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Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... A woman showing disgust. ...


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Guðrún agitates her sons, Hamðir and Sörli, to avenge their sister.

Revenge (also vengeance, retribution, or vendetta amongst others) consists primarily of retaliation against a person or group in response to a perceived wrongdoing. Although many aspects of revenge resemble or echo the concept of justice, revenge usually has a more injurious than harmonious goal. The goal of revenge usually consists of forcing the perceived wrongdoer to suffer the same pain that was originally inflicted. Revenge, in addition to its primary meaning, may refer to: The revenge play or revenge tragedy, a specific form of tragedy, extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gudrun and Sigurd In Norse mythology, Gudrun, who is called Kriemhild in the Nibelungenlied, was the sister of Gunnar. ... Hamdir, Sörli and Erp (ice. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ...


Function in society

Revenge, a sub constantly used in returning the favor — meaning doing something bad to others because they have done something to you — is normally a bad ethical issue in philosophy. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...

Some feel that the threat of revenge is necessary to maintain a just society. In some societies, it is believed that the punishment in revenge should be more than the original injury, as a punitive measure. The Old Testament philosophy of "an eye for an eye" (cf. Exodus 21:24) tried to moderate the allowed damage, in order to avoid a vendetta or series of violent acts that could spiral out of control—instead of 'tenfold' vengeance, there would be a simple 'equality of suffering'. Detractors argue that revenge is a simple logical fallacy, of the same design as "two wrongs make a right." Some Christians interpret Paul's "Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord" (Romans 12:19, King James Version) to mean that only God has the moral right to exact revenge. Indeed, every major religious system contains some method for the mediation of disputes and for the limitation of vengeance by imputing a sense of cosmic justice to replace the often faulty justice systems of the world of men. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the principle of retributive justice. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fallacy. ... Two wrongs make a right is a logical fallacy that occurs when it is assumed that if one wrong is committed, another second wrong will cancel it out. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Of the psychological, moral, and cultural foundation for revenge, philosopher Martha Nussbaum has written: "The primitive sense of the just—remarkably constant from several ancient cultures to modern institutions…—starts from the notion that a human life…is a vulnerable thing, a thing that can be invaded, wounded, violated by another's act in many ways. For this penetration, the only remedy that seems appropriate is a counter invasion, equally deliberate, equally grave. And to right the balance truly, the retribution must be exactly, strictly proportional to the original encroachment. It differs from the original act only in the sequence of time and in the fact that it is response rather than original act—a fact frequently obscured if there is a long sequence of acts and counteracts" [1]. Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher with a particular interest in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy and ethics. ... Retributive justice maintains that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to crime, regardless of whether the punishment causes any tangible benefits. ... Within law, the principle of proportionality is used to describe the idea that the punishment of a certain crime should be in proportion to the severity of the crime itself. ...

History of revenge

In ancient societies, in particular those with weak central justice systems, the method for deterring murder was to allow the victim's family to avenge the killing. However, if the families of the killer and victim disagreed in their moral assessment of the killing, they would most likely disagree as well in their assessment of any revenge actions which were taken, and a blood feud might ensue. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Vendettas or "blood feuds" are sequences of acts and counter-acts motivated by revenge and carried out over long period of time by familial or tribal groups in a quest for justice or retaliation; they were an important part of many pre-industrial societies, especially in the Mediterranean region, and still persist in some areas. During the Middle Ages, most would not regard an insult or injury as settled until it was avenged, or, at the least, paid for — hence, the extensive Anglo-Saxon system of "wergild" (literally, "man-price") payments, which placed a certain monetary value upon certain acts of violence in an attempt to limit the spiral of revenge by codifying the responsibility of a malefactor. The story of Wimund the Bishop illustrates the typical implacability of the time: Its hero, though blinded and imprisoned, would avenge himself against his enemies "if he had even but the eye of a sparrow". Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ... Wimund was an English bishop who became a sea-faring war-lord adventurer in the 1130s and 1140s. ...

In Japan's feudal past, the Samurai class upheld the honor of their family, clan, or their lord through the practice of revenge killings, or "katakiuchi". These killings could also involve the relatives of an offender. Today, katakiuchi is most often pursued by peaceful means, but revenge remains an important part of Japanese culture. For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...

The goal of some legal systems is limited to "just" revenge — in the fashion of the contrapasso punishments awaiting those consigned to Dante's Inferno, some have attempted to turn the crime against the criminal, in clever and often gruesome ways. Contrapasso is the process by which souls are punished in Dantes Inferno according to the nature of their sins in life. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino...

Modern Western legal systems usually state as their goal the reform or re-education of a convicted criminal. Even in these systems, however, society is conceived of as the victim of a criminal's actions, and the notion of vengeance for such acts is an important part of the concept of justice — a criminal "pays his debt to society" evinced by countries such as the United States continuing the practice of capital punishment. This article needs to be wikified. ...

Interestingly, psychologists have found that the thwarted psychological expectation of revenge may lead to issues of victimhood.

The first written appearance of the proverb "revenge is a dish best served cold" is often credited to the 18th century novel Les liaisons dangereuses, but since it doesn't actually appear in the original French language text, the validity of this attribution is unclear. The english version of this phrase in that exact wording, and arguably the most famous account of this, can be attributed to Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. However the phrase appeared in the 1949 film Kind Hearts and Coronets as "revenge is a dish which people of taste prefer to eat cold"[2]. The more well-known wording of this quote is also featured in the title sequence of the Quentin Tarantino film Kill Bill: Vol 1, accredited as an "Old Klingon Proverb". Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) is a famous French epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, first published in 1782. ... Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (Paramount Pictures, 1982; see also 1982 in film) is the second feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Kind Hearts and Coronets is a 1949 British black comedy film produced by Ealing Studios. ...

Revenge in art and culture

Revenge has been a popular theme for art and culture throughout history. Examples from the classics include: The Oresteia, Hamlet, The Merchant of Venice, Don Giovanni, "The Cask of Amontillado", La Forza del Destino, Moby-Dick, Othello, Macbeth, Titus Andronicus, and The Count of Monte Cristo. Revenge is also a prevalent theme in hardboiled fiction; e.g., Red Harvest by Dashiell Hammett, The Hunter by Richard Stark, several works by Mickey Spillane. The Eumenides redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Shylock and Portia (1835) by Thomas Sully The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Cask of Amontillado The Cask of Amontillado (sometimes spelled The Casque of Amontillado) is a short story, written by Edgar Allan Poe and first published in the November 1846 issue of Godeys Ladys Book. ... La forza del destino (The Force of Destiny) is an Italian opera by Giuseppe Verdi. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Hardboiled crime fiction is a uniquely American style pioneered by Dashiell Hammett, refined by Raymond Chandler, and endlessly imitated since by writers such as Mickey Spillane. ... Red Harvest (1929) is a novel by Dashiell Hammett. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... The Hunter (1962) is a crime thriller novel, written by Donald E. Westlake under the pseudonym Richard Stark. ... Donald Edwin Westlake (born July 12th, 1933 in Brooklyn, New York), is a prolific American writer, with over a hundred books, specializing in crime fiction, especially comic capers, with an occasional bit of science fiction. ... Frank Morrison Spillane (March 9, 1918 – July 17, 2006), better known as Mickey Spillane, was an American author of crime novels, many featuring his signature detective character, Mike Hammer. ...

Revenge is also a prominent theme in contemporary motion pictures; e.g., V for Vendetta, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, Star Wars: Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, or Kill Bill are archetypal artistic portrayals of revenge. This article is about the comic book series. ... Kill Bill is the fourth film by writer-director Quentin Tarantino. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ...

Other movies deal with this concept in a more fantastic or futuristic setting, such as Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, where Khan's hatred of Kirk and his desire for revenge would became so intense that Khan would lose everything, even his own life in his efforts for revenge. This intense desire to obtain revenge above all else can be witnessed in Khan's dialogue: Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (Paramount Pictures, 1982; see also 1982 in film) is the second feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ...

"He tasks me! He tasks me! And I shall have him. I'll chase him round the moons of Nibia and round the Antares malestrom and round perdition's flames before I give him up!"[3]

This indicates the lengths that he is willing to go to obtain his goal.

See also

Retributive justice maintains that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to crime, regardless of whether the punishment causes any tangible benefits. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


  1. ^ "Equity and Mercy," in Sex and Social Justice [Oxford University Press, 1999], pp. 157-58
  2. ^ "Mother Tongue Annoyances: Serving Cold Revenge" http://www.mtannoyances.com/?p=646
  3. ^ http://www.film.com/dvds/story/revengeisadishbestservedcold/16169619

External links

  • "Bitterness & Vengeance vs. Gratitude & Forgiveness" from Project Worldview

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