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Encyclopedia > Revised Romanization of Korean
Hangul
Hanja
Mixed script
Korean romanization

The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. It is the official South Korean replacement for the 1984 McCune-Reischauer–based romanization system. The new system is similar to the older system, but eliminates diacritics and is touted as being more closely based on Korean phonology than on western perception of Korean phonetics. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Hyangchal (hangul: 향찰; hanja: 鄕札; revised: hyangchal; McCune-Reischauer: hyangchal) is an archaic writing system used in Korea. ... Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. ... Idu munja is an archaic writing system which represents the Korean language using hanja. ... Korean romanization means using letters of the Latin alphabet to write Korean language, which in Korea is written using Hangul, and sometimes Hanja. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... This article is about the year. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...


The Revised Romanization uses no non-alphabetic symbols except very limited, often optional, use of the hyphen. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on July 7, 2000, by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8. The proclamation included the following reasons for the new system:[1] ABCs redirects here. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of South Korea is a central government agency responsible in areas of tourism, culture, art, religion, and sports. ...

  • It is convenient to type on computers since it uses only Latin letters and symbols, omitting the apostrophes and breves that were problematic with the McCune-Reischauer system.
  • It promotes consistent romanization by native Korean speakers by better transcribing important language characteristics.
  • It reduces the confusion caused by the tendency to ignore apostrophes and diacritics.
  • It rationalizes the Korean language with the plain ASCII text of internet domain names.
Look up Revised Romanization of Korean in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Contents

This article is about the machine. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Features

Revised Romanization of Korean
Hangul 국어의 로마자 표기법
Hanja 國語의 로마字表記法
Revised Romanization gugeoui romaja pyogibeop
McCune-Reischauer kugŏŭi romacha p'yogipŏp

Notable features of the Revised Romanization system are: Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ...

  • 어 and 으 are written as digraphs with two vowel letters: eo and eu, respectively (replacing the ŏ and ŭ of the McCune-Reischauer system).
  • ㅝ is written as wo and ㅢ is written as ui.
  • Unlike McCune-Reischauer, aspirated consonants (ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ) have no apostrophe: k, t, p, ch. Their unaspirated counterparts (ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ) are written with letters that are voiced in English: g, d, b, j. However, all consonants that are pronounced as unreleased stops (which basically means all except ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅇ that are not followed by a vowel or semivowel) are written as k, t, p, with no regard to their morphophonemic value: 벽 → byeok, 밖 → bak, 부엌 → bueok (But: 벽에 → byeoge, 밖에 → bakke, 부엌에 → bueoke)
  • ㅅ is always written as s before vowels and semivowels; there is no sh except when transliterating.
  • ㄹ is r before a vowel or a semivowel, and l everywhere else: 리을 → rieul, 철원 → Cheorwon, 울릉도 → Ulleungdo, 발해 → Balhae. Just like in McCune-Reischauer, ㄴ is written l whenever pronounced as a lateral rather than a nasal consonant: 전라북도 → Jeollabuk-do

In addition, there are special provisions for regular phonological rules that makes exceptions to transliteration (see Korean language#Phonology). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Ulleungdo (also spelled Ulreungdo) is a South Korean island in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Jeollabuk-do (North Jeolla) is a province in the southwest of South Korea. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ...


Other rules and recommendations include:

  • A hyphen may optionally be used to disambiguate syllables: 장음 → jang-eum versus 잔금 → jan-geum. However, no official publications seem to make use of this provision.
    • A hyphen must be used in transliterations, where it denotes syllable-initial ㅇ (except at the beginning of a word): 없었습니다 → eobs-eoss-seubnida, 외국어 → oegug-eo, 애오개 → Ae-ogae
  • While "in principle, syllables in [Korean] given names are not separated by [a] hyphen", the rules permit doing just that. Certain phonological changes that are otherwise indicated are ignored between the syllables of given names: 강홍립 → Gang Hongrip or Gang Hong-rip, 한복남 → Han Boknam or Han Bok-nam
  • Syllables of Korean administrative units (such as do) are separated from the placename with a hyphen: 강원도 → Gangwon-do
    • One may omit terms “such as 시, 군, 읍”: 평창군 → Pyeongchang-gun or Pyeongchang, 평창읍 → Pyeongchang-eup or Pyeongchang.
  • However, names for geographic features and artificial structures are connected to the placename: 설악산 → Seoraksan 해인사 → Haeinsa
  • Capitalize proper nouns.

This article is about the punctuation mark. ... Aeogae Station (애오개역) is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 5. ... A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... Gang Hong-rip was a Korean commander-in-chief during the Joseon Dynasty. ... (Note: This page is currently under construction. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Gangwon-do is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. ... Pyeongchang County (Pyeongchang-gun) is a county in Gangwon Province, South Korea. ... Seorak-san is the highest mountain in the Taebaek mountain range in the Gangwon province in eastern South Korea. ... Haeinsa is one of the foremost Buddhist temples in South Korea, most notable because it is the home of the Tripitaka Koreana, the whole of the Buddhist Scriptures carved onto 81,258 wooden printing blocks. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ...

Usage

The Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names. For example, the common family name, Lee (이), would be I in both the Revised Romanization and McCune-Reischauer. Given names and commercial names are encouraged to change, but it is not required. All Korean textbooks were required to comply with the new system by February 28, 2002. English-language newspapers in South Korea initially resisted the new system, citing its flaws, though all later gave in to government pressure. The Korea Times was the last major English newspaper, which switched in May 2006 to the Revised Romanization. A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Categories: Stub | English-language newspapers | South Korean newspapers ...


North Korea continues to use a version of the McCune-Reischauer system of Romanization, which was in official use in South Korea from 1984 to 2000. Specialists in Korean studies, both in and out of South Korea, tend to use McCune-Reischauer[citation needed], although a system developed at Yale University is often used by linguists[citation needed].


Transcription rules

Vowel letters

a eo o u eu i ae
e oe wi ya yeo yo yu
yae ye wa wae wo we ui

Consonant letters

g, k kk k d, t tt t b, p pp p
j jj ch s ss h n m ng r, l

The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the final consonant of one character and the initial consonant of the next:

initial →
final ↓ g n d r m b s j ch k t p h
k g kg ngn kd ngn ngm kb ks kj kch kk kt kp kh,k
n n ng nn nd ll,nn nm nb ns nj nch nk nt np nh
t d,j tg nn td tr nm tb ts tj tch tk tt tp th, t, ch
l r lg ll ld ll lm lb ls lj lch lk lt lp lh
m m mg mn md mn mm mb ms mj mch mk mt mp mh
p b pg mn pd mn mm pb ps pj pch pk pt pp ph, p
t s tg nn td tr nm tb ss jj tch tk tt tp th, s
ng ng ngg ngn ngd ngn ngm ngb ngs ngj ngch ngk ngt ngp ngh
t j tg nn td tr nm tb ts jj tch tk tt tp th, t, ch
t t, ch tg nn td tr nm tb ts tj tch tk tt tp th, t, ch
h h k hn t hr hm p hs ch hch hk ht hp hh

Criticism

Despite the South Korean government's intentions to promote the Romanization of Korean words and place names, the release of the revised system met with considerable opposition among international residents in Korea, many of whom felt the revised system was seriously flawed and felt disgruntled that the government failed to consult with them beforehand, since they are the primary users of Romanized Korean inside South Korea. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Critics of the Revised Romanization System say that the one-to-one correspondence of Korean characters to Roman letters (e.g., usually representing ㄱ as g) that is the hallmark of the new system is overly simplistic and fails to represent sound changes that occur naturally when the position of a consonant changes[citation needed] (e.g., at the beginning of a word, ㄱ is pronounced closer to an unaspirated k, rather than as a straight g). A frequent complaint of many foreign residents and visitors to South Korea is that both Romanization systems hinder their ability to come close to an accurate and comprehensible rendering of Korean pronunciation.


Critics also complain that people unfamiliar with hangul pronunciation may be confused by what "eo" and "eu" are intended to represent in the revised system. With common English words or names such as "geography", "Leonardo", and "neon" representing a two-syllable sound for eo, a neophyte to Korean words may fail to recognize that eo is supposed to represent a vowel sound like that of "son" or "fun". Defenders of the system cite English words such as surgeon as evidence of the appropriateness of the combination, even if the sound is not an exact match. Other supporters point out that it is a system intended to transliterate into the Roman alphabet, not English. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Ministry of Culture & Tourism says that the change was necessary because the McCune-Reischauer system did not adequately reflect important characteristics of the Korean language, making it difficult for native Korean speakers to use. For example, "The difference between some voiced and non-voiced sounds are in Korean little more than allophones, but [the] old system transcribed these as entirely different phonemes."[1] The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of South Korea is a central government agency responsible in areas of tourism, culture, art, religion, and sports. ...

This difficulty contributed to confusion and inconsistency in the Romanizing of Korean. The old system differentiated between voiced and non-voiced consonants, making it very difficult for Koreans to understand and contributing to spellings such as "Kumkang" and "Hankuk" for "금강" and "한국" instead of "Kumgang" and "Han'guk," as would have been correct according to the old system. There were contradictions as well. "대구" was written "Taegu," but 동대구, the name of Daegu's largest passenger train terminal, was Romanized "Tongdaegu." And because "ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ" have to be written in a way that a distinction is maintained between "ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ," people rarely wrote "ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ" as "t, p, and ch," even when they were conscious of the fact that this was not correct according to the old system, since they would not want to have words confused with the "t', p', and ch' " that often had the apostrophe omitted. The result was that "ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ" were written "t, p, and ch" on road signs but as "d, b, and j" almost everywhere else, such as personal names and the names of companies and schools.

Ministry of Culture & Tourism, The Revised Romanization of Korean The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of South Korea is a central government agency responsible in areas of tourism, culture, art, religion, and sports. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Ministry of Culture & Tourism: The Revised Romanization of Korean (July 2000). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Romaja literally means Roman letters in Korean, and refers to the Roman alphabet. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ...

External links

  • Romanization of Korean from Office of the President; change encoding to EUC-KR manually
  • National Institute of Korean Language (without the simplified table)

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Revised Romanization of Korean (4387 words)
Without revising the system used to Romanize Korean, these consonants would continue to be written the same in most cases.
This difficulty contributed to confusion and inconsistency in the Romanizing of Korean.
This revision of the Romanization of Korean was undertaken with the belief that if not corrected, this confusion and inconsistency would only continue to worsen with time.
Reference Encyclopedia - Revised Romanization of Korean (1142 words)
It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on July 4, 2000, by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8.
The Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names.
This difficulty contributed to confusion and inconsistency in the Romanizing of Korean.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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