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Encyclopedia > Revelation
Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer
Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer

Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, "which could not be known apart from the unveiling" (Goswiller 1987 p. 3). In monotheistic religions, revelation is the process, or act of making divine information known, often through direct ontological realization which transcends the human state and reaches into the divine intellect. Revelation in a religious sense is that which God, a god, or other supernatural being such as an angel makes known about divine will, principles, laws and doctrines, although the realized principle can also be interpreted as the realizing principle. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Last Judgment. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Archangel Michael by Guido Reni wears a late Roman military outfit in this 17th century depiction An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ...


Most religions have religious texts they view as sacred. Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. Monotheistic religions often view their sacred texts as the "Word of God," often feeling that the texts are inspired by God. There are a number of ways that religious thinkers have traditionally approached this topic; many widely differing views have been proposed. Below are extensive related details (with references notes) for Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Bahá'í Faith, Latter Day Saints (Mormon), and others. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Many religions have religious texts which are sometimes described as the Word of God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th-century Persia (Iran). ... The term Latter Day Saint most commonly refers to (but is not limited to) members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints which, its members believe, was founded under the direction of Jesus Christ by the prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

Contents

Scriptural hermeneutics

Main articles: Biblical hermeneutics, Pesher, and Tafsir

Throughout religious history, some scholars and students of religious texts have sought to mine the wealth of their meanings, by developing a variety of different systems of hermeneutics. Philosophical hermeneutics, in particular, can be seen as a development of scriptural hermeneutics, providing a theoretical backing for various interpretive projects. Thus, philosophical hermeneutics and scriptural hermeneutics can be seen as mutually reinforcing concepts. Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... Pesher is a Hebrew word meaning interpretation in the sense of solution. It became known from one group of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsīr, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ...

Rabbi Ishmael of the Amoraic era of Judaism interpreted laws from the Torah through 13 hermeneutic principles. This is the first appearance of hermeneutics in the world, through the exegetic interpretation of Biblical texts. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Ishmael ben Elisha (90 - 135 CE, commonly known as Rabbi Ishmael) was a Tanna of the first and second centuries (third tannaitic generation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ...


Biblical Hermeneutics refers to methods of interpreting the Bible. Biblical hermeneutics is part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. By definition, this is a theological act, ie. part of the discourse of a faith-community. This does not mean that it is of no relevance to those who do not consider themselves to be part of that community, but rather that it is an issue that arises out of the particular needs of that community. Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Therefore, one ought to differentiate between Christian and Jewish Biblical hermeneutics: although there is an overlap between the two (and some form of dialogue), since they share part of their scriptures, they do arise out of different faith traditions and thus developed their own notion of hermeneutics. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It must also be stressed that theological differences within these faith communities preclude any 'definitive' statement on Biblical hermeneutics.


Pesher is a Hebrew word meaning "interpretation" in the sense of "solution". It became known from one group of texts, numbering some hundreds, among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The pesharim (plural of Pesher) take a book of the Hebrew Bible, often from the prophets, such as Habakkuk, Nahum, or from the Psalms, quote it phrase by phrase, and after each quotation insert an interpretation, preceded by "its Pesher is". “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsīr, also transliterated tafseer, Arabic "interpretation"), sharing the same etymology with Hebrew "pesher" is Qur'anic exegesis or commentary. Someone who writes tafsir is a mufassir ( (Arabic: مفسر) mufassir, plural (Arabic: مفسرون) mufassirūn). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Divine revelation in Judaism

The origin of the Torah and prophecy

There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ...

The Torah and Oral Law

Rabbinic Judaism, and contemporary Orthodox Judaism, hold that the Torah (Pentetuach) extant today is the same one that the whole of the Jewish people received on Mount Sinai, from God, upon their Exodus from Egypt.[1] Presently, Moses by God on Mount Sinai. A belief that God gave a "Torah of truth" to Moses (and the rest of the people), that Moses was the greatest of the prophets, and that the Law given to Moses will never be changed are three of the Thirteen Principles of Faith of Orthodox Judaism taught by Maimonides. Maimonides explains: "We do not know exactly how the Torah was transmitted to Moses. But when it was transmitted, Moses merely wrote it down like a secretary taking dictation....(Thus) every verse in the Torah is equally holy, as they all originate from God, and are all part of God's Torah, which is perfect, holy and true." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Orthodox Judaism believes that in addition to the written Torah, God also revealed to Moses a set of oral teachings, called the Oral Torah. In addition to this revealed law, Jewish law contains decrees and enactments made by prophets, rabbis, and sages over the course of Jewish history. Haredi Judaism tends to regard even rabbinic decrees as being of divine origin or divinely inspired, while Modern Orthodox Judaism tends to regard them as being more potentially subject to human error, although due to the Biblical verse "Do not stray from their words" ("Deuteronomy 17:11) it is still accepted as binding law. When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ...


Conservative Judaism tends to regard both the Torah and the Oral law as not directly revealed. The Conservative approach tends to regard the Torah as compiled by redactors in a manner similar to the Documentary Hypothesis. However, Conservative Jews tend to regard the authors of the Torah as divinely inspired and many regard at least portions of it as originating with Moses. Conservative Judaism also tends to regard the Oral Law as a whole as divinely inspired but subject to human error. Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


Reform and Reconstructionist Jews also tend to accept the Documentary Hypothesis for the origin of the Torah, and tend to view all of the Oral law as an entirely human creation. Accordingly, Progressive Judaism, Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, believe that the Torah is not entirely a direct revelation from God, but is a document written by human ancestors, carrying human understanding and experience, and seeking to answer the question: 'What does God require of us?'. They believe that, though it contains many 'core-truths' about God and humanity, it is also timebound, sexist, primitive, and, sometimes, simply wrong. They believe that God's will is revealed through the interaction of humanity and God throughout history, and so, in that sense, Torah is an important part, but only a part, of an ongoing revelation. Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term for all strands of Judaism which do not view the oral law as binding. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ...


The Prophets

The Nevi'im, the books of the Prophets, are considered divine and true. This does not imply that the books of the prophets are always read literally. Jewish tradition has always held that prophets used metaphors and analogies. There exists a wide range of commentaries explaining and elucidating those verses consisting of metaphor. Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ...


Rabbinic Judaism regards Moses as the greatest of the prophets, and this view is one of the Thirteen Principles of Faith of traditional Judaism. Consistent with the view that revelation to Moses was generally clearer than revelation to other prophets, Orthodox views of revelation to prophets other than Moses have included a range of perspectives as to directness. For example, Maimonides in A Guide for the Perplexed said that accounts of revelation in the Nevi'im were not always as literal as in the Torah and that some prophetic accounts reflect allegories rather than literal commands or predictions. Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... A Guide for the Perplexed is a short book by E.F. Schumacher, published in 1977. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ...


Conservative Rabbi and philosopher Abraham Joshua Heschel (1907-1972), author of a number of works on prophecy, offered a view of the nature of revelation as a process rather than an event. In his work God in Search of Man, he discussed the experience of being a prophet. In his book Prophetic Inspiration After the Prophets: Maimonides and Others, Heschel references to continued prophetic inspiration in Jewish rabbinic literature following the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and into medieval and even Modern times. He wrote that Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907, Warsaw, Poland – December 23, 1972) was considered by many to be one of the most significant Jewish theologians of the 20th century. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

To convey what the prophets experienced, the Bible could either use terms of descriptions or terms of indication. Any description of the act of revelation in empirical categories would have produced a caricature. That is why all the Bible does is to state that revelation happened. How it happened is something they could only convey in words that are evocative and suggestive."[2]

Divine revelation in Christianity

Scriptural Canon of Christianity

Main article: Bible

Christianity regards the Bible, a collection of canonical books in two parts, the Old Testament and the New Testament, as authoritative: written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit and therefore the inerrant Word of God.[3] Protestants believe that the scriptures contain all revealed truth necessary for salvation (See Sola scriptura).[4] This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: being saved from something, such as suffering or the punishment of sin - also called deliverance; being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God - also called redemption Salvation can also be understood in terms of social... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ...


The Old Testament contains the entire Jewish Tanakh, though in the Christian canon the books are ordered differently and some books of the Tanakh are divided into several books by the Christian canon. The Catholic and Orthodox canons include the Hebrew Jewish canon and other books (from the Septuagint Greek Jewish canon) which Catholics call Deuterocanonical, while Protestants consider them Apocrypha.[5] Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ...


The first four books of the New Testament are the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John), which recount the life and teachings of Jesus. The first three are often called synoptic because of the amount of material they share. The rest of the New Testament consists of a sequel to Luke's Gospel, the Acts of the Apostles, which describes the very early history of the Church, a collection of letters from early Christian leaders to congregations or individuals, the Pauline and General epistles, and the apocalyptic Book of Revelation.[5] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Basis on the divine origin of the Bible

In a number of passages the Bible claims divine inspiration for itself. Besides the direct accounts of written revelation, such as Moses receiving the Ten Commandments, the Prophets of the Old Testament frequently claimed that their message was divine by the formula "Thus says the LORD" (for example, 1 Kgs 12:22–24; 1 Chr 17:3–4; Jer 35:13; Ezek 2:4; Zech 7:9; etc.). In the New Testament, Jesus treats the Old Testament as authoritative and says it "cannot be broken" (John 10:34–36). 2 Timothy 3:16 says: "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correction and training in righteousness", and the Second Epistle of Peter claims that "no prophecy of Scripture ... was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit" (2 Pet 1:20–21). That epistle also claims divine authority for the Apostles (3:2) and includes Paul's letters as being counted with the Scriptures (3:16). This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Second Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Twelve Apostles... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Biblical theology

Main article: Biblical Theology

Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian Theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing himself to Man following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. It particularly focuses on the epochs of the writings in order to understand how each part of it ultimately points forward to fulfillment in the life mission of Jesus Christ. Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing himself to Man following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. ... Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing himself to Man following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning...


Biblical Theology is sometimes called the "History of Special Revelation" since it deals with the unfolding and expanding nature of revelation as history progresses through the Bible.

An important note that should be made in relation to the concept of progressive revelation is that the Christian Biblical concept differs from the Islamic understanding in which successive revelations of God might annul former revelations -- correcting where past communities distorted revealed truths, abrogating laws no longer deemed suitable for the revelatory community, and affirming the central core truth of God's monotheistic nature, the fact of human accountability before God on the Final Day. The Christian model within Biblical Theology sees the concept of progressive revelation as progressive revelation of new truth which supports, expands and stands upon former revelations of God's truth like brick laying. This progressive revelation ultimately climaxes in Christ, and ends with the New Testament Acts of the Apostles under the direction of the Holy Spirit awaiting the second coming of Christ.

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit...

Systematic theology

Main article: Systematic Theology

Systematic Theology is the attempt to formulate a coherent philosophy which is applicable to the component parts of a given faith's system of belief. Inherent to a system of theological thought is that a method is developed, one which can be applied both broadly and particularly. While a systematic theology must take into account the sacred texts of its faith, it also looks to history, philosophy, science, and ethics to produce as full a view and as versatile a philosophical approach as possible. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Significant systematic theologians are:


Thomas Aquinas, Roman Catholic, who believed in two types of revelation from God: general revelation and special revelation. General revelation occurs through observation of the created order. Such observations can logically lead to important conclusions, such as the existence of God. Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Though one may deduce the existence of God and some of God's attributes through general revelation, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation. In Aquinas's view, special revelation is equivalent to the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the Church and the Scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced.


Special revelation and natural revelation are complementary rather than contradictory in nature.


Karl Barth, Reformed (1886-1968), who tries to recover the Doctrine of the Trinity in theology from its putative loss in liberalism. His argument follows from the idea that God is the object of God’s own self-knowledge, and revelation in the Bible means the self-unveiling to humanity of the God who cannot be discovered by humanity simply through its own efforts. Note here that the Bible is not The Revelation; rather, it points to revelation. In Barth's theology, he emphasizes again and again that human concepts can never be considered as identical to God's revelation. In this aspect, Scripture is also written human language, expressing human concepts. It cannot be considered as identical to God's revelation. However, in His freedom and love, God truly reveals Himself through human language and concepts. Thus he claims that Christ is truly presented in Scripture and the preaching of the church. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Views on revelation of some branches of Christianism

Main article: Christianity

Christianity continued from Judaism a belief in the existence of a single omnipotent God who created and sustains the universe. Against this background belief in the divinity of Christ and the Holy Spirit was expressed as the doctrine of the Holy Trinity,[6] which considers that the three persons of God (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) share a single Divinesubstance. This substance is not considered divided, in the sense that each person has a third of the substance; rather, each person is considered to have the whole substance. The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten, the Son begotten of the Father, and the Holy Spirit proceeding.[7] The "begetting" does not refer to Mary's conceiving Jesus, but to a divine begetting before Creation. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ...


Christians were willing to die for their faith because of 3 key ideas that can be noted from their own writings. One: their belief that Jesus was resurrected, two: religious experience, and three: fuller understanding of Old Testament Scriptures. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In religious experience, or sacred experience, the believer comes in contact with transcendental reality. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Central to the doctrines of the Catholic Church is Apostolic Succession, the belief that the bishops are the spiritual successors of the original twelve apostles, through the historically unbroken chain of consecration (see: Holy Orders). The New Testament contains warnings against teachings considered to be only masquerading as Christianity,[8] and shows how reference was made to the leaders of the Church to decide what was true doctrine.[9] The Catholic Church teaches that it is the continuation of those who remained faithful to the apostolic and episcopal leadership and rejected false teachings. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Whereas Catholics look to the Pope for authority, Protestants, a wide branch of Christian believers look to the Bible for authority. The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of meritorious works, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man: Solus Christus (Christ alone). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... From the Five Solas, the statement that Christ alone (Solus Christus, or Solo Christo) was necessary for salvation. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


Protestants believe that the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church obscure the teachings of the Bible by convoluting it with church history and doctrine: Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Christians believe the Holy Spirit inspired the Scriptures,[10] and that his active participation in a believer's life (even to the extent of "indwelling", or in a certain sense taking up residence within, the believer) is essential to living a Christian life.[11] In Catholic, Orthodox, and some Anglican theology, this indwelling in received through the sacrament called Confirmation or, in the East, Chrismation. Most Protestants believe that the Spirit indwells a new believer at the time of salvation. Pentecostal and Charismatic Protestants believe the Baptism with the Holy Spirit is a distinct experience separate from other experiences like conversion. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: being saved from something, such as suffering or the punishment of sin - also called deliverance; being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God - also called redemption Salvation can also be understood in terms of social... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... Charismatic is an umbrella term used to describe those Christians who believe that the manifestations of the Holy Spirit seen in the first century Christian Church, such as healing, miracles and glossolalia, are available to contemporary Christians and ought to be experienced and practiced today. ... According to the New Testament, the Baptism in the Holy Spirit is an experience sent by Jesus Christ. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ...


Pentecostalism is an American offshoot of Methodism. The doctrine of charismatic gifts is a well-known feature of Pentecostalism. Charismatic gifts are extra-normal abilities that are transmitted from the divine to individuals. These gifts include glossolalia (speaking in tongues), healing ability, and prophesy. Such gifts are bestowed upon Pentecostals at baptism, and are a fixture of Pentecostal church services. The ecstatic receipt of charismatic gifts can be accompanied by a loss of motor control, giving Pentecostals the nickname "Holy Rollers." Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... Tongues redirects here. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Holy Roller is a term in American English used to describe Pentecostal Christian churchgoers. ...


The Charismatic Movement adopted the Pentecostal doctrines of charismatic gifts: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. Many charismatic Christians have gone on to form separate churches and denominations. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Tongues redirects here. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ...


Current controversies and criticisms

See also: Criticism of the Bible

There are many controversies surrounding Christianity as to its influences and history. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ...

  • A few writers propose that Jesus is a myth,[12] though historians generally agree that Jesus existed and have aimed at reconstructing the historical Jesus.
  • Some writers consider Paul to be the founding figure of Christianity as opposed to Jesus, pointing to the extent of his writings and the scope of his missionary work.[13] See also Pauline Christianity.
  • Members of the Jesus Seminar, and other Biblical scholars, have argued that the historical Jesus never claimed to be divine. They also reject the historicity of the empty tomb and thus a bodily resurrection, and several other events narrated in the gospels. They assert that Gospel accounts describing these things are probably literary fabrications.[14]
  • Adherents of Judaism generally believe that followers of Christianity misinterpret passages from the Old Testament, or Tanakh. (See also Judaism and Christianity.)
  • Muslims believe that the Christian doctrine of the Trinity is incompatible with monotheism, and they reject the Christian teaching that Jesus is the Son of God, though they affirm the virgin birth and view him as a prophet preceding Muhammad.[15] The Qur'an also uses the title "Messiah", though with a different meaning.[16][17] Muslims also dispute the historical occurrence of the crucifixion of Jesus.[18]

Jesus as myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels is not about a real person, but a construct of Christian mythology, which parallels mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism and the myths of rebirth deities. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about 200 New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk and John Dominic Crossan under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ...

Scriptural Canon of the Messianic 'Judaism'

Main article: Messianic Judaism

Messianic believers (who Jews do not consider to be Jewish since they accept Jesus as the Messiah, who in Jewish understanding has not yet arrived) commonly hold the TaNaKh to be divinely inspired. The Tanakh includes the Torah (first five books of Moses), Nevi'im (the Prophets) and Ketuvim (the Writings). The Apostolic Writings (or New Testament) are often considered to also be divinely inspired. Many hold them to be equal in authority to the Tanakh, but this is not universal and can vary from individual to individual even within the same synagogue or Torah study. Some Messianic believers are most often troubled by the writings of Paul (whom they often call Rabbi Sha'ul) and may reject his writings, hold them in less esteem than those of the Gospel writers, or even reject him. Often, the emphasis is on the idea that the Tanakh is the only scripture the Early Church had and that, except for the recorded words of Jesus, the Apostolic Writings were meant as inspired commentary on the Tanakh. For discussion of the messiah in Judaism, see Jewish messianism and Jewish messianic claimants. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Canon:

  1. Torah [תורה] meaning one or all of: "The Law"; "Teaching"; "Instruction". Also called the Chumash [חומש] meaning: "The five"; "The five books of Moses". It is the "Pentateuch".
  2. Nevi'im [נביאים] meaning: "Prophets"
  3. Ketuvim [כתובים] meaning "Writings" or "Hagiographa".
  4. Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
  5. Acts
  6. General epistles of James, Peter, Paul and of the author of Hebrews
  7. Revelation

It has been suggested that Tawrat be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ...

Divine Revelation in Islam

Main article: Islam
See also: Muhammad, and Qur'an
Muhammad's Call to Prophecy and the First Revelation; leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. 1425; Timurid. From Herat, Afghanistan. In The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Muhammad's Call to Prophecy and the First Revelation; leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. 1425; Timurid. From Herat, Afghanistan. In The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Divine Revelation plays a very important role in the Muslim faith. While religious books of most other faiths were recorded by followers of prophets, the Qur'an claims to have been revealed word by word and letter by letter. The Qur'an is therefore, no doubt, a milestone in the development of revelation literature, and historically being so recent that its authenticity is not seriously questioned. Islam knows different forms and degrees of Divine revelation. See for example.[19] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x730, 164 KB) Summary Muhammads Call to Prophecy and the First Revelation; leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x730, 164 KB) Summary Muhammads Call to Prophecy and the First Revelation; leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. ... A copy of the book from Herat, dated 1425CE. Depicted are Muhammad and the archangel Gabriel. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through Muhammad ibn Abdullah (c. 570 - July 6, 632) via the angel Gabriel.[20] Muhammad is considered to have been God's final prophet, the "Seal of the Prophets". The revelations Muhammad preached form the holy book of Islam, the Qur'an. The Qur'an is believed to be the flawless final revelation of God to humanity, valid until the day of the Resurrection. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...


Muslims hold that the message of Islam - submission to the will of the one God - is the same as the message preached by all the messengers sent by God to humanity since Adam. From an Islamic point of view, Islam is the oldest of the monotheistic religions because it represents both the original and the final revelation of God to Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad.[21][22] Members of all sects of Islam believe that the Qur'an codifies the direct words of God. Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


According to Islamic traditions, Muhammad began receiving revelations from God (Arabic: ألله Allah) from the age of 40, delivered through the angel Gabriel over the last 23 years of his life. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an,[23] was memorized and recorded by his followers and compiled into a single volume shortly after his death. The Qur'an, along with the details of Muhammad’s life as recounted by his biographers and his contemporaries, forms the basis of Islamic theology. Within Islam, he is considered the last and most important prophet of God.[24] Muslims do not regard him as the founder of a new religion but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets whose messages had become misinterpreted or corrupted over time (only misinterpreted according to some[25]).[26][27][28][29][30] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...


Similarities between the Qur'ān and the Bible

The Qur'ān retells stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books (Tanakh, Bible) and devotional literature (Apocrypha, Midrash), although it differs in many details. Adam, Enoch, Noah, Heber, Shelah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Aaron, Moses, Zechariah, Jesus, and John the Baptist are mentioned in the Qur'an as prophets of God (see Prophets of Islam). Muslims believe the common elements or resemblances between the Bible and other Jewish and Christian writings and Islamic dispensations is due to the common divine source, and that the Christian or Jewish texts were authentic divine revelations given to prophets. According to the Qur'ān This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Heber is one of the Minor characters in the Book of Genesis Heber the kenite is mentioned in the Book of Judges 4:17 of the Hebrew Bible as Jaels husband. ... Shelah or Shela (שֵׁלָה Petition, Standard Hebrew Å ela, Tiberian Hebrew Å Ä“lāh) is the name of two persons in the Bible: The son of Arpachshad, and thus the grandson of Shem. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Jethro (יִתְרוֹ Standard Hebrew Yitro, Tiberian Hebrew Yiṯrô, Shoaib Arabic Quran His excellence/posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... Elijah, 1638, by Ribera, José de This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Elisha (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; My God is salvation) is a Biblical prophet. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

"It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).3:3 "

Muslims claim that those texts were neglected or corrupted (tahrif) by the Jews and Christians and have been replaced by God's final and perfect revelation, which is the Qur'ān.[31] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ...


However, many Jews and Christians believe that the historical biblical archaeological record refutes this assertion, because the Dead Sea Scrolls (the Tanakh and other Jewish writings which predate the origin of the Qur'an) have been fully translated,[32] validating the authenticity of the Greek Septuagint.[33] This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Criticism of the Qur'ān

Due to the rise of Islamic terrorism, the need to understand the motives of suicide bombers has become important to many. Some critics believe that it is not only extremist Islam that preaches violence but Islam itself, a violence critics say is implicit in the Qur'anic text.[34][35] In response to criticism, it is generally argued that critics have taken verses out of context. The verses should be read with the whole surah; also the time and circumstances of the verses should be considered.[36][37] Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Muslims generally argue that the Qur'ān is the literal word of God. Critics reject the idea of a divine origin,[38][39][40] and base their argument on the problems they see in the Qur'ān, both textually and morally.[41][42] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ...


Divine Revelation in the Bahá'í Faith

Main article: Bahá'í literature
'Revelation writing': The first draft of a tablet of Baha'u'llah
'Revelation writing': The first draft of a tablet of Baha'u'llah

Following the progression and spread of literacy in human history, the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith were in a position in the 1800s to receive thousands of written enquiries, and to thus write thousands of responses, hundreds of which amount to whole and proper books, while many are the shorter texts, as letters. Additionally survey publications have attempted to broadly review important themes across many dozens of individual texts (see listings in articles below). In addition to the practicality of literacy however, the Bahá'í faith has large works which were divinely revealed in a very short time, as in a night, or a few days.[43] Additionally, because many of the works were first recorded by an amanuensis,[44] most were submitted for approval and had corrections added - another milestone in that the final text was personally approved by the revelator. Baháí literature, like much religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Following is a list of members of the Baháí Faith who are in some way prominent. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th-century Persia (Iran). ...


Bahá'u'lláh would occasionally write the words of revelation down himself, but normally the revelation was dictated to his amanuensis, who sometimes recorded it in what has been called 'revelation writing', a shorthand script written with extreme speed owing to the rapidity of the utterance of the words. Afterwards, Bahá'u'lláh revised and approved these drafts. These 'revelation drafts' and many other transcriptions of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh's, circa 17,000 items, some of which are in his own handwriting, are kept in the International Bahá'í Archives in Haifa, Israel.[45][46] Aerial view of the complex of Baháí administrative buildings on Mt. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...


For extended comments on the divine revelation of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá see Number of tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole and Numbers and Classifications of Sacred Writings texts by Universal House of Justice. Second-hand notes of the words of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í faith are termed pilgrim notes and have little status.[47] See also Horace Holley's preface of The Bahá'í Revelation, including Selections from the Bahá'í Holy Writings and Talks by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Abdul Baha `Abdul-Bahá Abbas (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) also known as Abbas Effendi, was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet and Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ...


Latter Day Saint concept of revelation

See also: Prophet, seer, and revelator

The Latter Day Saint concept of revelation includes the belief that revelation from God is available to all those who earnestly seek it with the intent of doing good. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and some other Latter Day Saint denominations claim to be led by revelation from God to a living prophet, who receives God’s word just as Abraham, Moses, Peter, and other ancient prophets and apostles did. It also teaches that everyone is entitled to personal revelation with respect to his or her stewardship. Thus, parents may receive inspiration from God in raising their families, individuals can receive divine inspiration to help them meet personal challenges, church officers may receive revelation for those whom they serve, and so forth. The important consequence of this is that each person may receive confirmation that particular doctrines taught by a prophet are true, as well as gain divine insight in using those truths for their own benefit and eternal progress. In the church, personal revelation is expected and encouraged, and many converts believe that personal revelation from God was instrumental in their conversion.[48] Latter Day Saints teach that the Latter Day Saint movement began with a Revelation from God (see History of the Latter Day Saint movement). ... Prophet, seer, and revelator is an ecclesiastical title used in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that is applied to the members of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. ... The term Latter Day Saint most commonly refers to (but is not limited to) members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints which, its members believe, was founded under the direction of Jesus Christ by the prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The term Latter Day Saint most commonly refers to (but is not limited to) members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints which, its members believe, was founded under the direction of Jesus Christ by the prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Prophet, seer, and revelator is an ecclesiastical title used in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that is applied to the members of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Apostle Peter, also known as Saint Peter, Shimon Keipha Ben-Yonah/Bar-Yonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Keipha—original name Shimon or Simeon (Acts )—was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Twelve Apostles... Look up stewardship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Joseph F. Smith, the sixth president of the LDS Church, summarized this church's belief concerning revelation by saying, "We believe... in the principle of direct revelation from God to man."[49] (Smith, 362) He also more specifically detailed the importance of the principle of modern-day revelation to the church he then led: Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ...

The gospel cannot be administered, nor the Church of God continue to exist, without it. Christ is the head of his Church and not man, and the connection can only be maintained upon the principle of direct and continued revelation. It… is a living, vital principle to be enjoyed on certain conditions only, namely – through absolute faith in God and obedience to his laws and commandments. The moment this principle is cut off, that moment the Church is adrift, being severed from its ever-living head. In this condition it cannot continue, but must cease to be the Church of God and, like the ship at sea without captain, compass or rudder, is afloat at the mercy of the storms and the waves of ever contending human passions, and worldly interests, pride and folly... (Smith, 362)

James E. Talmage, a noted LDS scholar and a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, attempted to connect this belief with the nature of God and also emphasized the importance of the principle of continuing revelation to his faith: James Edward Talmage (September 21, 1862–July 27, 1933) was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1911 until his death in 1933. ... The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ...

It is at once unreasonable, and directly contrary to our conception of the unchangeable justice of God, to believe that He will bless the Church in one dispensation with present living revelation of His will and in another leave [His] Church... to live as best it may according to the laws of a bygone age.

Latter-day Saints believe that God answers prayers. Communicating with God is seen by many Latter Day Saints as an important part of developing faith and coming to know God, resulting ultimately in eternal life if the person remains faithful to covenants with Jesus Christ. Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Exaltation or Eternal Progression is a seminal doctrinal belief among devout members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church or Mormons) that mankind, as spirit children of their Father in Heaven, can become like, not equivalent to, Him. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


Two recent important revelations presented to the LDS Church by the president of the church are the revelation announcing a Perpetual Education Fund for fostering educational opportunities among the poor, and The Family: A Proclamation to the World. Many LDS members believe that new scripture will be revealed or discovered and translated involving prophets among the Ten Lost Tribes at some time before or during the Millennium (Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 29:13). The Perpetual Education Fund is a program of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, first announced by President Gordon B. Hinckley on March 31, 2001. ... The Family: A Proclamation to the World is a statement issued by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in 1995, which defined the churchs official position on gender roles, human sexuality, and the family. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement, regarded by Latter Day Saints as divinely revealed, and named after the prophet–historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. ...


Joseph Smith, Jr.

Joseph Smith, Jr. (December 23, 1805June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader who founded the Latter Day Saint movement, a restorationist movement giving rise to Mormonism. Smith's followers declared him to be the first latter-day prophet, whose mission was to restore the original Christianity, said to have been lost after a Great Apostasy. This restoration included publication of the Book of Mormon and other new scripture to supplement the Bible, and the establishment of the Church of Christ. As leader of his religion, he was also an important political and military leader in the American West. December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration... Book of Mormon, see Latter Day Saint movement. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is... The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement, regarded by Latter Day Saints as divinely revealed, and named after the prophet–historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Church of Christ was the original name given to the church formally organized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ...


During his adult life—from the time he began dictating the Book of Mormon in 1827 until his death in 1844—Smith introduced a large number of religious teachings. Although a number of his teachings are similar to doctrines circulating during his lifetime, several are unique to Smith. The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement, regarded by Latter Day Saints as divinely revealed, and named after the prophet–historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. ...


Nearly all Smith's teachings had some root in the King James Version of the Bible, or his interpretation or elaboration of it. However, he believed in other scripture, and that in some instances, the Bible was translated incorrectly.[50] Thus, he "restored" temples, orders of priesthood, and other elements of the Bible that he felt had been wrongly abandoned by mainstream Christianity as part of a Great Apostasy. This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Salt Lake Temple is the most well-known Mormon Temple. ... In Mormonism, priesthood is considered to be the power and authority to act in the name of God, including the performance of sacred rites and ordinances, and the performance of miracles. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is...


In many cases, Smith's doctrines or interpretations of the Bible, as well as his own claimed revelations, placed him at odds with mainstream Christianity. For example, Smith rejected mainstream Christianity's long-standing formulation of the Trinity as recorded in the 4th Century Nicene Creed. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


Joseph Smith taught that Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are all three separate personages, with Heavenly Father and Jesus having physical bodies[51] of "flesh and bone", while the Holy Ghost has only a spiritual body. God is the Heavenly Father of all mankind and that mankind is made in His express image (simply put, that humans look like Heavenly Father). In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ...


Smith's claim to be a prophet of God has led to much controversy. Smith was a polarizing figure in his time, and he continues to be a focus of controversy between his millions of followers, most of whom revere him as a prophet with the same authority as prophets in the standard Christian canon, and opponents of Mormonism, who believe he was either delusional or fraudulent. In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Book of Mormon, see Latter Day Saint movement. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... In the broadest sense, a fraud is a deception made for personal gain. ...


Mormonism and Christianity

Traditional Christians believe that the canon of scripture is closed, making the Bible the only sacred text for Christians. However, the precise list of books in the Bible is disputed among Christian denominations depending upon the acceptance of the deuterocanonical books.[52]. Catholics subscribe, de facto, to Prima scriptura (the Bible above all) and give equal weight to Sacred Tradition. Some Protestants consider their Bible the only infallible authority, a doctrine called Sola scriptura, though different Protestant faiths consider different versions of the Bible to be the "infallible" one. However, the clear primacy of the Bible, despite the dispute of the exact books of the canon, has resulted in basic beliefs that are largely shared between these churches. A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Bible is considered as first or above all sources of divine revelation. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ...


Latter-day Saints believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly. They also believe that the Book of Mormon is a sacred text that testifies of Jesus Christ. It is believed to represent a history of God's dealings with some of the ancient inhabitants of the Americas. A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and should not to be confused with the different, though similar term Latter Day Saint. ... The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement, regarded by Latter Day Saints as divinely revealed, and named after the prophet–historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In addition, Latter-day Saints also have additional books of scripture: the Doctrine and Covenants, which contains revelations of modern day prophets and the Pearl of Great Price. The Pearl of Great Price, which contains additional important Latter-day Saint scriptures such as the Book of Moses and the Book of Abraham is not accepted by all denominations. Each denomination has their own version of the Doctrine and Covenants, which differ on the number of modern day revelations accepted as canon. A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and should not to be confused with the different, though similar term Latter Day Saint. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... For other uses of Pearl of Great Price, see the Pearl of Great Price page. ... The Book of Moses is a text published by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Book of Abraham is a text published as part of the Pearl of Great Price, one of the four canonical scriptures of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


Church leaders (from the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles) have taught during General Conference that conference talks which are "…[spoken ad] moved upon by the Holy Ghost shall be scripture…".[53] In addition, many Mormons believe that there were also ancient prophets in other regions of the world that received revelations that resulted in additional scriptures that have been lost and may, one day, be forthcoming. Hence, the belief in continuing revelation (i.e., the canon remains open). The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ... In Mormonism, a general conference is a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination. ...


Divine revelation in the Jehovah's Witnesses concept

Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses

The publishing arm of Jehovah's Witnesses, known as the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania engages in extensive publication work. In addition to their two magazines -'The Watchtower' and 'Awake!'- they also publish many brochures, tracts and books including the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. WT-Logo The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, headquartered in New York City, is the corporate entity of the Jehovah’s Witnesses religion. ... The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a modern-language translation of the Bible published by the Jehovahs Witnesses, specifically Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. ...


New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is a translation of the Protestant canon. This Bible is distinct in its extensive use of the name Jehovah, an English version of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton, also replacing the Greek word for "Lord" over 200 times in the New Testament. The translators have opted to remain anonymous but others have identified them as being prominent leaders of the movement.[54] The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a modern-language translation of the Bible published by the Jehovahs Witnesses, specifically Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Frederick William Franz became the leading theologian, and is believed to have been the principal translator of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures.[55] Also produced were a Greek-English New Testament interlinear (The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures) and a Bible dictionary (Aid to Bible Understanding).[56] Frederick William Franz - (September 12, 1893-December 22, 1992) was an important figure in the organization of Jehovahs Witnesses. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a modern-language translation of the Bible published by the Jehovahs Witnesses, specifically Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. ... Aid to Bible Understanding (1969) was the first doctrinal and biblical encyclopedia of Jehovahs Witnesses. ...

The following reflects the current beliefs and practices of Jehovahs Witnesses. ...

Overview

Jehovah's Witnesses originated with the religious movement known as Bible Students, which was founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell. Charles Russell in 1911 The Bible Student movement is a religious movement with premillennialist expectations, that sprang from the teachings and ministry of Pastor Charles Taze Russell in the 1870s, whose followers generally call themselves Bible Students. Following a schism after Russell’s death in 1916, several offshoot groups formed... Charles Russell in 1911 Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), known as Pastor Russell, was an American evangelist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who founded what is known as the Bible Student movement. ...


The entire Biblical canon, excluding the Apocrypha, is considered the inspired word of God. A literal interpretation of the Bible is followed, though it is acknowledged that biblical writers and characters also employed symbolism, parable, figures of speech, and poeticism.[57] Only the Bible should be used for determining issues of doctrine. Interpretation of Scripture and codification of doctrines is the responsibility of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses.[58] A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing, either simultaneously or consecutively, oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not speaking (or signing) the same language. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

God is the creator and supreme being, sovereign of the universe. Using God's name, Jehovah (a derivative of the Tetragrammaton[59]), is a requirement for true worship.[60] Jesus is God's first creation, used by God to create everything else.[61] Jesus is literally the only begotten Son of God, and received his life from God. He is the means through whom to approach God in prayer, and is also the means of salvation for all worthy mankind.[62] His role as mediator of the "new covenant" is limited to those going to heaven,[63] whose number totals 144,000. The vast majority of Jehovahs' Witnesses will live on a renewed paradise on Earth.[64] They believe that Jesus did not die on a cross but on a "torture stake".[65] The holy spirit is not a person but is God's active force.[66] Image File history File links Tetragrammaton. ... Image File history File links Tetragrammaton. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Jehovah is an English transcription of , which is a specific vocalized spelling of (i. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Son of God is... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... 144,000 is a positive whole integer between 100,000 and 200,000. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit...


An emphasis on house-to-house preaching began in 1922.[67] The period from 1925-1933 saw many significant changes in doctrine. Attendance at their yearly Memorial dropped from a high of 90,434 in 1925[68] down to 17,380 in 1928,[69] due to the previous power struggle, the failed prophesies for the year 1925,[70] and the evolving doctrinal changes which alienated those who sided with Russell's views.[71] By 1933, 1914 was seen as the beginning of Christ's presence, his enthronement as king, and the start of the "last days" instead of being considered the terminal date in their chronology.[72] The following reflects the current beliefs and practices of Jehovahs Witnesses. ... This article refers to the topic of prophecy as the purported telling of future events or supernatural revelations. ...


During the 1960s[73] and early 1970s, various references were made in Witnesses' literature and at assemblies, implying that Christ's thousand-year millennial reign might begin by 1975.[74] The chronology pointing to 1975 was noted in the secular media at the time.[75] From 1975 to 1980, there was a drop in membership following the failure of this prediction.[76] In 1980, the Watchtower Society admitted its responsibility in building up hope regarding the year 1975.[77]


In 1976, the leadership of Jehovah's Witnesses was reorganized, and the power of the presidency passed on to the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses. Witnesses no longer teach that the generation of people alive in 1914 will survive until Armageddon,[78] but they continue to emphasize its nearness.[79] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The evangelist John of Patmos writes the Book of Revelation. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses reject traditional Christian doctrines such as the Trinity, eternal torment in hell and the immortality of the soul. The central theme of their preaching is God’s Kingdom (that is, God's rule over the Earth) with Jesus Christ as its king. The Witnesses believe this rule began with the Second Coming or presence of Christ. Originally, this was believed to have occurred invisibly in 1874, but this date was later revised to 1914. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Sad redirects here; for the three letter acronym, see SAD. Suffering is any unwanted condition and the corresponding negative emotion. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek: - Basileia tou Theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Second Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


Tetragrammaton

Main article: Yahweh

When Christians, unaware of the Jewish tradition, started to read the Hebrew Bible, they read יְהֹוָה with the Masoretic vowels together with the consonants as written, and obtained Iehouah. Today this transcription is generally recognized as mistaken. Many religious groups continue to use the form Jehovah, because it is familiar and because the correct pronunciation of יהוה is unknown. Tetragrammaton redirects here. ...


Various proposals exist for a vocalization of יהוה. Current convention is יַהְוֶה, that is, Yahweh. The 'Yah' part seems fairly certain, for example from Biblical proper names ending in -ia(h) or -yahu. Early Christian literature written in Greek used spellings like Ιαβε that can be transcribed by 'Yahweh'. Tetragrammaton redirects here. ...


Today many scholars accept this proposal.[80] (Here 'accept' does not necessarily mean that they actually believe that it describes the truth, but rather that among the many vocalizations that have been proposed, none is clearly superior. That is, 'Yahweh' is the scholarly convention, rather than the scholarly consensus.)


Existentialism

In the 20th century, religious existentialists proposed that revelation held no content in of itself; rather, they hold that God inspired people with His presence by coming into contact with them. In this view the Bible is a human response that records how we responded to God. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Revelation or information from a supernatural source is of much lesser importance in some other religious traditions. It is not of great importance in the Asian religions Taoism, and Confucianism but similarities have been noted between the Abrahamic view of revelation and the Buddhist principle of Enlightenment. Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P...


Paul Johannes Tillich (1886–1965) was a theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. Tillich was, along with contemporary Karl Barth, one of the more influential Protestant theologians of the twentieth century. Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 - October 22, 1965) was a German-born American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. ...


Tillich's approach to Protestant theology was highly systematic. He sought to correlate culture and faith such that "faith need not be unacceptable to contemporary culture and contemporary culture need not be unacceptable to faith". Consequently, Tillich's orientation is apologetic, seeking to make concrete theological answers that are applicable to ordinary daily life. This contributed to his popularity because it made him easily accessible to lay readers. In a broader perspective, revelation is understood as the fountainhead of religion. Tillich sought to reconcile revelation and reason by arguing that revelation never runs counter to reason (affirming Thomas Aquinas who said that faith is eminently rational), but both poles of the subjective human experience are complementary. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


Tillich's radical departure from traditional Christian theology is his view of Christ. According to Tillich, Christ is the "New Being", who rectifies in himself the alienation between essence and existence. Essence fully shows itself within Christ, but Christ is also a finite man. This indicates, for Tillich, a revolution in the very nature of being. The gap is healed and essence can now be found within existence. Thus for Tillich, Christ is not God per se in himself, but Christ is the revelation of God. Whereas traditional Christianity regards Christ as wholly man and wholly God, Tillich believed that Christ was the emblem of the highest goal of man, what God wants men to become. Thus to be a Christian is to make oneself progressively "Christ-like", a very possible goal in Tillich's eyes. In other words, Christ is not God in the traditional sense, but reveals the essence inherent in all existence, including mine and your own. Thus Christ is not different from you or me except insofar as he fully reveals God within his own finitude, something you and I can also do in principle. Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


"God does not exist. He is being itself beyond essence and existence. Therefore to argue that God exists is to deny him."


Visitation

An experience of presence or communication between the recently deceased and their spouse or progeny is called visitation. This experience may be interpreted by some persons as revealing the will of God. Such experiences are deemed normative and not pathological according to the DSM IV (Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association). Visitation can mean several things: In the United States, visitation is the legal term for the right of a non-custodial parent to visit with their children: see contact. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ...


Caveats and criticism

In the Age of Reason Thomas Paine maintained that revelation can only be considered valid for the original recipient and when subsequently communicated by the recipient to a second person it ceases to be a revelation but rather becomes a hearsay second hand account, and consequently they are not obliged to believe it. The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, and intellectual. ...


Nowhere in the Bible and Quoran is mentioned that God communicated in the same way as the complicated way God should have communicated with the "prophets" who wrote these stories.


Notes and references

  1. ^ Rabbi Nechemia Coopersmith and Rabbi Moshe Zeldman: "Did God Speak at Sinai", Aish HaTorah
  2. ^ Heschel, Abraham Joshua (1987). God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism. ason Aronson Inc.. 0876689551. 
  3. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture (§105-108); Second Helvetic Confession, Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God; Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, online text
  4. ^ Thirty-nine Articles, Art. VI; Westminster Catechism, Q. 3; James White, Does The Bible Teach Sola Scriptura?
  5. ^ a b F.F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture; Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Canon of Scripture § 120; Thirty-nine Articles, Art. VI
  6. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 87-90; T. Desmond Alexander, New Dictionary of Biblical Theology pp. 514-515; Alister E. McGrath, Historical Theology p. 61.
  7. ^ Vladimir Lossky God in Trinity; Loraine Boettner, One Substance, Three Persons
  8. ^ 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; 2 Peter 2:1-17; 2 John 7-11; Jude 4-13
  9. ^ Acts 15:1-2
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic, Sacred Scripture; Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy , online text; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21
  11. ^ John 16:7-14; 1 Corinthians 2:10ff
  12. ^ Kenneth Latourette, Christianity p. 394; E. A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Religion
  13. ^ David Wenham, Paul: Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity?
  14. ^ "The empty tomb is a fiction -- Jesus did not raise (sic) bodily from the dead." front flap of Acts of Jesus.
  15. ^ Gary Miller, A concise reply to Christianity.
  16. ^ The Holy Qura'an, 3:46.
  17. ^ Mike Tabish,What does the Qur'an say about Isa (Jesus)?
  18. ^ Answering-Christianity.com, What does the Holy Qur'an say about Jesus (peace be upon him).
  19. ^ Divine Revelation. islam-info.ch. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  20. ^ Watton (1993), "Introduction"
  21. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp.4-5
  22. ^ [Qur'an 42:13]
  23. ^ The term Qur'an was first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation that are discussed in Quran#Etymology cf. "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  24. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977) writes that "It is appropriate to use the word 'God' rather than the transliteration 'Allah'. For one thing it cannot be denied that Islam is an offshoot of the Judaeo-Christians tradition, and for another the Christian Arabs of today have no other word for 'God' than 'Allah'" cf p.32.
  25. ^ "If…they [Christians] mean that the Qur’an confirms the textual veracity of the scriptural books which they now possess—that is, the Torah and the Gospels—this is something which some Muslims will grant them and which many Muslims will dispute. However, most Muslims will grant them most of that." (quote from Ibn Taymiyya), see Accad (2003)
  26. ^ Accad (2003)
  27. ^ Esposito (1998), p.12; (1999) p.25; (2002) pp.4-5
  28. ^ "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
  29. ^ Peters (2003), p.9
  30. ^ "Qur'an and Polemics", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an (2005)
  31. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam (1984). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. p.69
  32. ^ The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English (2002) HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-060064-0
  33. ^ http://www.septuagint.net
  34. ^ Robert Spencer. Onward Muslim Soldiers, page 121.
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^
  37. ^ Khaleel Muhammad, professor of religious studies at San Diego State University regarding his discussion with the critic Robert Spencer states that "when I am told ... that Jihad only means war, or that I have to accept interpretations of the Quran that non-Muslims (with no good intentions or knowledge of Islam) seek to force upon me, I see a certain agendum developing: one that is based on hate, and I refuse to be part of such an intellectual crime." [2]
  38. ^ Koran, by Gabriel Oussani, The Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved April 13, 2006
  39. ^ Patricia Crone, Michael Cook, and Gerd R. Puin as quoted in Toby Lester. "What Is the Koran?", The Atlantic Monthly, January 1999. 
  40. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: comp. also xvi. 70
  41. ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion, By Mircea Eliade. Volum 12 pg. 165-6, pub. 1987 ISBN 0-02-909700-2
  42. ^ Robert Spencer. Onward Muslim Soldiers,
  43. ^ Book of Certitude: Dating the Iqan. Kalimat Press (1995). Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  44. ^ The Writings of Baha'u'llah, Published in The Bahá'í World, vol. 14, pp. 620-32. Bahá'í World Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  45. ^ A new volume of Bahá'í sacred writings, recently translated and comprising Bahá'u'lláh's call to world leaders, is published. Bahá'í World Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  46. ^ Taherzadeh, A. (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853-63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853982708. 
  47. ^ The Status of Pilgrims' Notes. bahai-library.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  48. ^ Continuing Revelation. Mormon.org. Retrieved on August 5, 2005.
  49. ^ Smith, Joseph F.. "41: Continuing Revelation for the Benefit of the Church", Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph F. Smith. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 362. 
  50. ^ See Wentworth letter.
  51. ^ [3]
  52. ^ See Books of the Bible for a table listing the differences of the canon between Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. See also Biblical canon for a history of the development of the canon
  53. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 68:4
  54. ^ (2004) Crisis of Conscience, 4th, Commentary Press, 56. 0-914675-23-0. Harrison. Visions of Glory, 231. 
  55. ^ Since 1942, Witness publications are produced under a policy of anonymity. Former Governing Body member Raymond Franz claims the translators of the New World Translation were Fred Franz, Nathan Knorr, Albert Schroeder and George Gangas. (2004) Crisis of Conscience, 4th, Commentary Press, 56. 0-914675-23-0. 
  56. ^ In 1988, this was replaced by the 2-volume set Insight on the Scriptures.
  57. ^ (2005) A Book for All People. Watchtower. 
  58. ^ (March 15 2002) "Christ Leads His Congregation". Watchtower: 13–16. 
  59. ^ The rendering of the Tetragrammaton is different for different languages: "Geova" in Italian, for example.
  60. ^ (April 15 1996) "Why True Worship Receives God's Blessing". Watchtower: 17. .
  61. ^ (January 15 1992) "What Do the Scriptures Say About "the Divinity of Christ"?": 20–23. 
  62. ^ ""His Vital Place in God's Purpose" and "Chief Agent of life"", Insight on the Scriptures Vol. e2. Watchtower, 60–61. 
  63. ^ "Consequently, 1 Timothy 2:5, 6 is not using 'mediator' in the broad sense common in many languages. It is not saying that Jesus is a mediator between God and all mankind. Rather, it refers to Christ as legal Mediator (or, "attorney") of the new covenant, this being the restricted way in which the Bible uses the term.
  64. ^ (2005) What Does the Bible Really Teach?. Watchtower, 33–36. .
  65. ^ What Does the Bible Really Teach?. Watchtower, 204. 
  66. ^ (1988) Insight on the Scriptures Vol. 2, 1019. 
  67. ^ (1993) Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watchtower, 259–260. 
  68. ^ Your Will Be Done on Earth. Watchtower, 337. 
  69. ^ 1958 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower, 284. 
  70. ^ M. James Penton. Apocalypse Delayed—The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses, 61.  Attendance at the annual Memorial (statistics were published each year in the Watch Tower) shows the growth in the period before 1925. 1919: 17,961, 1922: 32,661, 1923: 42,000, 1924: 62,696, 1925: 90,434. 1926 marked the first decrease: 89,278.
  71. ^ See, for example, (1946) When Pastor Russell Died. Dawn Bible Students Association, 6-16. 
  72. ^ (1921) The Harp of God, 231–236.  affirms that “the Lord’s second presence dates from 1874.” (March 1 1922) "Watchtower": 71.  and (1930) Prophecy, 65–66.  reiterated this position. The eschatological changes during this period are documented in Thomas Daniels. Historical Idealism and Jehovah's Witnesses, 3–37. Retrieved on February 1, 2006.  These are the current teachings of Jehovah's Witnesses regarding 1914, 1918 and 1919. They no longer consider the dates 1799, 1874 and 1878 to have any eschatological significance
  73. ^ The year 1975 was first mentioned in 1966. See (October 8 1966) "How Much Longer Will It Be?". 'Awake!': 17–20. Retrieved on March 6, 2006. 
  74. ^ A comprehensive list of quotes from Watch Tower 1975 articles, unaltered with date references, publication, and page numbers etc.Quotes about 1975. See also 1975: 'THE APPROPRIATE TIME FOR GOD TO ACT'. Page 14 of the October 8, 1968 Awake! demonstrates the disclaimer that was made at the time: "Does this mean that the above evidence positively points to 1975 as the complete end of this system of things? Since the Bible does not specifically state this, no man can say...If the 1970s should see intervention by Jehovah God to bring an end to a corrupt world drifting toward ultimate disintegration, that should surely not surprise us.".
  75. ^ (July 18 1969) "Witnessing the End". Time. Retrieved on September 12, 2006. 
  76. ^ Raymond Franz. "1975—The Appropriate Time for God to Act", Crisis of Conscience, 237–253. Retrieved on July 27, 2006. This drop in membership has been variously analyzed. Richard Singelenberg (“The ‘1975′-prophecy and its impact among Dutch Jehovah’s Witnesses”) in Sociological Analysis 50(1)1989, pp 23–40 notes a 9 per cent drop in total publishers (door-to-door preachers) and a 38 per cent drop in pioneers (full-time preachers) in the Netherlands. The January 30, 1982 Los Angeles Times ("Defectors Feel 'Witness' Wrath: Critics say Baptism Rise Gives False Picture of Growth" by John Dart, p. B4) cited statistics showing a net increase of publishers worldwide from 1971–1981 of 737,241, while baptisms totaled 1.71 million for the same period.
  77. ^ The Watchtower, 15 March, 1980, p.17 "With the appearance of the book Life Everlasting—in Freedom of the Sons of God, ... considerable expectation was aroused regarding the year 1975. ... there were other statements published that implied that such realization of hopes by that year was more of a probability than a mere possibility. It is to be regretted that these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already initiated. ... persons having to do with the publication of the information ... contributed to the buildup of hopes centered on that date."
  78. ^ "A Time To Keep Awake", The Watchtower (November 1, 1995), p. 19 par. 12, and p. 20 par. 15.
  79. ^ "'The Great Day of Jehovah is near,' said God's prophet. (Zephaniah 1:14) That day is fast approaching, so we need to live with it in mind." — (2006) Live With Jehovah's Day in Mind. Watchtower, 4. 
  80. ^ Encycl. Britannica, 15th edition, 1994, passim.
  • The Newsletter of the Foundation for Ancient Research & Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University Insights! volume 25 | 2005, Number 4, p.5

is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Jews of Islam is a book written by Middle-East historian and scholar Bernard Lewis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wentworth letter was a letter written in 1842 by Latter Day Saint founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Raymond Franz, circa 1980 Raymond Franz (born 1922) was a member of the Governing Body of Jehovahs Witnesses from 1971 until May 22, 1980[1], and served at the organizations world headquarters for fifteen years, from 1965 until 1980. ... Frederick William Franz - (12 September 1893–22 December 1992) served as the President of the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, the Legal organization used to direct the work of Jehovahs Witnesses. ... Nathan Homer Knorr (April 23, 1905 - June 8, 1977) was the third president of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society doing so on January 13, 1942, replacing Joseph Franklin Rutherford, who had served in the position since 1916. ... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ...

See also

In Hinduism, Apaurusheyatva (IAST: ), Sanskrit, being unauthored, is used to describe the Vedas, the main scripture in Hinduism. ... Shruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... The term God Helmet refers to a controversial experimental apparatus in neurotheology. ... Temporal lobe epilepsy is a form of epilepsy, a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... William of Ockham Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... Ódr (ON: Óðr) is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... The writers of The Urantia Book list the presentation as being the fifth revelation of epochal significance in the history of humankind. ... Prophet, seer, and revelator is an ecclesiastical title used in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that is applied to the members of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. ...

External links

Look up Revelation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Revelation (4374 words)
Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature.
Revelation does not cease to be such if God's message is delivered to us by a prophet, who alone is the recipient of the immediate communication.
revelation of truths of the natural law is certainly not inconsistent with God's wisdom.
Book of Revelation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3665 words)
Revelation is considered one of the most controversial and difficult books of the Bible, with many diverse interpretations of the meanings of the various names and events in the account.
Revelation is divided into seven chapters, with the number seven also appearing frequently as a metaphor within the Book of Revelation.
Politically, historicist interpretations apply the symbols of Revelation to the gradual division and collapse of the Roman Empire, the emergence of a divided Europe in the West and a Muslim empire in the East, and the collapse of the Eastern Empire while Europe attempts to reunite and recreate the Roman Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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