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Encyclopedia > Retrovirus
Retroviruses
Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Family: Retroviridae
Genera

Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae
Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... ss-RNA RT is the single stranded Ribonucleic acid genome that is present in the HIV virus. ...

Alpharetrovirus
Betaretrovirus
Gammaretrovirus
Deltaretrovirus
Epsilonretrovirus
Lentivirus

Subfamily: Spumaretrovirinae
An alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... A betaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... A gammaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... A deltaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... An epsilonretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Lentivirus (lenti-, Latin for slow) is a genus of slow viruses of the Retroviridae family, characterized by a long incubation period. ...

Spumavirus

A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. They are enveloped viruses possessing an RNA genome, and replicate via a DNA intermediate. Retroviruses rely on the enzyme reverse transcriptase to perform the reverse transcription of its genome from RNA into DNA, which can then be integrated into the host's genome with an integrase enzyme. The virus then replicates as part of the cell's DNA. A spumavirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Integrase is a protein produced by a virus that enables genetic material that is helpful to the virus, proviral DNA, to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell. ...

Contents

Description of virus

The virus itself stores its nucleic acid, in the form of a +mRNA (including the 5'cap and 3'PolyA inside the virion) genome and serves as a means of delivery of that genome into cells it targets as an obligate parasite, and constitutes the infection. Once in the host's cell, the RNA strands undergo reverse transcription in the cytosol and are integrated into the host's genome, at which point the retroviral DNA is referred to as a provirus. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... An obligate parasite is an organism that cannot live independently of its host. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used by all retroviruses and retrotransposons that transcribes the genetic information from the virus or retrotransposon from RNA into DNA, which can integrate into the host genome. ... The cytosol (cf. ... A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. ...


Multiplication

When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses, contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[1] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease. The role of endogenous retroviruses in human gene evolution is explored in a 2005 peer-reviewed article.[2] Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Endogenous retroviruses are retroviruses derived from ancient infections of germ cells in humans, mammals and other vertebrates; as such their proviruses are passed on to the next generation and now remain in the genome. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


While transcription was classically thought to only occur from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to this reversal (making DNA from RNA) of the central dogma of molecular biology. Reverse transcriptase activity outside of retroviruses has been found in almost all eukaryotes, enabling the generation and insertion of new copies of retrotransposons into the host genome. It is important to note that a retrovirus must "bring" its own reverse transcriptase in its capsid, otherwise it is unable to utilize the infected cell's enzymes to carry out the task, due to the unusual nature of producing DNA from RNA. In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Retrotransposons are genetic elements than can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ...


Because reverse transcription lacks the usual proofreading of DNA replication, this kind of virus mutates very often. This enables the virus to grow resistant to antiviral pharmaceuticals quickly, and impedes, for example, the development of an effective vaccine against the retrovirus HIV. Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Genes

Retrovirus genomes commonly contain these three open reading frames that encode for proteins that can be found in the mature virus: An open reading frame or ORF is a portion of an organisms genome which contains a sequence of bases that could potentially encode a protein. ...

Group-specific antigen is the genetic material that codes for the core structural proteins of a retrovirus. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... ITaq DNA polymerase A polymerase (EC 2. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... Integrase is a protein produced by a virus that enables genetic material that is helpful to the virus, proviral DNA, to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell. ... Many viruses (e. ...

Provirus

This DNA can be incoporated into host genome as a provirus that can be passed on to progeny cells. In this way some retroviruses can convert normal cells into cancer cells.


Development of retroviruses

Studies of retroviruses led to the first demonstrated synthesis of DNA from RNA templates, a fundamental mode for transferring genetic material that occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ...


It has been speculated that the RNA to DNA transcription processes used by retroviruses may have first caused DNA to be used as genetic material.


In this model, the RNA world hypothesis, cellular organisms adopted the more chemically stable DNA when retroviruses evolved to create DNA from the RNA templates. RNA with its nitrogenous bases to the left and DNA to the right. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ...


Classification

Exogenous

The following genera are included here:

These were previously divided into three subfamilies (Oncovirinae, Lentivirinae, and Spumavirinae), but with current knowledge of retroviruses, this is no longer appropriate. (The term oncovirus is still commonly used, though.) An alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... A betaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... The Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is a retrovirus from the genus betaretroviruses. ... A gammaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... // Muirne Leukemia Virus The murine leukemia virus belongs to the Retroviridae family of viruses and their hosts are verterbrates. ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. ... A deltaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a bovine virus closely related to HTLV-I, a human tumor virus. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... An epsilonretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Lentivirus (lenti-, Latin for slow) is a genus of slow viruses of the Retroviridae family, characterized by a long incubation period. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), commonly known as Helen AIDS is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... A spumavirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... An oncovirus is a virus associated with cancer. ...


Endogenous

Main article: endogenous retrovirus

Endogenous retroviruses are not formally included in this classification system, and are broadly classified into three classes, on the basis of relatedness to exogenous genera: Endogenous retroviruses are retroviruses derived from ancient infections of germ cells in humans, mammals and other vertebrates; as such their proviruses are passed on to the next generation and now remain in the genome. ...

  • Class I are most similar to the gammaretroviruses
  • Class II are most similar to the betaretroviruses and alpharetroviruses
  • Class III are most similar to the spumaviruses

Treatment

Main article: Antiretroviral drug

Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. Combination of several (typically three or four) antiretroviral drugs is known as Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). HAART redirects here. ...


Genetic barrier

The genetic barrier is loosely defined as the difficulty for retroviruses to evade antiretroviral drugs by mutating into resistant types. [3]


See also

Viruses templates

The Baltimore classification is a classification system which groups viruses into families depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds) etc. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which, so far as is known, infect mainly vertebrates (Thogotovirus in ticks, Isavirus in the sea louse). ... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... ss-RNA RT is the single stranded Ribonucleic acid genome that is present in the HIV virus. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Orthohepadnavirus Avihepadnavirus Hepadnaviruses are the viruses in the family Hepadnaviridae. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... Chickenpox is one of the five classical childhood exanthems or rashes, once a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, but now chiefly of historical importance—it was formerly one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... The virus cancer link is the idea that some cancers are caused by viruses. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... An oncovirus is a virus associated with cancer. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Lentivirus (lenti-, Latin for slow) is a genus of slow viruses of the Retroviridae family, characterized by a long incubation period. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), commonly known as Helen AIDS is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... A spumavirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... The Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) is closely related to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Its discovery in primates has led to some speculation that HIV may have been spread to the human species in Africa through contact with blood from apes and monkeys through hunting bushmeat. ... Human Foamy Virus (HFV) This viral classification VI virus is also known as spumaretrovirus. ... An alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Rous sarcoma virus is a retrovirus; a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. ... A betaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... The Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is a retrovirus from the genus betaretroviruses. ... A gammaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... // Muirne Leukemia Virus The murine leukemia virus belongs to the Retroviridae family of viruses and their hosts are verterbrates. ... The Abelson murine leukemia virus is a retrovirus used to induce transformation of murine lymphoid cells. ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. ... A deltaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... An epsilonretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. ... Endogenous retroviruses are retroviruses derived from ancient infections of germ cells in humans, mammals and other vertebrates; as such their proviruses are passed on to the next generation and now remain in the genome. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert Belshaw; Pereira V; Katzourakis A; Talbot G; Paces J; Burt A; Tristem M. (April 2004). "Long-term reinfection of the human genome by endogenous retroviruses". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101 (14): 4894–99. PMID 15044706. 
  2. ^ Medstrand P, van de Lagemaat L, Dunn C, Landry J, Svenback D, Mager D (2005). "Impact of transposable elements on the evolution of mammalian gene regulation". Cytogenet Genome Res 110 (1-4): 342-52. PMID 16093686. 
  3. ^ Computing the genetic barrier N. Beerenwinkel, T. Sing, M. Daumer, R. Kaiser, T. Lengauer.

External links

  • Retrovirology Scientific journal
  • Retroviruses at rcn.com
  • NCBI retrovirus book online
  • Annals of Science: Darwin’s Surprise, New Yorker Dec 3 2007

  Results from FactBites:
 
Retrovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (651 words)
A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two RNA molecules, which may or may not be identical.
The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to this reversal of the central dogma of molecular biology.
The Stargate Atlantis (ATA gene theraphy, the anti-Wraith retrovirus)
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