FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Reverse transcriptase
Reverse Transcriptase

3D model of HIV reverse transcriptase Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x800, 127 KB) Created using RasMac_32bit_PPCs export function to PS, then PNGd w/Preview. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

Other names: Deoxynucleoside-triphosphate:
DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase (RNA-directed)
  • RNA-directed DNA polymerase
  • DNA nucleotidyltransferase (RNA-directed)
  • Revertase
Database Links
EC number: 2.7.7.49

In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


Reverse transcriptase was discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and independently by David Baltimore in 1970. The two shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Renato Dulbecco for their discovery. Howard Martin Temin (1934 - 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. ... The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as UW–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, or UW) is a highly selective public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin. ... David Baltimore (b. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Renato Dulbecco (born February 22, 1914) is an Italian-born virologist. ...


Commonly used examples of reverse transcriptases include:

Contents

Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... // Muirne Leukemia Virus The murine leukemia virus belongs to the Retroviridae family of viruses and their hosts are verterbrates. ... An alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... A telomere is a region of highly repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome that functions as a disposable buffer. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ...

Function

Viruses

The enzyme is encoded and used by reverse-transcribing viruses, which use the enzyme during the process of replication. Reverse-transcribing RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, use the enzyme to reverse-transcribe their RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it. Reverse-transcribing DNA viruses, such as the hepadnaviruses, transcribe their genomes into an RNA intermediate and then, using reverse transcriptase, back into DNA. Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... Genera Orthohepadnavirus Avihepadnavirus Hepadnaviruses are the viruses in the family Hepadnaviridae. ...


Eukaryotes

Self-replicating stretches of eukaryotic genomes known as retrotransposons utilise reverse transcriptase to move from one position in the genome to another via a RNA intermediate. They are found abundantly in the genomes of plants and animals. Telomerase is another reverse transcriptase found in many eukaryotes, including humans, which carries its own RNA template; this RNA is used as a template for DNA replication[1]. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Retrotransposons are genetic elements than can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... It has been suggested that DNA replicate, Replisome, Replication fork, Lagging strand, Leading strand be merged into this article or section. ...


Prokaryotes

Reverse transcriptases are also found in bacterial retrons, distinct sequences which code for reverse transcriptase, and are used in the synthesis of msDNA. An example of an RNA stem-loop, similar to what is seen in the RNA region of msDNA Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA which consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule linked via a phosphodiester bond to a branched RNA molecule. ...


Structure

Reverse transcriptase enzymes include an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which work together to perform transcription. In addition to the transcription function, retroviral reverse transcriptases have a domain belonging to the RNase H family which is vital to their replication. 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... The enzyme RNase H (EC 3. ...


Replication fidelity

Reverse transcriptase has a high error rate when transcribing RNA into DNA as unlike DNA polymerases it has no proofreading ability. This high error rate allows mutations to accumulate at an accelerated rate relative to proofread forms of replication. The commercially available reverse transcriptases produced by Promega are quoted by their manuals as having error rates in the range of 1 in 17,000 bases for AMV and 1 in 30,000 bases for M-MLV[2] 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Promega develops, commercializes, and manufactures reagents, supplies, assays and equipment for biological research, primarily serving the molecular biology and cell biology research sectors. ...


Applications

The molecular structure of zidovudine (Retrovir®), a drug used to inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase

Image File history File links Zidovudine. ... Image File history File links Zidovudine. ... Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

Antiviral drugs

For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

As HIV uses reverse transcriptase to copy its genetic material and generate new viruses (part of a retrovirus proliferation circle), specific drugs have been designed to disrupt the process and thereby suppress its growth. Collectively, these drugs are known as reverse transcriptase inhibitors and include the nucleoside and nucleotide analogues zidovudine (Retrovir®), lamivudine (Epivir®) and tenofovir (Viread®), as well as non-nucleoside inhibitors, such as nevirapine (Viramune®). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ... Lamivudine (2,3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor of the class nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI). ... Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme crucial to viral production in HIV-infected people. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Molecular biology

For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA in a technique called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The classical PCR technique can only be applied to DNA strands, but with the help of reverse transcriptase, RNA can be transcribed into DNA, thus making PCR analysis of RNA molecules possible. Reverse transcriptase is also used to create cDNA libraries from mRNA. The commercial availability of reverse transcriptase greatly improved knowledge in the area of molecular biology as, along with other enzymes, it allowed scientists to clone, sequence and characterise DNA. In molecular biology, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique for amplifying a defined piece of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule. ... PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... In molecular biology, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique for amplifying a defined piece of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule. ... PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... In molecular biology, a cDNA library refers to a complete, or nearly complete, set of all the mRNAs contained within a cell or organism. ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ...


See also

In molecular biology, a cDNA library refers to a complete, or nearly complete, set of all the mRNAs contained within a cell or organism. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... An example of an RNA stem-loop, similar to what is seen in the RNA region of msDNA Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA which consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule linked via a phosphodiester bond to a branched RNA molecule. ... A reverse transcribing virus is any virus which replicates using reverse transcription, the formation of DNA from an RNA template. ... RNAP from pictured during elongation. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... Retrotransposons as cladistic markers The analysis of SINEs – Short INterspersed Elements – LINEs – Long INterspersed Elements – or truncated LTRs – Long Terminal Repeats – as molecular cladistic markers represents a particularly interesting complement to DNA sequence and morphological data. ...

External links

  • Invitrogen's Superscript III Reverse Transcriptase
  • animation of reverse transcriptase action and three reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Molecule of the month (September 2002) at the Protein Data Bank
  • BRENDA database entry - highly detailed information from a protein database

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ...

References

  1. ^ Lodish, et al, Molecular Cell Biology (2004), 5th edn, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, ISBN 0-7167-4366-3
  2. ^ Promega kit instruction manual (1999)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reverse transcriptase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (516 words)
Since HIV uses reverse transcriptase, together with integrase, to infect human DNA with viral DNA, reverse transcriptase inhibitors are used to prevent this.
Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA.
Reverse transcriptase was discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin, and independently by David Baltimore at about the same time.
Influence of Reverse Transcriptase Variants, Drugs, and Vpr on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Mutant Frequencies ... (6500 words)
Identification of a simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase variant with enhanced replicational fidelity in the late stage of viral infection.
Identification of a mutation at codon 65 in the IKKK motif of reverse transcriptase that encodes human immunodeficiency virus resistance to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine.
Y586F mutation in murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase decreases fidelity of DNA synthesis in regions associated with adenine-thymine tracts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m