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Encyclopedia > Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma
Classification & external resources
Leukocoria of right eye indicating presence of tumor
ICD-10 C69.2
ICD-9 190.5
ICD-O: M9510/3
OMIM 180200
DiseasesDB 11434
MedlinePlus 001030
eMedicine oph/346 
MeSH D012175

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. Development of this tumor is initiated by mutations[1] that inactivate both copies of the RB1 gene, which codes for the retinoblastoma protein.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x813, 682 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Retinoblastoma Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... RB1 (retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma)) is a human gene that belongs to a class of genes known as tumor suppressor genes. ... The Retinoblastoma protein, or pRb, is a tumor suppressor protein found to be dysfunctional in a number of types of cancer. ...

Contents

Presentation

It occurs mostly in children younger than 5 years and accounts for about 3% of the cancers occurring in children younger than 15 years. Adult cases have also been clinically recorded.[3] The estimated annual incidence is approximately 4 per million children.[4] It begins with white blotches in one or both eyes (leukocoria) which can be seen in photographs (this is distinct from the red-eye effect which is normal); or when light reflects off the eye, as when watching television. Leukocoria refers to an abnormal white hue of the retina when viewed through routine medical ophthalmoscopy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The red-eye effect The red-eye effect is seen in animals as well. ...


The tumor may begin in one or both eyes. Retinoblastoma is usually confined to the eye but can spread to the brain via the optic nerve. This article is about the anatomical structure. ...


As the retina is the light-sensitive part of the eye necessary for vision, loss of vision occurs.


Treatment

Until recently the only treatment was to remove the affected eyeball before the cancer spread. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most unilateral cases. However with locally advanced disease external beam radiation may be needed and if both eyes are involved enucleation may be the only option. Affected children in developing countries present with advanced features and usually die of metastatic spread. In its initial stages, retinoblastoma is very similar to Coats disease, a non-cancerous retina disease. Coats' Disease should be ruled out before enucleation is done. A mis-diagnosis of Retinoblastoma accounts for the greatest number of Coats' disease eyes being enucleated. surgical removal of the eye This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Coats’ disease, (also known as exudative retinitis or retinal telangiectasis, sometimes spelled Coates disease), is a rare eye disorder, causing full or partial blindness, characterized by abnormal development of blood vessels behind the retina. ...


Many children with bilateral retinoblastoma can be treated with a preservation attempt. Tumor chemoreduction with carboplatin and other drugs may reduce the tumor volume making them amenable to local therapies [5] Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ...


Local therapies include-


Laser therapy (Uses infrared laser light to precisely destroy the blood vessels surrounding a tumor.) Photobiomodulation also called Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), Cold Laser Therapy, Laser Biostimulation, phototherapy or just Laser Therapy. ...

  • Cryotherapy (use of a cold gas which is injected into the affected part of the retina to shrink the tumor.)
  • Thermotherapy (A relatively new technique used mainly in new testing. It uses the principle that if heat is applied to the affected area, a tumor will sustain more damage than healthy cells because healthy cells can cool themselves better using healthy surrounding blood vessels. If this technique is not immediately successful it may increase the efficacy of other treatments such as chemotherapy and focused radiation plaques.)
  • Radiotherapy (Generally used as a last resort, radiotherapy was previously the treatment of choice before the above mentioned treatments were developed. Radiotherapy destroys cancerous growths using gamma radiation but it carries with it many drawbacks, including:-
    • Possibility of secondary cancerous growths which present themselves months or years later.
    • Destruction of healthy cells in the area surrounding the treated tumor.
    • Bone deformation due to the destruction of the growth plates mainly in the area of the temple.)

It is important that children with retinoblastoma are treated in specialist centers. Cryotherapy is used to define several techniques and procedures in the medical community. ... Thermotherapy, or therapy by induced hyperthermia, may be used as a cancer treatment to kill or weaken tumor cells, with negligible effects on healthy cells. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... The temple is the side of the head behind the eyes Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes. ...


Brachytherapy with beta-emitting eye applicators have also been a successful major treatment. BEBIG (GmbH-Berlin-Germany) produces various kinds of ruthenium ophthalmic applicators for treating retinoblastoma. Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ...


Causes

In October 2007, researchers have identified the specific cell that causes retinoblastoma.[6]


Notable cases

The condition reached the headlines in May 2007, when Utah Jazz point guard Derek Fisher revealed that his 10-month-old daughter had the condition. Fisher missed Game 1 and half of Game 2 of the playoff series versus the Golden State Warriors to be with his daughter for her surgery in New York City. The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Derek Lamar Fisher (born August 9, 1974 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is an American professional basketball player with the Los Angeles Lakers. ... The 2007 NBA Playoffs was the postseason to the National Basketball Associations 2006-2007 season. ... The Golden State Warriors are a professional basketball team based in Oakland, California. ...


See Ben Underwood for a case who compensated for the resulting blindness by developing human echolocation. Human echolocation is the ability of humans to sense objects in their environment by hearing echos off those objects. ... Human echolocation is the ability of humans to sense objects in their environment by hearing echos off those objects. ...


References

  1. ^ Knudson A (1971). "Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 68 (4): 820-3. PMID 5279523. 
  2. ^ Friend S, Bernards R, Rogelj S, Weinberg R, Rapaport J, Albert D, Dryja T. "A human DNA segment with properties of the gene that predisposes to retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma". Nature 323 (6089): 643-6. PMID 2877398. 
  3. ^ Takahashi T, Tamura S, Inoue M, Isayama Y, Sashikata T (1983). "Retinoblastoma in a 26-year-old adult". Ophthalmology 90 (2): 179-83. PMID 6856254. 
  4. ^ cancer.org
  5. ^ Dunkel IJ, Lee TC, Shi W, Beaverson KL, Novetsky D, Lyden D, Finlay JL, McCormick B, Abramson DH.. "A phase II trial of carboplatin for intraocular retinoblastoma.". Pediatr Blood Cancer.. PMID 17301956. 
  6. ^ Specific Cell That Causes Eye Cancer Identified, Disproving Long-held Theory. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Cancers can affect the eye. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Retinoblastoma Treatment - National Cancer Institute (892 words)
Retinoblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the retina.
Retinoblastoma is sometimes caused by a gene mutation passed from the parent to the child.
Retinoblastoma that is caused by an inherited gene mutation is called hereditary retinoblastoma.
DJO | Digital Journal of Ophthalmology (2447 words)
Retinoblastoma is a disease that causes the growth of malignant tumors in the retinal cell layer of the eye.
It is important to remember that the retinoblastoma gene produces cancer in approximately 80 to 90 percent of patients who carry the gene and, therefore, about 40 percent of the patients' offsprings will have retinoblastoma, while some offspring may simply carry the gene and never develop the disease.
Every case of retinoblastoma is unique, and the treatments, or combination of treatments, vary according to size, shape, and location of the tumor, whether both eyes are affected or not, and whether or not the tumor has spread (metastasis).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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