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Encyclopedia > Retroflex consonant
Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental
Bidental
Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal
Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
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Sub-apical retroflex plosive
Sub-apical retroflex plosive

In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. (They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in indology.) The tongue is placed behind the alveolar ridge, and may even be curled back to touch the palate: that is, they are articulated in the postalveolar to palatal region of the mouth. Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... A labial-alveolar consonant is a consonant produced with two simultaneous places of articulation: At the lips (labial; a p, b, or m sound), and at the gums (alveolar; a t, d, or n sound). ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Bidental consonants, pronounced with both the lower and upper teeth, are normally found only in speech pathology. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... In phonetics, the labialised palatal approximant is a consonant with two constrictions in the vocal tract: with the tongue on the palate, and rounded at the lips. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A uvular-epiglottal consonant is a doubly articulated consonant pronounced by making a simultaneous uvular consonant and epiglottal consonant. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... An alveolar ridge is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ...


Retroflex consonants, like other coronals, come in several varieties, depending on the shape of the tongue. The tongue may be flat, with the blade of the tongue (the top surface of the tongue near the tip) touching the roof of the mouth, as in Polish cz, sz, ż (rz), dż and Mandarin zh, ch, sh, r. This is termed laminal (laminal retroflex). Or they may be pronounced with the tip of the tongue, as in Hindi. This is termed apical (apical retroflex). Finally, the tongue may be curled back so that the underside touches the alveolar or pre-palatal region, as in many of the Dravidian languages. This is termed sub-apical (sub-apical retroflex).[1] Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... A sub-apical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue. ...


The consonants commonly called postalveolar, or more precisely palato-alveolar, such as English sh and ch, as well as the alveolo-palatals, such as Mandarin q, j, x, are also pronounced in the postalveolar region. However, they differ from retroflex consonants in having an additional secondary articulation of palatalization. The consonants commonly called palatal are pronounced in the palatal region like the sub-apical retroflexes, but they touch the palate with the back of the tongue, not the tip. (That is, they are dorsal, or more precisely dorso-palatal, rather than coronal consonants.) Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Secondary articulation refers to co-articulated consonants (consonants produced simultaneously at two places of articulation) where the two articulations are not of the same manner. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ...


In other words, retroflex consonants include various types of coronal consonants articulated behind the alveolar ridge which do not have the secondary articulation of palatalization.


Occurrence

Although data are not precise, about 20 percent of the world's languages contain retroflex consonants of one sort or another[2]. About half of these possess only retroflex continuants, with most of the rest having both stops and continuants. Retroflex consonants are relatively rare among European languages, occurring in Sardinian, in Sicilian, some southern Italian dialects such as Calabrian and Salentino, in Swedish and Norwegian (where a sequences of r plus a coronal consonant may be replaced by the coronal's retroflex equivalent, e.g. the name Martin would be pronounced [maʈin]. Also, this is sometimes done for several consonants in a row after an r - Hornstull is pronounced [hoɳʂʈul]). The retroflex approximant /ɻ/ is an allophone of the alveolar approximant /ɹ/ in many dialects of American English, particularly in the Midwestern United States. Polish and Russian possess retroflex sibilants, but no stops or liquids at this place of articulation. They are also largely absent from indigenous languages of the Americas with the exception of the extreme south of South America and an area in Southwestern US, as in Hopi and Papago. In African languages retroflex consonants are also very rare, reportedly occurring in a few Nilo-Saharan languages. In southwest Ethiopia, phonemically distinctive retroflex consonants are found in Bench and Sheko, two contiguous, but not closely related, Omotic languages.[3] A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Calabrian language is the name given to a number of Dialects spoken in parts of the Calabria region in Italy. ... The Salentino dialect is the traditional vernacular of the southern Italian province of Lecce, known more commonly as the Salento; the extreme southern part of the region of Puglia or the heel of the Italian peninsular. ... Decoration in the metro station. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Midwest redirects here. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative, made by speeding up air through a narrow channel and directing it over the sharp edge of the teeth. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Hopi is an Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people of northeastern Arizona, USA, although today some Hopi are monolingual English speakers. ... Oodham (often referred to by the names of its two nearly-identical main dialect groupings, Papago and Pima) is an Uto-Aztecan language of Southern Arizona and northern Sonora where the Papago and Pima reside. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... Bench (also called Gimira, considered a derogatory term) is a Northern Omotic language of the Gimojan subgroup, spoken by about 174,000 people (as of 1998) in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia (now the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region), around the towns of Mizan Teferi and Shewa Gimira. ... The Omotic languages are Afro-Asiatic languages spoken in northeast Africa. ...


Retroflex consonants are concentrated in the Indo-Aryan languages and the Dravidian languages of the Indian subcontinent, where they occur as an areal feature apparently inherited from Dravidian (they do not exist in Proto-Indo-Iranian). They also occur in some other Asian languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Javanese and Vietnamese. The other major concentration is in the indigenous languages of Australia and the Western Pacific (notably New Caledonia). Here, most languages have retroflex plosives, nasal and approximants. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... An areal feature, in linguistics, is the appearance of a given feature of typology in several unrelated languages due to the influence of geographical closeness. ... Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...


There are several retroflex consonants not yet recognized by the IPA. For example, the Iwaidja language of northern Australia has a retroflex lateral flap [ɺ̡] as well as a retroflex tap [ɽ] and retroflex lateral approximant [ɭ]; and the Dravidian language Toda has a sub-apical retroflex lateral fricative [ɬ̡] and a retroflexed trill [ɽ͡r]. Because of the regularity of deriving retroflex symbols from their alveolar counterparts, people will occasionally use a font editor to create the appropriate symbols for such sounds. (Here they were written with diacritics.) The Ngad'a language of Flores has been reported to have a retroflex implosive [ᶑ], but in this case the expected symbol is coincidentally supported by Unicode. Sub-apical retroflex clicks occur in Central Juu and in Damin. Iwaidja, in phonemic spelling Iwaja, is an Australian language with about 150 speakers in northernmost Australia. ... The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Toda is a Dravidian language well known for its many fricatives and trills. ... The Toda language has a voiceless retroflex lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a retroflex lateral approximant. ... The retroflex trill has been reported from the Dravidian language Toda, and confirmed with laboratory measurements. ... Font editor is a computer program to edit fonts. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Retroflex implosives have not been confirmed to exist in any language, though one has been claimed for Ngada, an Austronesian language spoken in Flores. ... A secret language spoken in the Gulf of Carpentaria used in mens initiation rites. ...


Retroflex consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

IPA Description    Example
Language     Orthography   IPA                      Meaning      
Image:Xsampa-n'.png retroflex nasal Swedish Vänern [vɛː.neɳ] Vänern
Image:Xsampa-t'.png voiceless retroflex plosive Hindi टापू (āpū) [ʈɑpu] island
Image:Xsampa-d'.png voiced retroflex plosive Swedish nord [nuːɖ] north
Image:Xsampa-s'.png voiceless retroflex fricative Mandarin 上海 (Shànghǎi) [ʂɑ̂ŋ.xàɪ] Shanghai
Image:Xsampa-z'.png voiced retroflex fricative Russian
Polish
жаба
żaba
[ʐaba] toad
frog
Image:Xsampa-rslash'.png retroflex approximant Tamil தமிழ் (Tamil) [t̪ɐmɨɻ] Tamil
Image:Xsampa-l'.png lateral retroflex approximant Swedish Karlstad [kʰɑːɭ.sta] Karlstad
Image:Xsampa-r'.png retroflex flap Hausa shaara [ʃáːɽa] sweeping
ɺ̡ retroflex lateral flap Pashto ﻛړو [kɺ̡o] to do
ǃ˞ (voiced) retroflex click Central Juu [ɡǃ˞ú] water

Note: In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the symbols for retroflex consonants are typically the same as for the alveolar consonants, but with the addition of a right-facing hook to the bottom of the symbol. Some linguists restrict these symbols for the "true" retroflex consonants with sub-apical palatal articulation, and use the alveolar symbols with the obsolete IPA underdot symbol for an apical post-alveolar articulation: [ṭ, ḍ, ṇ, ṣ, ẓ, ḷ, ɾ̣, ɹ̣]. Another solution, more in keeping with the official IPA, would be to use the rhotic diacritic for the apical retroflexes: [t˞, d˞, n˞, s˞, z˞, l˞, ɾ˞, ɹ˞]. Laminal retroflexes, as in Polish and Russian, are often transcribed with a retraction diacritic, as [s̱], etc. Otherwise they are typically but inaccurately transcribed as if they were palato-alveolar, as *[ʃ], etc. The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Map of Sweden; Vänern in the middle south. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Karlstad is a city in Värmland, Sweden. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ...


See also

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Acoustic phonetics Affricate Airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson Allophone Alveolar approximant Alveolar consonant Alveolar ejective fricative Alveolar ejective Alveolar flap Alveolar nasal Alveolar ridge Alveolar trill Alveolo-palatal consonant Apical consonant Approximant consonant Articulatory phonetics aspiration Auditory phonetics Back vowel Bilabial click Bilabial consonant Bilabial ejective Bilabial nasal Bilabial trill...

References

  1. ^ Peter Ladefoged and Ian Maddieson, The Sounds of the World's Languages. Blackwell Publishers, 1996. ISBN 0-631-19815-6
  2. ^ Ian Maddieson (with a chapter contributed by Sandra Ferrari Disner); Patterns of sounds; Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-521-26536-3
  3. ^ Breeze, Mary. 1988. "Phonological features of Gimira and Dizi."‭ In Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst and Fritz Serzisko (eds.), Cushitic - Omotic: papers from the International Symposium on Cushitic and Omotic languages, Cologne, January 6-9, 1986, 473-487. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  Consonants (List, table) See also: IPA, Vowels  
Pulmonics Bila​bial Labio​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post-​alve​olar Retro​flex Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal Glot​tal Non-pulmonics and other symbols
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Clicks  ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Implo­­sives  ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricatives  ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Ejec­­tives 
Approximants  ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Affricates  t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ t͡ʂ d͡ʐ t͡ɬ d͡ɮ p̪͡f
Trills ʙ r ʀ Other laterals  ɺ ɫ
Flaps & Taps ѵ ɾ ɽ Co-articulated fricatives  ɕ ʑ ɧ
Lat. Fricatives ɬ ɮ Co-articulated approximants  ʍ w ɥ
Lat. Appr'mants l ɭ ʎ ʟ Co-articulated stops  k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged impossible.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... List of consonants // Ordered by place of articulation Labial consonants Bilabial consonants bilabial click bilabial ejective bilabial nasal (man) bilabial trill bilabial approximant voiced bilabial fricative voiced bilabial implosive voiced bilabial plosive (bed) voiceless bilabial fricative voiceless bilabial plosive (spin) Labiodental consonants labiodental approximant labiodental nasal (symphony) voiced labiodental fricative... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The dental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The uvular nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants found only in the Southern Khoisan family, the ‡Hõã language of Botswana, and the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... Tsk redirects here. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The voiced labiodental plosive is a consonant sound produced like a , but with the lower lip contacting the upper teeth, as in . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Voiceless alveolar plosive. ... The voiced dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up implosive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced epiglottal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal transition, commonly called a fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often behaves like a consonant, but sometimes behaves more like a vowel, or is indeterminate in its behavior. ... The breathy-voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... The bilabial ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The uvular ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar ejective fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A voiceless labiodental affricate ( in IPA) is a rare consonant, which is initially articulated as a plosive, but is released as a voiceless labiodental fricative . ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex trill has been reported from the Dravidian language Toda, and confirmed with laboratory measurements. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Epiglottal consonants are often allophonically trilled, and in some languages the trill is the primary realization of the consonant. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, which may actually be uvularized or pharyngealized, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a bilabial flap in the Banda and some neighboring languages. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ... The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... An epiglottal flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language. ... Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal voiceless or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal-velar fricative (also voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative) is a term used for a range of similar sounds used in most dialects of Swedish to realize the phoneme . ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Toda language has a voiceless retroflex lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a retroflex lateral approximant. ... The Bura language of the Chadic family has a voiceless palatal lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a palatal lateral approximant. ... The Archi language of the Dagestani family has a voiceless velar lateral fricative that is clearly a fricated, although further forward than velars in many languages, and might better be called pre-velar. ... Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The voiceless labiovelar approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labiovelar (actually labialized velar) approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. ... The labial-palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The voiceless labial-velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labial-velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-velar nasal stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ...

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HLW: Word Forms: Units: Consonants 1 (3678 words)
This consonant dimension is known as place of articulation; we will see later that the place of articulation is also relevant when there isn't a complete closure of the vocal tract.
For nasal consonants, the air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity, but it also resonates in the oral cavity, and the place of articulation (within the oral cavity) distinguishes different nasal consonants from one another.
The consonants that are the least vowel-like are stops, which involve a complete closure of the vocal tract and cannot be pronounced continuously.
retroflex consonant - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (135 words)
Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth.
Note: In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the symbols for retroflex consonants are typically the same as for the alveolar consonants, but with the addition of a right-facing hook to the bottom of the symbol.
Retroflex consonants are common in the Indo-Aryan languages and the Dravidian languages; and can also be found in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Javanese, Vietnamese, Swedish, Norwegian and some languages of Southern Italy and Sardinia.
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