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Encyclopedia > Revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions
of 1848
Prelude
Revolutions in France
Revolutions in the Habsburg areas
Revolutions in the German states
Revolutions in the Italian states
Revolutions in Poland
Aftermath

The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as Brazil. These European revolutions were the violent consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. In politics, both bourgeois reformers and radical politicians were seeking change in their nations' governments. In society, technological change was creating new ways of life for the working classes, a popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to spring up. The spark that lit the fire was a series of economic downturns and crop failures that left the peasants and the poor working classes starving. Panthéon, Paris|Panthéon]] behind), Paris, June 1848. ... From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ... // Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including Austria loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: ) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... A revolutionary wave is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Panthéon, Paris|Panthéon]] behind), Paris, June 1848. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Hare Khrisna -/ this is the famous god to indian belief. ... A radical politician is a politician whose views are far removed from the mainstream. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ...


The result was a wave of revolution sweeping across Europe and raising hopes of liberal reform as far away as Brazil, where the rhetoric surrounding the Praieira revolt took many cues from European events, as did its thorough repression. The United Kingdom, Russian and Ottoman Empires were the only major European states to go without a national revolution over this period. Russia had not yet a real bourgeois or proletarian class to initiate a revolution (and, more to the point, it lacked the communication between various groups of people to form such classes or to organize revolts). An exception to this was the Kingdom of Poland, where uprisings took place in 1830-31 (November Uprising), 1846 (Kraków Uprising) and in 1863-65 (January Uprising). Similarly, while there were no uprisings in the Ottoman Empire as such, there were in some of its vassal states. In Brazil, the Praieira revolt was a movement in Pernambuco that lasted from 1848 to 1852, linked to the unresolved conflicts remaining from the period of the Regency and local resistance to the consolidation of the Brazilian Empire that had been proclaimed in 1822. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Map of Congress Poland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt to incite an all-Polish fight for home-rule but was in fact limited only to the Free City of Kraków. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Vassal States were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the [Ottoman Empire] under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons. ...

Chartist meeting on Kennington Common in 1848.

In the United Kingdom, the middle classes had been pacified by general enfranchisement in the Reform Act 1832, with the consequent agitations, violence, and petitions of the Chartist movement that came to a head with the petition to Parliament of 1848. The repeal of the protectionist agricultural tariffs - called the "Corn Laws" - in 1846, had defused some proletarian fervor. Elsewhere in the United Kingdom, revolution was far from the minds of those in Ireland, struggling and dying through the Potato Famine (the exception being William Smith O'Brien's debacle in County Tipperary). The United States saw the Seneca Falls Convention and the birth of feminism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x1002, 290 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, April 10, 1848, photograph taken by William Kilburn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x1002, 290 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, April 10, 1848, photograph taken by William Kilburn. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... Chartism is also an alternative term for technical analysis Chartism was a movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... An 1849 depiction of Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine. ... William Smith OBrien (born Dromoland, Ireland, October 17, 1803; died Bangor, Wales, June 18, 1864) was an Irish Nationalist and MP and leader of the Young Ireland movement. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of the feminist movement. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ...


Switzerland was also spared, having been through a civil war the previous year. However, the introduction of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848 was a revolution in itself, laying the foundation of Swiss society as it is today. The Sonderbund (meaning separate alliance, in German), was a league created in 1845 in Switzerland between seven Catholic and Conservative cantons in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power. ... The Swiss Constitution (Bundesverfassung in German, Constitution fédérale in French, Constituzione federale in Italian and Constituziun federala in Romansh) is at the highest level of Switzerlands judicial system. ...


Although the revolutions were put down quickly, in their span there was horrific violence on all sides, with tens of thousands tortured and killed. Most obvious, immediate political effects of the revolutions were quickly reversed; nonetheless the long-term reverberations were far-reaching.


Alexis de Tocqueville remarked in his Recollections that "society was cut in two: those who had nothing united in common envy, and those who had anything united in common terror." For other uses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (Verneuil-sur-Seine, Île-de-France, July 29, 1805– Cannes, April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian. ...

Contents

Before 1848

Large swathes of the nobility were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism. In 1846 there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, which was only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles.[1] Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ...


Next the middle classes began to get agitated. Whatever aspirations Karl Marx and his followers may have had as laid out in The Communist Manifesto (published in German February 1, 1848), the workers had little solidarity, and practically no organization.[citation needed] Both the lower middle classes and the working classes wanted liberal reform, and finally a group with some organization pushed for it. While much of the impetus was from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower. The revolts first erupted in the cities. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: ), usually referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848[], and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The poor

French rural areas had grown fast, spilling population into the cities. The "respectable" classes feared the working poor, who had shown their muscle in 1789, and the uneducated, teeming masses seemed a fertile breeding ground of vice. Overpopulation may indicate any case in which the population of any species of animal may exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. ...


There had always been alcoholic drink, freethought, crime, itinerancy, illiteracy, and food riots, and despite leftish analysis, in many ways the French working class was no worse off under industrialization than before. But there were salient facts: the worker toiled from 13 to 15 hours per day, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization, having lost their guilds. "Dangerous" writers such as Marx became popular. Secret societies sprang up. Leftism redirects here. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ...


The situation in the German states was similar. Prussia had quickly industrialized. Worker living standards had dropped; alcohol consumption had gone up in the 1840s. Feudalism was inarguably horrible for the poor, but the worker saw little gain from the new socio-economic system of capitalism and the accompanying social change.[citation needed] Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This box:      Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately [1] owned and operated for profit and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ...


The rural areas

Rural growth had of course led to food shortages, land pressure, and migration, both within Europe and out from Europe (for example, to the United States). Population concentration led to disease, specifically, cholera, which at the time had not been tied to water supplies. The Irish potato famine exploded in 1845 and had migrated to the rest of the continent; there were poor harvests in 1846. But some lived relatively well. Land in economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed (i. ... mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ... Map of countries by population (See List of countries by population. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... An 1849 depiction of Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine. ...


Aristocratic wealth (and corresponding power) was synonymous with the ownership of land. Owning land at this time was practically synonymous with having peasants under one's control, often duty-bound to labor for their masters. In a problem mirroring that of slavery in the United States, a principal aristocratic problem was controlling one's sometimes-dangerous source of wealth. Their grievances exploded in 1848. The Ancient Greek term aristocracy originally meant a system of government with rule by the best. The word is derived from two words, aristos meaning the best and kratein to rule. Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), where a sense of historical gravitas and noblesse oblige demands... Real property is a legal term encompassing real estate and ownership interests in real estate (immovable property). ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in Britain and the United States. ...


The early rumblings

Until 1789, no one had earnestly contested the rule of kings on the Continent. In 1815, after Napoleon, a close semblance of the Ancien Régime was restored at the Congress of Vienna. This was no sooner established when the monarchies, the church, and the aristocracy were again threatened. There had been revolutions or civil wars in England (1640s-1650s), France (1789 and after), Ireland (1798), and the born-of-revolution United States, which seceded in 1776 from Great Britain, as well as Mexico, having split from Spain. A revolution against the Netherlands produced the seceding country of Belgium in 1830, a year that also saw another revolution in France. Unrest was in the air. Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... St. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ...


"Dangerous" ideas kept upwelling, despite forceful and often violent efforts of established powers to keep them down: democracy, liberalism, nationalism, and socialism. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


In short, democracy meant universal male suffrage. Liberalism fundamentally meant consent of the governed and the restriction of church and state power, republican government, freedom of the press and the individual. Nationalism believed in uniting people bound by (some mix of) common languages, culture, religion, shared history, and of course immediate geography; there were also irredentist movements. At this time, what are now Germany and Italy were collections of small states. Socialism was a then-fuzzy term with no solid definition, meaning different things to different people, but it roughly meant more rights for workers in a typically collectivist system. A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on Liberty and ruled by the people. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Irredentism is an international relations term that involves advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral, political, or social outlook, that stresses human interdependence and the importance of a collective, rather than the importance of separate individuals. ...


Legacy

. . . We have been beaten and humiliated . . . scattered, imprisoned, disarmed and gagged. The fate of European democracy has slipped from our hands. Pierre Joseph Proudhon [2]

Ten years after the 1848 Revolutions, little had visibly changed, and many historians consider the revolutions a bloody failure. Pierre Joseph Proudhon. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ...


On the other hand, both Germany and Italy were unified in somewhat over 20 years, and there were a few immediate successes for some revolutionary movements, notably in the Habsburg lands. Austria and Prussia eliminated feudalism by 1850, improving the lot of the peasants. European middle classes made political and economic gains over the next twenty years; France kept its universal manhood suffrage. Russia would later free the serfs on February 19, 1861. The Habsburgs finally had to give the Hungarians more self-determination in the Ausgleich of 1867, although this in itself resulted only in the rule of autocratic Magyars in Hungary instead of autocratic Germans. Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


But in 1848, the revolutionaries were idealistic and divided by the multiplicity of aims for which they fought -- social, economic, liberal, and national. Conservative forces exploited these divisions, and revolutionaries suffered from mediocre leadership. Middle-class revolutionaries feared the lower classes, evidencing different ideas; counter-revolutions exploited the gaps. As some reforms were enacted and the economy improved, some revolutionaries lost heart. When the Habsburgs lightened the burden of feudalism, many peasants lost heart; similar failures occurred elsewhere. International support likewise lacked. Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry that asserts that everything we experience is of a mental nature. ...


Autocratic Russia did not support such revolutions at home, but actively helped the Austro-Hungarian Empire in her war with a restive Hungarian splinter group. Both Britain and Russia opposed Prussia's plans on Schleswig-Holstein, tarnishing their view among Germany's liberal nationalists.


Why did nothing happen in Great Britain and Russia? Russia was still feudal and oppressive, but Great Britain was mostly industrialized. Freedom of speech and the electoral reform of 1832 in Britain are telling differences with the rest of Europe. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The net result in the German states and France was more autocratic systems, despite reforms such as universal male suffrage in France, and strong social class systems remained in both. What reforms were enacted seemed like sops thrown to quell dissent, while privilege remained untouched. Nationalistic dreams also failed in 1848.


The Italian and German movements did provide an important impetus. Germany was unified under the iron hand of Bismarck in 1871 after Germany's 1870 war with France; Italy was unified in 1861 as the United States was split into two nations and exploding into internecine civil war. Bismarck redirects here. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


Some disaffected German bourgeois liberals (the Forty-Eighters, many atheists and freethinkers) migrated to the United States after 1848, taking their money, intellectual talents, and skills out of Germany and siding with the Union in the American Civil War, as they found slavery (and by implication, the Confederacy) distasteful with their image of America. Over 177,000 German Americans served the Union cause. Like 1861 for the United States, 1848 was a watershed year for Europe, after which things were never again the same. The Forty-Eighters were Germans who traveled to the United States and Australia after the Revolutions of 1848. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... The word freethinker has different meanings: A freethinker is a proponent of the philosophical practice known as Freethinking, thus being a practitioner of Freethought. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ...


See also

Revolutionary barricades in Germany The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Germany in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events known as the Revolutions of 1848. ... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... The Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: ), usually referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848[], and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... The History of Baden begins in the 12th century and continues until the mid-1900s. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert Bidelux and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0-415-1611-8. p. 295–296.
  2. ^ Breunig, Charles (1977), The Age of Revolution and Reaction, 1789 - 1850 (ISBN 0-393-09143-0)

References

  • Breunig, Charles (1977), The Age of Revolution and Reaction, 1789 - 1850 (ISBN 0-393-09143-0)
  • Jones, Peter (1981), The 1848 Revolutions (Seminar Studies in History) (ISBN 0-582-06106-7)
  • Robertson, Priscilla (1952), Revolutions of 1848: A Social History (ISBN 0-691-00756-X)
  • Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
  • Civil Liberties gained by the revolutions

  Results from FactBites:
 
Revolutions of 1848 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (606 words)
The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of revolutions which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the Revolution of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe.
The result was a wave of revolution sweeping across Europe and raising hopes of liberal reform as far away as India during 1848, where the rhetoric surrounding the Sepoy Rebellion took many cues from European events, as did its thorough repression.
Elsewhere in the United Kingdom, revolution was far from the minds of those in Ireland, struggling and dying through the Potato Famine (the exception being William Smith O'Brien's debacle in County Tipperary).
1848 Revolutions - definition of 1848 Revolutions in Encyclopedia (436 words)
The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century.
The result was a wave of revolution sweeping across Europe and raising hopes of liberal reform as far away as Brazil, where the rhetoric surrounding the Praieira revolt took many cues from European events, as did its thorough repression.
Although the revolutions were put down quickly, in their span there was horrific violence on all sides.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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