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Encyclopedia > Revolutionary United Front
Sierra Leone Civil War
Personalities

Charles Taylor - Foday Sankoh
Hinga Norman - Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
Johnny Paul Koroma
Valentine Strasser - Solomon Musa Combatants Government of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Army / South African mercenaries Royal Irish Rangers Revolutionary United Front Armed Forces Revolutionary Council West Side Boys Commanders Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Foday Sankoh Johnny Paul Koroma The Sierra Leone Civil War began in 1991, initiated by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), led by... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... Foday Sankoh (October 17, 1937 - July 29, 2003) was a leader of the Sierra Leone rebel faction Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in the 10-year-long Sierra Leonean civil war, which ended in 2002. ... Samuel Hinga Norman (1940) was a chieftan from the Mende tribe in Sierra Leone and led the traditional paramilitary force, the Kamajors. ... Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) is the President of Sierra Leone (1996–1997, 1998–present). ... Johnny Paul Koroma (1960 - June 1, 2003) was the head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council of Sierra Leone from May 1997 to February 1998. ... Valentine Esegragbo Melvine Strasser (born 1967) is a former head of state of Sierra Leone. ... Solomon Anthony James Musa (1966 - January 1999) was an important military and political figure in the Sierra Leone Civil War. ...

Armed Forces

RUF - SLA - West Side Boys
Kamajors - Executive Outcomes
ECOMOG - Sandline International To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... The West Side Boys were an armed group in Sierra Leone, sometimes described as a splinter faction of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council. ... The Kamajors are a group of traditional hunters from the south and east of Sierra Leone (mostly from the Bo district). ... Executive Outcomes (EO) was a private military company, or mercenary company, founded by Eeben Barlow in 1989 and ceasing to exist in 1999. ... ECOMOG is a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ... Sandline International was a private security (military) company based in London, established in the early 1990s. ...

Attempts at Peace

Lomé Peace Accord - Abidjan Peace Accord
UNAMSIL - SCSL PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF SIERRA LEONE AND THE REVOLUTIONARY UNITED FRONT OF SIERRA LEONE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SIERRA LEONE and THE REVOLUTIONARY UNITED FRONT OF SIERRA LEONE (RUF/SL) Having met in Lome, Togo, from the 25 May 1999, to 7 July 1999 under the... The Abidjan Peace Accord was a treaty signed between the Sierra Leone Peoples Party(SLPP) government of Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebel group led by Foday Sankoh to find a resolution to the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ...

Political Groups

SLPP - AFRC - APC Political parties in Sierra Leone lists political parties in Sierra Leone. ... SLPP symbol, the palm-tree The Sierra Leone Peoples Party is the ruling political party in Sierra Leone. ... The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) was the former military of Sierra Leone that merged into the rebel Revolutionary United Front in the late 1990s. ... The All Peoples Congress is a political party in Sierra Leone. ...

Ethnic Groups

Mende - Temne - Limba - Krio The Mende are a large West African ethnic group (population approximately 2 million), speakers of the Mende language, living primarily in Sierra Leone and Liberia. ... The Temne are the largest ethnic group in northern Sierra Leone, and they comprise about 30% of Sierra Leones total population. ... The Limba people are one of the indigenous tribes, or ethnic groups, in the Republic of Sierra Leone in West Africa. ... Krio is a diverse, mainly Christian culture founded by freed African slaves from Britain, Northern America and Jamaica who settled in Freetown in the late 18th century. ...

See also

Freetown - Mano River
Conflict diamond - Liberian Civil War Freetown, population 1,070,200 (2004), is the largest city and capital of Sierra Leone, lying on the Freetown Peninsula on the Atlantic coast. ... The Mano River is a river in west Africa, it originates in the Guinea Highlands in Liberia and forms the Liberia-Sierra Leone border. ... A conflict diamond (also called a blood diamond or a war diamond) is a diamond mined in a war zone and sold, usually clandestinely, in order to finance an insurgent or invading armys war efforts. ... Charles Taylor, a leader of the NPFL and later President of Liberia. ...

Sierra Leone

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Sierra Leone
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Sierra Leone is a republic with an executive president and a multi-party system of government. ...



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The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. The RUF was rather unusual in that it had no true ideology outside of discontent and opposition to the ruling Sierra Leone government. This page contains a list of presidents and other heads of state of Sierra Leone since 1971. ... Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) is the President of Sierra Leone (1996–1997, 1998–present). ... The Vice President of Sierra Leone is a position in the executive branch of the Republic of Sierra Leone. ... Solomon Ekuma Dominic Berewa (born 6 August 1938) is the current Vice-President of Sierra Leone and has been since May 2002. ... The unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone is the countrys legislative body. ... Political parties in Sierra Leone lists political parties in Sierra Leone. ... Politics of Sierra Leone Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Sierra Leone ... Presidential and parliamentary elections will be held in Sierra Leone on 28 July 2007. ... Sierra Leone is divided into four provinces - Eastern Province Northern Province Southern Province Western Area - including Freetown the capital Categories: Sierra Leone | Lists of subnational entities ... Sierra Leone is divided into 12 districts, the secondary administative division of government (after provinces). ... Sierra Leone has maintained cordial relations with the West, in particular with the United Kingdom. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Contents

Creation

When it began, it put forward the slogan, "No More Slaves, No More Masters. Power and Wealth to the People." [1] While its goal was clearly to overthrow the government of Sierra Leone, the RUF gave little indication of what sort of government would replace it. The group did not advocate Marxism or any similar leftist ideology, nor did it advocate extreme nationalism or Fascism. It also did not claim to be a force fighting for a certain ethnic group or region. [2] At one point, during ongoing peace negotiations in 1995, RUF published a pamphlet entitled "Footpaths to Democracy: Toward a New Sierra Leone", which contained some rhetoric references to social justice and pan-Africanism. Marxismtakes its name from the praxis — the synthesis of philosophy and political action — of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ...


The RUF was created by Foday Sankoh, of Temne and Lokko background, and two allies, Abu Kanu and Rashid Mansaray, with substantial assistance from Charles Taylor of Liberia. [3] At first, the RUF was popular with Sierra Leoneans, many of whom resented a Freetown elite seen as corrupt and looked forward to promised free education and health care and equitable sharing of diamond revenues. However, the RUF developed a reputation internationally for enormous cruelty during its decade-long struggle. [4] Foday Sankoh (October 17, 1937 - July 29, 2003) was a leader of the Sierra Leone rebel faction Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in the 10-year-long Sierra Leonean civil war, which ended in 2002. ... Temne can refer to: The Mel Temne language, one of the four official languages of Sierra Leone, Africa. ... For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... Freetown, population 1,070,200 (2004), is the largest city and capital of Sierra Leone, lying on the Freetown Peninsula on the Atlantic coast. ...


Coup

Sankoh did not stand by his earlier promises of equitably sharing of diamond revenues and used these funds to buy arms for Taylor and himself. [5] With the diamond mines under the control of the rebel group, the RUF became singularly focused on protecting its resource base.[5] Sierra Leone's economy collapsed, with ordinary citizens trapped between the cruelty of RUF troops and starvation. After a coup by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) in 1997, the RUF and AFRC created a joint junta to control the country before being evicted from the capital by the invasion of a Nigerian-led West African force that reinstated the rule of President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. The war is estimated to have cost the lives of 200,000 people. [6] The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) was the former military of Sierra Leone that merged into the rebel Revolutionary United Front in the late 1990s. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) is the President of Sierra Leone (1996–1997, 1998–present). ...


Atrocities

The RUF made extensive use of child soldiers, [7] using horrific methods to numb their new recruits to barbarity. [8] Thousands of abducted boys and girls were forced to serve as soldiers or as prostitutes, [9] [8] and those chosen to be fighters were sometimes forced to murder their parents. [10] Guerrillas frequently carved the initials "RUF" on their chests, [11] [3] [12] and officers reportedly rubbed cocaine into open cuts on their troops to make them manic and fearless.[4] For entertainment, some soldiers would bet on the sex of an unborn baby and then slice open a woman's womb to determine the winner. [13] [14] April 20, 1945. ... Cocaine (see also: crack) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


The RUF was notorious for severing the limbs of those victims it did not murder, particularly children.[7] In response to the immediate execution of rebels by government forces, the RUF instead instituted a policy of cutting off the hands of captured soldiers with the intent of sending the message, "You don't hold your weapon against your brother." [15] Brandishing machetes, RUF troops were reported to have amputated the hands, arms, and legs of tens of thousands of Sierra Leoneans. [15] [16] The RUF indicated that the reason for these actions was that amputees could no longer grow rice, which might be used to support government troops. [17] The election slogan at that time was that the people 'had power in their hands', so the RUF would hack the hands off to prevent voting. [17]RUF members are also said to have practiced cannibalism. [18] [19] [16] The government set up a refugee camp where they gathered amputees; the camp was situated next to the international hotels. [20]


Foreign Intervention

In March 1997, Sankoh fled to Nigeria, where he was put under house arrest, and then imprisoned. From this time until Sankoh's release in 1999, Sam Bockarie performed the task of director of military operations of the RUF. In 1999, an intervention by the USA, the United Kingdom, and other countries as well as the UN resulted in the signing of the Lomé Peace Accord on 7 July 1999. [21]Sankoh was allowed to return under the conditions of the agreement. However fighting again broke out, and the United Nations sent peacekeeping troops in hopes of integrating the RUF into a new national army. This intervention failed as well, and by 2000 they held 500 UN peacekeepers hostage until their release was negotiated by Taylor. The British and Guineans finally sent in a small professional force in 2001. The RUF was routed and the revolution ended. Sankoh was captured by a mob and handed to the British where he was indicted for multiple war crimes by a UN-backed court. In 2003 Sankoh died in prison before the trial took place. [4] Sam Mosquito Bockarie (10 February 1964 - 5 May 2003) was a leading member of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in Sierra Leone. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF SIERRA LEONE AND THE REVOLUTIONARY UNITED FRONT OF SIERRA LEONE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SIERRA LEONE and THE REVOLUTIONARY UNITED FRONT OF SIERRA LEONE (RUF/SL) Having met in Lome, Togo, from the 25 May 1999, to 7 July 1999 under the... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Link to Al Qaeda

Al Qaeda reaped millions of dollars from 1998 to 2001 from the illicit sale of diamonds mined by the RUF. [22] Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , trans. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Current Status

The RUF is now a political party. The current (as of 2006) general secretary of the party is Jonathan Kposowa. At the last elections, May 14 2002, the party won 2.2 % of popular votes and no seats. Its candidate at the presidential elections, Alimamy Pallo Bangura, received 1.7% of the vote. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Politics of Sierra Leone Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Sierra Leone ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Alimamy Pallo Bangura is a politician in Sierra Leone. ...


Cultural References

Most recently, the RUF has been featured in the movie Blood Diamond, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Djimon Hounsou, and Jennifer Connelly, also in Lord of War, starring Nicolas Cage. It has also been featured in the book "A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier" by Ishmael Beah. [23] Blood Diamond is an Academy Award-nominated 2006 film directed and produced by Edward Zwick. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is an 3-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor well known for his roles in blockbuster movies such as William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet (1996), Titanic (1997), Catch Me If You Can (2002), Gangs of New York... Djimon Gaston Hounsou (born April 24, 1964), pronounced // (last name pronounced Hansoo) is an Academy Award-nominated actor, dancer and fashion model born in Cotonou, Benin. ... Jennifer Lynn Connelly (born December 12, 1970) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former child model. ... Lord of War is a 2005 film written and directed by Andrew Niccol and starring Nicolas Cage. ... Nicolas Cage (born January 7, 1964) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Cover of Beahs book, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier Ishmael Beah (b. ...


External links

  • RUF manifesto - Footpaths to Democracy
  • The Empire in Africa

References

  1. ^ "Footpaths to Democracy".
  2. ^ "GlobalSecurity.Org".
  3. ^ a b David M. Crane "Indictment proceedings of the special court for Sierra Leone Case No. SCSL - 2004-15-PT"., Special Court for Sierra Leone (February 5th, 2004)
  4. ^ a b c David M. Crane "Terrorism Knowledge Base".
  5. ^ a b Taylor Baines, "When Crime Pays: West African Leaders' Brutality Reaps Rewards"., Global Policy Forum, (February 1, 2001)
  6. ^ Piero Scaruffi, "Wars and Genocides of the 20th Century".
  7. ^ a b "Brutal child army grows up"., BBC News (May 10th, 2000)
  8. ^ a b Peter Takirambudde, "Sierra Leone Rebels Forcefully Recruit Child Soldiers"., Human Rights Watch (May 31, 2000)
  9. ^ "The child soldiers of Sierra Leone"., BBC News
  10. ^ Joseph Opala, "What The West Failed To See In Sierra Leone"., Washington Post (May 14, 2000)
  11. ^ "UN: Sierra Leone should widen control"., Washington Post (September 19, 2001)
  12. ^ Douglas Farah "Children Forced to Kill"., Washington Post (April 8, 2000)
  13. ^ "Foday Sankoh, an African revolutionary"., The Economist (August 7th, 2003)
  14. ^ "Evidence of torture and human rights abuses Sierra Leone"., Medical Foundation for the care of victims of torture
  15. ^ a b Sorious Samura, "Return to Freetown"., CNN (December 23, 2001)
  16. ^ a b Anthony C. LoBaido, "Memorandum to a cannibal"., WorldNetDaily.com (October 19, 2004)
  17. ^ a b "Diamond trade fuels bloody wars"., CNN (January 18, 2001)
  18. ^ "Who is Foday Sankoh?"., Guardian Unlimited (May 17, 2000)
  19. ^ "The rebels advance in Sierra Leone"., The Economist (January 7th, 1999)
  20. ^ "Sierra Leone - Building the Road to Recovery"., Monograph, No 80, (March 2003)
  21. ^ "Crimes of War".
  22. ^ Douglas Farah, "Al Qaeda Cash Tied to Diamond Trade". Washington Post (November 2, 2001)
  23. ^ Beah, Ishmael (February 13, 2007). A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374105235. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Revolutionary United Front - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (800 words)
The RUF was created by Sankoh and two allies, Abu Kanu and Rashid Mansaray, with substantial assistance from Charles Taylor of Liberia.
At first, the RUF was popular with Sierra Leoneans, many of whom resented a Freetown elite seen as corrupt and looked forward to promised free education and health care and equitable sharing of diamond revenues.
After a coup by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) in 1997, the RUF and AFRC created a joint junta to control the country before evicted from the capital by the invasion of a Nigerian-led West African force that reinstated the rule of President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.
NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Revolutionary United Front (2397 words)
The Revolutionary United Front, or RUF, was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone (A republic in West Africa; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1961) starting in 1991 and ending in 2002.
The RUF was created by Sankoh and two allies, Abu Kanu and Rashid Mansaray, with substantial assistance from Charles Taylor (additional info and facts about Charles Taylor) of Liberia (A republic in West Africa; established in 1822 by Americans as a way to free negro slaves).
At first, the RUF was popular with Sierra Leoneans, many of whom resented a Freetown (Port city and the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone) elite seen as corrupt and looked forward to promised free education and health care and equitable sharing of diamond revenues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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