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Encyclopedia > Reynard

Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, Reynardt and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic tales from medieval Europe. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 children's book.
Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 children's book.

Contents

Reynard the fox. ... Reynard the fox. ...

In medieval European folklore and literature

He seems to have originated in French folklore. An extensive treatment of the character is the Old French Le Roman de Renart written by Perrout de Saint Cloude around 1175, which sets the typical setting. Reynard has been summoned to the court of king Noble, or Leo, the Lion, to answer charges brought against him by Isengrim the Wolf. Other anthropomorphic animals, including Bruin the Bear, Baldwin the Ass, Tibert (Tybalt) the Cat, Chantecler the Rooster and Hirsent the She-wolf, appear to give testimony against him, which Reynard always proves false by one stratagem or another. The stories typically involve satire whose usual butts are the aristocracy and the clergy, making Reynard a peasant-hero character. Reynart's principal castle, Maleperduys, is available to him whenever he needs to hide away from his enemies. Some of the tales feature Reynard's funeral, where his enemies gather to deliver maudlin elegies full of insincere piety, and which features Reynard's posthumous revenge. Reynard's wife Hermeline appears in the stories, but plays little active role, although in some versions she remarries when Reynard is thought dead, thereby becoming one of the people he plans revenge upon. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Isengrin, the name of the wolf which typifies the feudal baron in the epic tale of Reynard the Fox, as the fox does the Church. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Chantecler is a poultry company operating in Mauritius. ... Rooster crowing during daylight A Rhode Island Red. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Maleperduys is the name of Reynard the Foxs principal hideaway in the medieval tales of this fox. ... Elegy was originally used for a type of poetic metre (Elegiac metre), but is also used for a poem of mourning, from the Greek elegos, a reflection on the death of someone or on a sorrow generally. ...


Reynard appears first in the medieval Latin poem Ysengrimus, a long Latin mock-epic written ca. 1148-1153 by the poet Nivardus in Ghent, that collects a great store of Reynard's adventures. He also puts in an early appearance in a number of Latin sequences by the preacher Odo of Cheriton. Both of these early sources seem to draw on a pre-existing store of popular culture featuring the character. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Ysengrimus is a Latin fabliau and mock epic, an anthropomorphic series of fables written in 1148 or 1149 by the poet Nivardus. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates , , Area 156. ... In Latin poetry, a sequence (Latin sequentia) is a poem written in a non-classical metre, often on a sacred Christian subject. ... Odo of Cheriton was a Roman Catholic preacher and fabulist. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...


The 13th century saw the light of a Middle Dutch version of the story (Van den vos Reynaerde, About Reynard the Fox), comprised of rhymed verses (scheme AA BB). Very little is known of the author, Willem, other than the description of himself in the first sentences:

This would roughly translate as:

Willem, die Madoc maecte,
Daer hi dicken omme waecte,
Hem vernoyde so haerde
Dat die avonture van Reynaerde
In dietsche onghemaket bleven
(Die Arnout niet hevet vulscreven)
Dat hi die vijte van Reynaerde dede soucken
Ende hise na den walschen boucken
In dietsche dus hevet begonnen.

Willem who has made Madoc,
and suffered many a sleepless night in doing so,
regretted
that the adventures of Reynaert
had not been translated in Dutch
(because Arnout had not completed his work).
So he has researched the story
and in the same way as the French books
has he written it in Dutch.

Who this Willem was, remains a mystery. Madoc of which he here spoke, probably another one of his works, is also still an unknown text to this day.

Illustration from Ghetelen in Reinke de Vos (1498)
Illustration from Ghetelen in Reinke de Vos (1498)

Geoffrey Chaucer used Reynard material in the Canterbury Tales; in the "Nonne Preestes Tale", Reynard appears as "Rossel" and an ass as "Brunel". In 1485 William Caxton printed The Historie of Reynart the Foxe, which was translated from a Dutch version of the fables. Hans van Ghetelen, a printer of Incunabula in Lübeck printed an early German version called Reinke de Vos in 1498. It was translated to Latin and other languages, which made the tale poplular across Europe. The character of Tybalt in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is named for the character Tibert/Tybalt the "Prince of Cats" in Reynard the Fox. Goethe, also, dealt with Reynard in his fable Reinecke Fuchs. Reynard is also referenced in the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight during the third hunt. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... The tale of Chanticleer and the Fox is a beast fable popularized by the 14th century Middle English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The printers device of William Caxton, 1478. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Tybalt in the 1968 film as portrayed by Michael York. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ...

Modern treatment

Postage stamp issued by Luxembourg 1972

Luxembourg stamp commemorating Rénert the Fox, a fictional work by Michel Rodange. ... Luxembourg stamp commemorating Rénert the Fox, a fictional work by Michel Rodange. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...

Rénert the Fox

Rénert the Fox was published in 1872 by Michel Rodange, a Luxembourgish author. An epic satirical work, an adaptation of the traditional Dutch fox epic to a setting in Luxembourg, it is known for its insightful analysis of the unique characteristics of the people of Luxembourg, using regional and sub-regional dialects to depict the fox and his companions. 1930 Luxemboug Postage stamp Michel Rodange (1827-1876) was a Luxembourgish writer. ... This article is about the country in western Europe. ...


Stravinsky's Renard

In 1916 Igor Stravinsky composed Renard (aka The Fox), "histoire burlesque cantée et jouée" (burlesque in song and dance), a one-act chamber opera-ballet. Stravinsky's text was in Russian, and based on Russian folk tales from the collection by Alexander Afanasyev. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th-century music. ... Michail Larionov: The sketch of the costume of Renard in the nuns black gown for the 1922 performance Renard, Histoire burlesque chantée et jouée (The Fox: burlesque tale sung and played) is a one-act chamber opera-ballet by Igor Stravinsky, written in 1916. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev (Russian: Александр Николаевич Афанасьев) (11 July 1826 — 23 October 1871) was a Russian folklorist best known for his pioneering study and publication of Russian folktales. ...


Vixen Sharpears - The cunning little Vixen

Rudolf Těsnohlídek's 1920 Liška Bystrouška ("Vixen Sharpears", a comic in a Brno newspaper) provided a female version of "Reynard". The story was taken up by Leoš Janáček, turning it into an opera, The Cunning Little Vixen (1923). In 2003, the BBC produced and animated film version of Janáček's opera.[1] Rudolf TÄ›snohlídek (July 7, 1882 - January 12, 1928, suicide) was a Czech writer, journalist and translator. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... LeoÅ¡ Janáček in 1928 LeoÅ¡ Janáček ( ; July 3, 1854 in Hukvaldy, Moravia, then Austrian empire – August 12, 1928 in Ostrava, then Czechoslovakia) was a Czech composer. ... The Cunning Little Vixen (Příhody LiÅ¡ky BystrouÅ¡ky, literally The Adventures of Vixen Sharp-Ears, in Czech) is an opera by LeoÅ¡ Janáček, with a libretto adapted by the composer from a serialized novella (daily comic) by Rudolf TÄ›snohlídek, which was first published in newspaper... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


In Max Brod's German translation of the opera, the Vixen's counterpart introduces himself as "Reineke aus dem Stamm der Herrn von Goldentupf von und zu Tiefengrund", where "Reineke" is of course Reynard, and the rest of the make-believe noble title a reference to the foxes golden hairs ("Goldentupf"), and obscure provenance ("zu Tiefengrund", translated as from Deep Hollow).[2] Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ...


Van den vos Reynaerde

Van den vos Reynaerde, (About Reynard the Fox) was an anti-semitic children's story, written by the Dutch-Belgian Robert van Genechten, and named after the mediaeval Dutch poem. It was first published in 1937 in Nieuw-Nederland, a monthly of the Dutch national socialist movement NSB. In 1941 it was published as a book. Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... The NSB, Norges Statsbaner AS., known in English as Norwegian State Railways is a transport company, created in its present form by the Norwegian National Rail Administration through legislation on December 1, 1996, but then privatized on July 1, 2002, owned privately by Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications. ...


The story features a rhinoceros, neushoorn in Dutch (literally : "nose horn"), referring to the perceived typical Jewish nose. His name is Iodocus, which refers to the Dutch word for Jew: jood, pronounced somewhat like the "Iod-" in Iodocus. The story also features a donkey, Boudewijn, occupying the throne. "Boudewijn" happens to be the Dutch name of the contemporary Belgian crown prince. This is a reference to the Belgian Nazi leader Léon Degrelle, leader of the Rex-movement ("Rex" is Latin for "King"). Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Baudouin I, King of the Belgians, (Baudouin/Boudewijn Albert Charles Léopold Axel Marie Gustave) (7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993), reigned as King of the Belgians from 1951 to 1993. ... Léon Joseph Marie Degrelle (June 15, 1906 – April 1, 1994) was a Belgian politician, who founded Rexism and later joined the Nazi German Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent). ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ...


In the story, Iodocus the rhinoceros arrives at the kingdom of the late King Nobel. The kingdom is under a power struggle, because the king's son, Lionel the Lion, is too weak to preserve power. The throne is captured by the donkey, Boudewijn. Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ...


Iodocus claims he has been persecuted in other countries because he cultivated a remarkably fine breed of thistles. He wants to stay in the kingdom in some modest place and grow his thistles. Boudewijn lets Iodocus stay. Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ...


But soon Iodocus introduces some new ideas - about liberty, equality and fraternity. The animals of the kingdom start believing him, and soon the natural way of live is perverted: the animals start mating with other species and sick combinations of species evolve. Because the animals don't recognise each other, they eat their own children.


Iodocus starts collecting taxes with the help of his relatives, which he has secretly sent for in the east. The country is covered with thistles.


The animals become dissatisfied, and Reynard is called to destroy the rhinoceroses. Reynard rounds them up and kills most of them, including Iodocus. Lionel takes the power back.[3]


Advertising

Bevo, a popular U.S. brand of near beer, advertised with Reynard the Fox in the 1910s and 1920s. Bevo was a non-alcoholic malt beverage, or near beer, brewed in the United States by Anheuser-Busch. ... Near beer was originally a term for malt beverages with little or no alcohol (one half of one percent or less) mass-marketed during Prohibition in the United States. ...


The film

Van den vos Reynaerde was also released as a cartoon film by Nederlandfilm in 1943. The film was mostly paid with Nazi German money. It was never presented publicly, possibly because most Jews of Netherland were already transported to the concentration camps. In 1991, parts of the film were found again in the German Bundesarchiv. In 2005, more pieces were found, and the film has been restored. This film, among other war movies, will be shown again during the 2006 Holland Animation Film Festival in Utrecht, the Netherlands.[4] It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ...


Other adaptations, versions and references

In movies and television series

Ladislas Starevich's 1937 puppet-animated feature film, Le Roman de Renard (The Tale of the Fox) featured the Reynard character as the protagonist. Ladislas Starevich (August 8, 1882 - February 26, 1965), born Władysław Starewicz, was a Polish, Russian and French stop-motion animator who used insects and animals as his protagonists. ... See also: 1936 in film 1937 category:1937 films 1938 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events April 16 - Way Out West premieres in the US. May 7 - Shall We Dance premieres in the US. Top grossing films Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Conquest Damaged Lives... The Tale of the Fox (French: , German: ) was stop-motion animation pioneer Ladislas Starevichs first feature film. ...


The documentary film "The Black Fox" (1962) parallels Hitler's rise to power with the Reynard fable. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


Disney produced an anthropomorphic animated version of Robin Hood in which Robin and Maid Marian were depicted as foxes, and other characters from the tale depicted as other animals (including a wolf as Sheriff of Nottingham and lions as both Prince John and King Richard). This treatment would also appear to owe something to the Reynard trickster fables. In 1985, a French animated series, "Moi Renart" (I Reynard) was created which was loosely based on Reynard's tales. In it, the original animals are anthropomorphic humanoid animals and the action occurs in modern Paris with other anthropomorphic animals in human roles. Reynard is a young mischievous fox with a little monkey pet called Marmouset (an original creation). He sets into Paris in order to discover the city, get a job and visit his grumpy and stingy uncle, Isengrim, who is a deluxe car salesman, and his reasonable yet dreamy she-wolf aunt, Hirsent. Reynard meets Hermeline, a young and charming motorbike-riding vixen journalist. He immediately falls in love with her and tries to win her heart during several of the episodes. As Reynard establishes himself into Paris, he creates a small company at his name where he offers to do any job for anyone, from impersonating female maids to opera singers. To help with this, he is a master of disguise and is a bit of a kleptomaniac, which gets him trouble from police chief Chantecler (a rooster) who often sends to him police cat inspector Tybalt in order to thwart his plans. Walt Disney Productions is the former name of The Walt Disney Company, which it held from 1929 to 1986. ... Robin Hood was a animated film by Walt Disney Studios, first released in the United States on November 8, 1973. ... Robin Hood and Maid Marian (poster, ca. ... The Sheriff of Nottingham was historically the office responsible for enforcing law and order in Nottingham and bringing criminals to justice. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... The term humanoid refers to any being whose body structure resembles that of a human. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Vixen can refer to: A female fox, or A shrewish, ill-tempered or spiteful woman; a virago An attractive woman An all-female rock and roll band from the 1980s; see Vixen (band) Name for female performers in ECW. Another rock and roll band formed in 1982 featuring Marty Friedman. ... Kleptomania (word of Greek origin) is an obsession with stealing. ...


In 2005 a Luxemburg based animation studio released an all CGI film titled "Le Roman de Renart", obviously based on the same fable. Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in...


In literature and comic strips

In Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, there is a character resembling Reynard. Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... Invisible Man, a novel written by Ralph Ellison, chronicles the experiences and conflicts of identity in the unnamed narrator within the context of mid-twentieth-century America. ...


A fox called Reynard is a central character in John Crowley's 1976 novel Beasts. John Crowley (born December 1, 1942 in Presque Isle, Maine) is an American author of fantasy, science fiction and mainstream fiction. ... Beasts (ISBN 0-385-11260-2) is a novel by John Crowley, published in 1976 by Doubleday. ...


In the 2006 novel, Echo Park, by Michael Connelly, the villain is styled--and named--after Reynard the Fox.


British novelist Michael Moorcock introduced Lord Renyard, a man-sized talking fox, well-versed in 18th Century Encyclopedist philosophy, in his 1986 fantasy "The City in the Autumn Stars". Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... The City in the Autumn Stars: Being a Continuation of the Story of the Von Bek Family and Its Association With Lucifer, Prince of Darkness, a science fantasy novel by Michael Moorcock, is the second book in the Von Bek trilogy, which was published by Grafton in 1986. ...


In the Fables comic book, Reynard the Fox is one of the non-human Fables who lives on "the Farm"---the part of Fabletown reserved for Fables who cannot pass as normal humans, due to its secluded location in upstate New York State. He is opposed to the attempted overthrow of the Fabletown government, and works with Snow White---saving her life while flirting with her mercilessly. Although Snow White offers him no encouragement, he continues to hope for a relationship with her. Fables is a Vertigo comic book series created and written by Bill Willingham. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Fabletown is the clandestine community of Fables resident in New York in the Fables comic book universe. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Snow White in her coffin, Theodor Hosemann, 1852. ...


In the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court, a demon-spirit named Reynardine posesses an old toy of Annie's. Introduction Gunnerkrigg Court is the name of a webcomic written by Tom Siddell. ...


In the Swedish children's comic Bamse, a new villain is introduced in Issue 7 (2006): a fox named Reinard, who attempts to impress other ne'er-do-wells with his cunning trickery (including dispatching hero Bamse to a remote region of Sweden so that he can pursue a museum raid without hindrance). Bamse, most known as the worlds strongest bear like in this title screen, has also always been the kindest. ...


In Friedrich Nietzsche's The Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche uses Reynard the Fox as an example of a dialectician. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... The Twilight of the Idols (Götzen-Dämmerung) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889. ... A dialectician is a philosopher who views the world in terms of complementary opposites and the interactions thereof. ...


Science Fiction/Fantasy writer Neil Gaiman wrote a story in verse about Reynard in his collection "Smoke and Mirrors".


In the last issue of Grant Morrison's The Invisibles, one of the side characters is named Reynard, in reference to the original folktales. The Invisibles is a comic book series written by Grant Morrison and drawn by various artists. ...


In music

Julian Cope, a rock musician whose work often incorporates British Isles folklore, titled a song after Reynard on his album Fried. Julian Cope (born Julian David Cope, on 21 October 1957) is an Welsh rock musician, writer, antiquary, musicologist, poet and forward-thinker who came to prominence as singer of Liverpool post-punk band The Teardrop Explodes in 1978. ... The act of frying. ...


Scottish indie/country band Country Teasers have a song titled "Reynard The Fox" on their 1999 album, Destroy All Human Life. (Fat Possum Records)


English band Angelica had a song titled "Reynard The Fox" on their 2002 album, The Seven Year Itch. Missing image Angelica Angelica are an all-girl punk rock band from Lancaster, England. ... The Seven Year Itch was the debut full-length album by Angelica released on Victory Works records. ...


In French

The patrimonial French word for "fox" was goupil from Latin vulpecula. However, mentioning the fox was considered bad luck among farmers. Because of the popularity of the Reynard stories, renard was often used as an euphemism to the point that today renard is the standard French word for "fox" and goupil is now dialectal or archaic. Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...


See also

In the versions of this ballad that are most commonly sung and recorded today, Reynardine is a werefox who attracts beautiful women to him so that he can take them away to his castle. ... The fabliau (plural fabliaux or fablieaux) is a comic, usually anonymous tale written by jongleurs in northeast France circa the 13th Century. ... Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. ... Króka-Refs saga or the Saga of Ref (Fox) the Sly is one of the Icelanders sagas. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Released on DVD by Opus Arte, OA 0839 D
  2. ^ Brod's "translation" wasn't too literal, Janáček's original Czech version of the fox's introduction rather translates as "Goldmane, curly-tufted dogfox from Deep Hollow", so less explicitly tying with the Reynard tales. An account of Brod's tendency to add connotations and symbols in his German versions of Janáček's operas and of Janáček's partial appreciation of such modifications can be found in John Tyrell's Janáček's Operas, 1992, ISBN 0-571-15129-9
  3. ^ Reynard the Fox and the Jew Animal by Egbert Barten and Gerard Groeneveld
  4. ^ (Dutch) "Animaties over oorlog op filmfestival", ANP. 

SIR JOHN TYRRELL, Knt. ...

External links

  • The History of Reynard the Fox by Henry Morley, 1889.
  • Reynard the Fox, article from the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Full text of the Middle Dutch poem
  • Full text of the Middle Saxon poem

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reynard - definition of Reynard in Encyclopedia (342 words)
Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic fables from medieval Europe.
Reynard has been summoned to the court of king Noble, or Leo, the Lion, to answer charges brought against him by Isengrim the Wolf.
Reynard was also the name of a British racing cars manufacturer, founded by Adrian Reynard, who built successful cars in Formula 3000, Formula 3 and endurance racing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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