Shah Pahlavi at the Iran Chamber Society

Nikkie R. Keddie is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). ... The URL bbc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (born March 4, 1932 in PiÅ„sk) is a popular Polish journalist, both at home and abroad. ... Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„skis analysis of the decline and fall of of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ...

External links

  • A Genealogy of the Pahlavi Dynasty he founded
Pahlavi dynasty
Born: 16 March 1878
Died: 26 July 1944
Regnal Titles
Preceded by
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Shah of Iran
1925–1941
Succeeded by
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reza Shah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1238 words)
Reza Pahlavi was born in the village of Alasht in Mazandaran province in 1878.
Reza's first role in the new government was as commander of the army, which, in April 1921, he combined with the post of Minister of War.
On December 12, 1925, the Majlis, convening as a constituent assembly, voted to crown Reza Pahlavi as the new Shah of Persia.
Pahlavi Dynasty (3307 words)
In 1925 the Majles deposed the absentee monarch, and a constituent assembly elected Reza Khan as shah, vesting sovereignty in the new Pahlavi dynasty.
Reza Shah's first priority was to strengthen the authority of the central government by creating a disciplined standing army and restraining the autonomy of the tribal chiefs.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1919-80) was born in Tehran on October 26, 1919, the eldest son of Reza Shah.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m