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Encyclopedia > Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
Revolutions of 1848
Brazil
France
German states
Habsburg Empire and Hungary
Italian states and Sicily
Greater Poland
Wallachia

"Germany" at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. As nationalist sentiment crystallized into resistance of the traditional political structure, repeated calls for freedom, democracy and national unity came to threaten the status quo. The Hambacher Fest of 1832, for instance, reflected growing unrest in the face of heavy taxation and political censorship, and culminated in the origination of the black-red-gold as a symbol of the republican movement, and of a unity among the people. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 657 × 513 pixelsFull resolution (657 × 513 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Painting of barricade in Paris june 1848 ; from http://persweb. ... From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ... The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: ) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... People in Bucharest during the 1848 events, carrying the Romanian tricolor The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising in the principality of Wallachia. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Procession to Hambach Castle The Hambacher Fest was a national democratic festival, similar to the Wartburg festival of 1817, celebrated at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Weinstraße (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany), on May 27-May 30, 1832 with about 30 000 participants. ...


Liberal pressure spread throughout the German states, each of which experienced the revolutions in their own way. Fearing the fate of Louis-Philippe of France, some monarchs accepted some of the demands of the revolutionaries at least temporarily. The revolution was triggered by events in France at the end of February and soon spread to Germany, known there as the March Revolution. In the south and the west of Germany, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They primarily demanded freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, arming of the people, and a national German parliament. Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...

Contents

Overview

Pro-Revolution

  • demands for political reform
    • Freedom of press
    • self-organization of universities
    • a parliament representing the German citizens instead of the federal council representing only the monarchs of the German states
  • Growth of Nationalism
    • In 1840, it seemed France would invade the Rhineland, spawning a wave of anti-French feeling.
    • Denmark's announcement that it would invade Schleswig-Holstein provoked nationwide opposition.
    • New poems and songs such as the Deutschlandlied ("Deutschland über alles", 1841) were written. The Deutschlandlied eventually became the national anthem.
    • New journals, magazines, and papers, arose, such as "Die Deutsche Zeitung" (The German Newspaper)", widening awareness of events in France and Denmark.
  • Poor Living Condition
    • Cholera Epidemic. Led to widespread death and suffering in Prussia.
    • Huge population growth meant many people starved, partly due to failures of harvests in 1846 and 1847.
    • Many people moved to the cities for work, but working conditions were generally terrible, with long working days and poor or non-existent rights.
  • Prussian Economic Success
    • Prussian Customs Union (PCU) formed, which attempted to set standards for taxes when traveling through German States.
    • The PCU was very small, and eventually evolved into the Zollverein, encompassing most of Germany. Set standards for weights and currency in Germany.
  • Foreign Affairs
    • In February 1848, the King Louis-Phillipe of France abdicated the throne, triggering revolutions across the entire European continent especially in the German provinces.

1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Germany song) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... Dumbbells, a type of free weights Weights are exercise equipment used for strength training. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850), served as the Orleanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ...

Anti-Revolution

  • Failure of the Frankfurt Parliament
    • Poor Leadership (Heinrich von Gagern was considered too weak to lead the group).
    • Many of the leaders, as liberals, had no violent interests. They preferred intellectual debate to violence, and this led to accusations that the Frankfurt Parliament was a 'talking shop with no teeth'.
    • No military backing.
    • Major divide between the Grossdeutschland/Kleindeutschland, Catholic/Protestant Austria/Prussia divide, made worse by the lack of Political Parties in the group.
  • Effect of Prussia
    • In the Denmark Conflict, Prussia ignored the Frankfurt Parliament completely when Britain put pressure to end the war, and made her own armistice. Because they had no army, the Frankfurt Parliament couldn't do anything about it.
    • King Frederick William IV was offered the crown, to become emperor of all Germany, by the FP, but he turned down, because he would not accept a crown from revolutionaries.
  • Austria
    • The Frankfurt Parliament could only have happened because Metternich fell from power and was weak. After Austria had crushed the Italian revolts of 1848/1849, they were ready to turn their attention back to Germany, and with no army, and not enough support from member states, the Parliament could not resist them.

The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... Heinrich Wilhelm August, Freiherr von Gagern (August 20, 1799 - May 22, 1880) statesman who argued for the unification of Germany. ... For information on the military unit see Großdeutschland Division. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ...

March Revolution 1848

Baden

main article: History of Baden The History of Baden begins in the 12th century and continues until the mid-1900s. ...


After news broke of revolutionary victories in February 1848 in Paris, uprisings occurred throughout Europe, including the German states.


Events began rolling on February 27 in Mannheim, where an assembly of the people from Baden adopted a resolution demanding a bill of rights. Similar resolutions were adopted in Württemberg, Hessen-Darmstadt, Nassau, and other German states. The surprisingly strong popular support for these movements forced rulers to give in to many of the Märzforderungen (demands of March) almost without resistance.


The disorders, fomented by republican agitators, nonetheless continued in Baden; and the efforts of the government to suppress them with the aid of federal troops led to an armed insurrection. For the time this was mastered without much difficulty; the insurgents, led by Friedrich Hecker, lost at Kandern on April 20. An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 - March 24, 1881), German revolutionary, was born at Eichtersheim in the Palatinate, his father being a revenue official. ... Kandern is a town in southwestern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in the Kreis (district) of Lörrach. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Austria

main article: Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ...


Austria was the leading German state of that time. Austrian chancellor Metternich had dominated the German Confederation since 1815 until 1848.


On March 13 in Vienna the Diet of Lower Austria demanded Metternich's resignation. With no forces rallying to Metternich's defense, Emperor Ferdinand reluctantly complied and dismissed him. Metternich fled to London and Ferdinand appointed new, nominally liberal, ministers. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ...


Prussia

Cheering revolutionaries after fighting in March 1848

In Berlin crowds of people gathered their demands culminating in an "address to the king". King Frederick William IV, overwhelmed by this pressure, yielded verbally to all the demonstrators' demands, including parliamentary elections, a constitution, and freedom of the press. He even promised that "Prussia was to be merged forthwith into Germany." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x705, 154 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x705, 154 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ...


However, on March 18, a large demonstration occurred and two shots fired by soldiers led to an escalation of tensions. Barricades were erected, fighting started, and blood flowed until troops were ordered to retreat a day later, leaving hundreds dead. Afterwards, Frederick William attempted to reassure the public that the reorganization of his government would proceed, and the king also approved the idea of arming the citizens. On March 21, he paraded through the streets of Berlin to the cemetery where the civil victims were buried, accompanied by some ministers and generals, all wearing the revolutionary tricolor of black, red, and gold which form today's flag of Germany. The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ...


Saxony

The May uprising in Dresden

In Dresden in Saxony, the people took to the streets asking their king to engage in electoral reform and social justice. Download high resolution version (1239x733, 162 KB)Fighting on the barricades in 1848, Germany This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... Download high resolution version (1239x733, 162 KB)Fighting on the barricades in 1848, Germany This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


Richard Wagner passionately engaged himself in the revolution, supporting the democratic-republican movement. Later in the May Uprising in Dresden from May 3-9, 1849 he supported the provisional government. Together with the leaders of the uprising, he left Dresden on May 9 to avoid the warrant for his arrest by flight to exile in Switzerland. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Combatants Dresden revolutionaries Kingdom of Saxony Commanders Samuel Tzschirner Karl Gotthelf Todt Otto Heubner Alexander Heinze Strength 3,000 5,000 Casualties 200 killed ~1,200 captured 31 killed The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Germany in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events...


In 1849, other residents left for destinations across the Atlantic. Many natives of Saxony, such as Michael Machemehl, left for Texas where they would join other Germans in creating a German Texan community. Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Michael Machemehl, a German member of the Forty-Eighters, was a notable historical figure in the context of the early German settlement of Austin County, Texas. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... German Texans are an ethnic category belonging to residents of the state of Texas who acknowledge German ancestry and self-identify with the term. ...


Bavaria

In Bavaria, a new liberal government (the "March ministry") was installed; King Ludwig I was forced to abdicate in an attempt to pacify the public, contain the spreading of revolutionary ideas and save the monarchy by offering concessions. For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Ludwig I (or Louis I, which is the French form of his name, his godfather was Louis XVI of France) (Strasbourg, August 25, 1786 – February 29, 1868 in Nice) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. ...


Frankfurt: The National Assembly meets in St. Paul's Church

National assembly's meeting in St. Paul's Church

In Heidelberg, in the state of Baden (southwest Germany), on March 5, 1848, a group of German liberals began to make plans for an election to a German national assembly. This prototype Parliament met on March 31, in Frankfurt's St. Paul's Church. Its members called for free elections to an assembly for all of Germany - and the German states agreed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x743, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Revolutions of 1848 in the German states Frankfurt Parliament Großdeutschland Germania (painting) Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/March... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x743, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Revolutions of 1848 in the German states Frankfurt Parliament Großdeutschland Germania (painting) Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/March... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... The Paulskirche seen from the Maintower The Paulskirche is a church in Frankfurt am Main with important political symbolism in Germany. ...


Finally, on May 18, 1848 the National Assembly opened its session in St. Paul's Church. Of the 586 delegates of the first freely elected German parliament, so many were professors (94), teachers (30) or had a university education (233) that it was called a "professors' parliament" ("Professorenparlament"). The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ...


There were few practical politicians. Some 400 delegates can be identified in terms of political factions - usually named after their venues:

  • Café Milani - Right/Conservative (40)
  • Casino - Right centre/Liberal-conservative (120)
  • Landsberg - Centre/Liberal (40)
  • Württemberger Hof - Left centre (100)
  • Deutscher Hof - Left/Liberal democrats (60)
  • Donnersberg - Far left/Democrats (40)
Archduke Johann's proclamation to the German people upon appointment as Administrator of the Realm

Under the chairmanship of the liberal politician Heinrich von Gagern, the assembly started on its ambitious plan to create a modern constitution as the foundation for a unified Germany. The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1175x1800, 583 KB) Die Proklamation des Reichsverwesers am 15. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1175x1800, 583 KB) Die Proklamation des Reichsverwesers am 15. ... Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, who later became Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Heinrich Wilhelm August, Freiherr von Gagern (August 20, 1799 - May 22, 1880) statesman who argued for the unification of Germany. ...


From the beginning the main problems were regionalism, support of local issues over pan-German issues, and Austro-Prussian conflicts. Archduke Johann of Austria was chosen as a temporary head of state ("Reichsverweser" i.e. imperial vicar). This was an attempt to create a provisional executive power, but it did not get very far since most states failed to fully recognize the new government. Hence the weakness of the assembly became apparent right from the start. The National Assembly lost reputation in the eyes of the German public when Prussia carried through its own political intentions in the Schleswig-Holstein question without the prior consent of Parliament. A similar discredition occurred when Austria suppressed a popular uprising in Vienna by military force. Regionalism could be Regionalism (politics) Regionalism (literature) Regionalism (art) Regionalism (linguistics) Category: ... Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, who later became Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ...


Nonetheless, discussions on the future constitution had started. The main questions to be decided were:

  • Should the new united Germany include the German-speaking areas of Austria and thus separate these territories constitutionally from the remaining areas of the Habsburg Empire ("greater German solution"), or should it exclude Austria, with leadership falling to Prussia ("smaller German solution")? Finally, this question was settled when the Austrian Prime Minister introduced a centralised constitution for the entire Austrian Empire, thus delegates had to give up their hopes for a "Greater Germany".
  • Should Germany become a hereditary monarchy, have an elected monarch, or even become a republic?
  • Should it be a federation of relatively independent states or have a strong central government?

Soon events began to overtake discussions. Delegate Robert Blum had been sent to Vienna by his left-wing political colleagues on a fact-finding mission to see how Austria's government was rolling back liberal achievements by military force. Blum participated in the street fighting, was arrested and executed on November 9, despite his claim to immunity from prosecution as a member of the National Assembly. Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... Robert Blum (10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the achievements of the March Revolution were rolled back in many German states, the discussions in Frankfurt continued, increasingly losing touch with society.


In December 1848 the "Basic Rights for the German People" proclaimed equal rights for all citizens before the law. On March 28, 1849, the draft of the constitution was finally passed. The new Germany was to be a constitutional monarchy, and the office of head of state ("Emperor of the Germans") was to be hereditary and held by the respective King of Prussia. The latter proposal was carried by a mere 290 votes in favour, with 248 abstentions. The constitution was recognized by 29 smaller states but not by Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover and Saxony. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a...


The end of the Revolutions in the German states

Backlash in Prussia

By late 1848, the Prussian aristocrats including Otto von Bismarck and generals had regained power in Berlin. They had not been defeated permanently during the incidents of March, they had only retreated temporarily. General von Wrangel led the troops who recaptured Berlin for the old powers, and King Frederick William IV of Prussia immediately rejoined the old forces. In November, the king dissolved the new Prussian parliament and put forth a constitution of his own which was based upon the work of the assembly, yet maintaining the ultimate authority of the king. Elaborated in the following years, the constitution came to provide for an upper house (Herrenhaus), and a lower house (Landtag), chosen by universal suffrage but under a three-class system of voting ("Dreiklassenwahlrecht"): representation was proportional to taxes paid, so that more than 80 % of the electorate controlled only one-third of the seats. Bismarck redirects here. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... After the 1848 revolutions in the German states, the Prussian three-class franchise system (Dreiklassenwahlrecht) was introduced in 1849 by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV for the election of the Lower House of the Prussian state parliament. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...


On April 2, 1849, a delegation of the National Assembly met with King Frederick William IV in Berlin and offered him the crown of the Emperor under this new constitution. is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ...


Frederick William told the delegation that he felt honoured but could only accept the crown with the consent of his peers, the other sovereign monarchs and free cities. But later, in a letter to a relative in England, he wrote that he felt deeply insulted by being offered "from the gutter" a crown, "disgraced by the stink of revolution, baked of dirt and mud."


Austria and Prussia withdrew their delegates from the Assembly, and the Assembly itself slowly disintegrated afterwards. Its most radical members retired to Stuttgart, where they sat from June 6-18 as a rump parliament until it too was dispersed by Württemberg troops. Armed uprisings in support of the constitution, especially in Saxony, the Palatinate and Baden were short-lived, as the local military, aided by Prussian troops, crushed them quickly. Leaders and participants, if caught, were executed or sentenced to long prison terms. Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Location of Palatinate in Rhineland-Palatinate The Palatinate (German: ), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Latin: ; German: ), is a region in south-western Germany. ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ...


The achievements of the revolutionaries of March 1848 were reversed in all of the German states and by 1851, the Basic Rights had also been abolished nearly everywhere. In the end, the revolution fizzled because of the overwhelming number of tasks it faced and because of lack of mass support and actual power.


Many disappointed German patriots went to the United States, among them most notably Carl Schurz, Franz Sigel and Friedrich Hecker. Such emigrants became known as the Forty-Eighters. Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Franz Sigel Franz Sigel (November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German military officer and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 - March 24, 1881), German revolutionary, was born at Eichtersheim in the Palatinate, his father being a revenue official. ... The Forty-Eighters were Germans who traveled to the United States and Australia after the Revolutions of 1848. ...


Literature

  • Theodore Hamerow, Restoration, Revolution, Reaction: Economics and Politics in Germany, 1815-1871, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.
  • James J. Sheehan, German History, 1770-1866 (Series: Oxford History of Modern Europe), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-1982-2120-7).
  • Justine Davis Randers-Pehrson, Germans and the Revolution of 1848-1849 (Series: New German-American Studies/Neue Deutsch-Amerikanische Studien), New York: Peter Lang, 1999 (ISBN 0-8204-4118-X).
  • R. J. W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds., The Revolutions in Europe, 1848-1849: From Reform to Reaction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-1982-0840-5)
  • Jonathan Sperber, The European Revolutions, 1848-1851 (Series: New Approaches to European History), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 (ISBN 0-5218-3907-6).

External links and references

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
March Revolution

Next: The Italian states Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ...



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