Cloistered Rule, also known as the Insei system, is a distinct feature of Japanese history and politics and sometimes in business. In almost all, governments and administrations units, the nominal ruler and governor has no practical power, and instead, regents and any other kind of advisors have actual power. The titles used to exercise cloistered rule are:
Cloistered rule was a process used by some Emperors of Japan by which they would ostensibly retire to a monastery and hand over power to a successor, but continue to exert power and influence from behind the scenes. Retired emperors are called Jōkō (上皇)
The first retired emperor who exercised this rule in Japan was Empress Jito.
The term retired emperor is used primarily when discussing a period in Japanese history when this was a common practice; a retired emperor could have more influence than when he had been on the throne, because he retained the prestige of the title and was freer to speak publicly.
Although the actual influence of cloistered rule may have been exaggerated by some historians, it must be seen in the context of the increasing dominance over the aristocracy by the warrior class. In later eras, an emperor would be overshadowed by his shogun as surely as if there was still a cloistered emperor present.
Emperor Go-Uda (後宇多天皇 Go-Uda Tennō) (December 17, 1267 - July 16, 1324) was the 91st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
In 1287, retiredEmperor Go-Fukakusa, dissatisfied with the fact that his own lineage (the Jimyōin-tō) did not control the throne, while that of his younger brother, the retiredEmperor Kameyama (the Daikaku-ji) did, persuaded both the Bakufu and the imperial court to compel the Emperor to abdicate in favor of Go-Fukakusa's son (Emperor Fushimi).
Go-Uda was cloistered emperor during the reign of his own son, Go-Nijō, from 1301 until 1308, and again from 1318, when his 2nd son Go-Daigo took the throne until 1321, when Go-Daigo began direct rule.
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