FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Retina" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Retina
Human eye cross-sectional view. Courtesy NIH National Eye Institute. Many animals have eyes different from the human eye.
Human eye cross-sectional view. Courtesy NIH National Eye Institute. Many animals have eyes different from the human eye.

The retina is a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball of vertebrates and some cephalopods. In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain. Hence, the retina is part of the central nervous system (CNS). It is the only part of the CNS that can be imaged directly. Image File history File links Human_eye_cross-sectional_view_grayscale. ... Image File history File links Human_eye_cross-sectional_view_grayscale. ... A human eye. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... The National Eye Institute (NEI) is one of the US National Institutes of Health that was established in 1968. ... A human eye. ... Classes and Clades See below Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class Cephalopoda... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ...


The vertebrate retina contains photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) that respond to light; the resulting neural signals then undergo complex processing by other neurons of the retina. The retinal output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. Several important features of visual perception can be traced to the retinal encoding and processing of light. A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength[1]. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... MRI scan of human eye showing optic nerve. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The unique structure of the blood vessels in the retina has been used for biometric identification. The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Anatomy of vertebrate retina

Section of retina.
Section of retina.

The vertebrate retina has ten distinct layers.[1] From innermost to outermost, they include: Image File history File links Gray881. ... Image File history File links Gray881. ...

  1. Inner limiting membrane - Műller cell footplates
  2. Nerve fiber layer
  3. Ganglion cell layer - Layer that contains nuclei of ganglion cells and gives rise to optic nerve fibers.
  4. Inner plexiform layer
  5. Inner nuclear layer
  6. Outer plexiform layer - In the macular region, this is known as the Fiber layer of Henle.
  7. Outer nuclear layer
  8. External limiting membrane - Layer that separates the inner segment portions of the photoreceptors from their cell nuclei.
  9. Photoreceptor layer - Rods / Cones
  10. Retinal pigment epithelium

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The nerve fiber layer (or layer of nerve fibers or stratum opticum) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata. ... The ganglion cell layer (ganglionic layer) consists of a single layer of large ganglion cells, except in the macula lutea, where there are several strata. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into retina. ... The inner nuclear layer or layer of inner granules is made up of a number of closely packed cells, of which there are three varieties, viz. ... The outer plexiform layer (external plexiform layer) is a layer of neuronal synapses in the retina of the eye. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In the outer nuclear layer they form a network around the rod- and cone-fibrils, and unite to form the external limiting membrane at the bases of the rods and cones. ... The elements composing the Layer of Rods and Cones (Jacob’s membrane) are of two kinds, rod cells and cone cells, the former being much more numerous than the latter except in the macula lutea. ... Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... The retinal pigment epithelium is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells. ...

Physical structure of human retina

In adult humans the entire retina is 72% of a sphere about 22 mm in diameter. At the center of the retina is the optic disc, sometimes known as "the blind spot" because it lacks photoreceptors. It appears as an oval white area of 3 mm². Temporal (in the direction of the temples) to this disc is the macula. At its center is the fovea, a pit that is most sensitive to light and is responsible for our sharp central vision. Human and non-human primates possess one fovea as opposed to certain bird species such as hawks who actually are bifoviate and dogs and cats who possess no fovea but a central band known as the visual streak. Around the fovea extends the central retina for about 6 mm and then the peripheral retina. The edge of the retina is defined by the ora serrata. The length from one ora to the other (or macula), the most sensitive area along the horizontal meridian is about 3.2 mm. The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point in the eye where the optic nerve fibres leave the retina; it is not sensitive to light and thus also known as the blind spot or anatomical blind spot. Inspection of the optic disc by ophthalmoscopy can give an indication... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... The fovea, a part of the eye, is a spot located in the center of the macula. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ...

Retina's simplified axial organisation. The retina is a stack of several neuronal layers. Light is concentrated from the eye and passes across these layers (from left to right) to hit the photoreceptors (right layer). This elicits chemical transformation mediating a propagation of signal to the bipolar and horizontal cells (middle yellow layer). The signal is then propagated to the amacrine and ganglion cells. These neurons ultimately may produce action potentials on their axons. This spatiotemporal pattern of spikes determines the raw input from the eyes to the brain. (Modified from a drawing by Ramón y Cajal.)
Retina's simplified axial organisation. The retina is a stack of several neuronal layers. Light is concentrated from the eye and passes across these layers (from left to right) to hit the photoreceptors (right layer). This elicits chemical transformation mediating a propagation of signal to the bipolar and horizontal cells (middle yellow layer). The signal is then propagated to the amacrine and ganglion cells. These neurons ultimately may produce action potentials on their axons. This spatiotemporal pattern of spikes determines the raw input from the eyes to the brain. (Modified from a drawing by Ramón y Cajal.)

In section the retina is no more than 0.5 mm thick. It has three layers of nerve cells and two of synapses. The optic nerve carries the ganglion cell axons to the brain and the blood vessels that open into the retina. As a byproduct of evolution, the ganglion cells lie innermost in the retina while the photoreceptive cells lie outermost. Because of this arrangement, light must first pass through the thickness of the retina before reaching the rods and cones. However it does not pass through the epithelium or the choroid (both of which are opaque). Axial organization of the retina (from Cajal, 1911) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Axial organization of the retina (from Cajal, 1911) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... A ganglion cell (or sometimes called a gangliocyte) is a type of neuron located in the retina that receives visual information from photoreceptors via various intermediate cells such as bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium, an animal anatomical structure. ... The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera. ...


The white blood cells in the capillaries in front of the photoreceptors can be perceived as tiny bright moving dots when looking into blue light. This is known as the blue field entoptic phenomenon (or Scheerer's phenomenon). White blood cells or leucocytes are cells which form a component of the blood. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... The blue field entoptic phenomenon or Scheerers phenomenon is the appearance of tiny bright dots moving quickly along squiggly lines in the visual field, especially when looking into blue light (such as the sky). ...


Between the ganglion cell layer and the rods and cones there are two layers of neuropils where synaptic contacts are made. The neuropil layers are the outer plexiform layer and the inner plexiform layer. In the outer the rod and cones connect to the vertically running bipolar cells and the horizontally oriented horizontal cells connect to ganglion cells. Neuropil is the feltwork of unmyelinated neuronal processes (axonal and dendritic) within the gray matter of the central nervous system Traditionally, when pathologists looked at brain tissue they concentrated on neurons (the active functioning cells of the brain), glial cells and axons (especially in white matter, which is mostly composed... The outer plexiform layer (external plexiform layer) is a layer of neuronal synapses in the retina of the eye. ...


The central retina is cone-dominated and the peripheral retina is rod-dominated. In total there are about seven million cones and a hundred million rods. At the centre of the macula is the foveal pit where the cones are smallest and in a hexagonal mosaic, the most efficient and highest density. Below the pit the other retina layers are displaced, before building up along the foveal slope until the rim of the fovea or parafovea which is the thickest portion of the retina. The macula has a yellow pigmentation from screening pigments and is known as the macula lutea.


Difference between vertebrate and cephalopod retinas

The vertebrate retina is inverted in the sense that the light sensing cells sit at the back side of the retina, so that light has to pass through a layer of neurons before it reaches the photoreceptors. By contrast, the cephalopod retina is everted: the photoreceptors are located at the front side of the retina, with processing neurons behind them. Because of this, cephalopods do not have a blind spot. Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class Cephalopoda...


The cephalopod retina does not originate as an outgrowth of the brain, as the vertebrate one does. This shows that vertebrate and cephalopod eyes are not homologous but have evolved separately. In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ...


Physiology

An image is produced by the "patterned excitation" of the retinal receptors, the cones and rods. The excitation is processed by the neuronal system and various parts of the brain working in parallel to form a representation of the external environment in the brain.


The cones respond to bright light and mediate high-resolution vision and colour vision. The rods respond to dim light and mediate lower-resolution, black-and-white, night vision. It is a lack of cones sensitive to red, blue, or green light that causes individuals to have deficiencies in colour vision or various kinds of colour blindness. Humans and old world monkeys have three different types of cones (trichromatic vision) while other mammals lack cones with red sensitive pigment and therefore have poorer (dichromatic) colour vision. Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Trichromatic color vision is the ability of humans and some other animals to see different colors, mediated by interactions among three types of color-sensing cone cells. ...


When light falls on a receptor it sends a proportional response synaptically to bipolar cells which in turn signal the retinal ganglion cells. The receptors are also 'cross-linked' by horizontal cells and amacrine cells, which modify the synaptic signal before the ganglion cells. Rod and cone signals are intermixed and combine, although rods are mostly active in very poorly lit conditions and saturate in broad daylight, while cones function in brighter lighting because they are not sensitive enough to work at very low light levels. As a part of the retina, the bipolar cell exists between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. ... Plan of retinal neurons. ... Amacrine cell Retinal cell interneuron interacting at the Inner Plexiform Layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells synapse. ... In color theory, saturation refers to the intensity of a specific hue. ...


Despite the fact that all are nerve cells, only the retinal ganglion cells and few amacrine cells create action potentials. In the photoreceptors, exposure to light hyperpolarizes the membrane in a series of graded shifts. The outer cell segment contains a photopigment. Inside the cell the normal levels of cGMP keeps the Na channel open and in thus in the resting state the cell is depolarised. The photon causes the retinal bound to the receptor protien to isomerise to trans-retinal. This causes receptor to activate multiple G-proteins. This inturn causes the Ga-subunit of the protein to bind and degrade cGMP inside the cell which then cannot bind to the CNG Na channels. Thus the cell is hyperpolarised. The amount of neurotransmitter released is reduced in bright light and increases as light levels fall. The actual photopigment is bleached away in bright light and only replaced as a chemical process, so in a transition from bright light to darkness the eye can take up to thirty minutes to reach full sensitivity (see dark adaptation). Photoreceptors are light-sensitive proteins involved in the function of photoreceptor cells. ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ... In the vision system, retinal, technically called retinene1 or retinaldehyde, is a light-sensitive retinene molecule found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... In the vision system, retinal, technically called retinene1 or retinaldehyde, is a light-sensitive retinene molecule found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... CNG can mean: Compressed natural gas Comfort Noise Generator used in Speech Codecs to insert artificial noise during silent intervals of speech. ... The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift, or dark adaptation) is the tendency for the peak sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels. ...


In the retinal ganglion cells there are two types of response, depending on the receptive field of the cell. The receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells comprise a central approximately circular area, where light has one effect on the firing of the cell, and an annular surround, where light has the opposite effect on the firing of the cell. In ON cells, an increment in light intensity in the centre of the receptive field causes the firing rate to increase. In OFF cells, it makes it decrease. Beyond this simple difference ganglion cells are also differentiated by chromatic sensitivity and the type of spatial summation. Cells showing linear spatial summation are termed X cells (also called "parvocellular", "P", or "midget" ganglion cells), and those showing non-linear summation are Y cells (also called "magnocellular, "M", or "parasol" retinal ganglion cells), although the correspondence between X and Y cells (in the cat retina) and P and M cells (in the primate retina) is not as simple as it once seemed. Receptive fields are areas of the retina, producing a change in the firing of cells in the visual system. ...


In the transfer of signal to the brain, the visual pathway, the retina is vertically divided in two, a temporal half and a nasal half. The axons from the nasal half cross the brain at the optic chiasma to join with axons from the temporal half of the other eye before passing into the lateral geniculate body. The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... The optic chiasm is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the left side of the brain, and vice versa. ... The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the CNS. Schematic diagram of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. ...


Although there are more than 130 million retinal receptors, there are only approximately 1.2 million fibres (axons) in the optic nerve so a large amount of pre-processing is performed within the retina. The fovea produces the most accurate information. Despite occupying about 0.01% of the visual field (less than 2° of visual angle), about 10% of axons in the optic nerve are devoted to the fovea. The resolution limit of the fovea has been determined at around 10,000 points. The information capacity is estimated at 500,000 bits per second (for more information on bits, see information theory) without colour or around 600,000 bits per second including colour. The visual angle is the angle under which a visual stimulus appears to the eye. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ...


Diseases and disorders

There are many inherited and acquired diseases or disorders that may affect the retina. Some of them include: This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders. ...

Normal vision. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-07-19, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... The coming loose of light sensitive layer of its underlying layer. ... Ignipuncture (Latin: Ignis (fire) + puncture) is the original procedure of closing a retina break in retinal separation by transfixation of the break with cautery. ... For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Hypertension, or high blood pressure that does not respond to treatment, has several ocular manifestations. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... Retinal dysplasia is an eye disease affecting the retina of animals. ... Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease of the retina that occurs bilaterally and is seen in certain breeds of dogs. ... Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) is a disease in dogs causing sudden blindness. ...

Diagnosis and treatment

A number of different instruments are available for the diagnosis of diseases and disorders affecting the retina. An ophthalmoscope is used to examine the retina. Recently, adaptive optics has been used to image individual rods and cones in the living human retina. The ophthalmoscope, invented by Hermann von Helmholtz, is an instrument used to examine the eye. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ...


The electroretinogram is used to measure non-invasively the retina's electrical activity, which is affected by certain diseases. A relatively new technology, now becoming widely available, is optical coherence tomography (OCT). This non-invasive technique allows one to obtain a 3D volumetric or high resolution cross-sectional tomogram of the retinal fine structure with histologic-quality. Electroretinography, is used to measure the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) and the ganglion cells. ... The term non-invasive in medicine has two meanings: A medical procedure which does not penetrate or break the skin or a body cavity, i. ... Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric, non-invasive optical tomographic imaging technique offering millimeter penetration (approximately 2--3 mm in tissue) with sub-micrometre axial and lateral resolution. ... The term non-invasive in medicine has two meanings: A medical procedure which does not penetrate or break the skin or a body cavity, i. ... :For other senses of this word, see dimension (disambiguation). ... Tomography involves the generation of a two-dimensional image representing a slice or section through a three-dimensional object. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...

OCT scan of a retina at 800nm with an axial resolution of 3µm
OCT scan of a retina at 800nm with an axial resolution of 3µm

Treatment depends upon the nature of the disease or disorder. Transplantation of retinas has been attempted, but without much success. At MIT and the University of New South Wales, an "artificial retina" is under development: an implant which will bypass the photoreceptors of the retina and stimulate the attached nerve cells directly, with signals from a digital camera. OCT scan of a retina at 800nm with an axial resolution of 3µm, origin medOCT-group, Dept of Med. ... OCT scan of a retina at 800nm with an axial resolution of 3µm, origin medOCT-group, Dept of Med. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT has five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments,[2] with a strong emphasis on theoretical, applied, and interdisciplinary scientific and technological research. ... The University of New South Wales or UNSW is a university situated in Kensington, a suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ...


Research

George Wald, Haldan Keffer Hartline and Ragnar Granit won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their scientific research on the retina. George Wald (November 18, 1906–April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who is best known for his work with pigments in the retina. ... Haldan Keffer Hartline (December 22, 1903 - March 17, 1983) was an American physiologist who was a cowinner (with George Wald and Ragnar Granit) of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision. ... Ragnar Arthur Granit (October 30, 1900, Helsinki, Finland - March 12, 1991, Stockholm, Sweden) was a Finnish scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1967, along with Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ...


A recent University of Pennsylvania study calculated the approximate bandwidth of human retinas is 8.75 megabits per second, whereas a guinea pig retinas transfer at 875 kilobits. [2] The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia, originally indigenous to the Andes. ...


References

  1. ^ http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/EYE/RETINA.HTM
  2. ^ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9633-calculating-the-speed-of-sight.html
  • S. Ramón y Cajal, Histologie du Système Nerveux de l'Homme et des Vertébrés, Maloine, Paris, 1911.
  • M. Meister and M. J. B. II, The neural code of the retina, Neuron, vol. 22 p. 435-50, 1999.
  • R. W. Rodieck, Quantitative analysis of cat retinal ganglion cell response to visual stimuli, Vision Research, vol. 5 p. 583-601, 1965.
  • B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision, Sinauer Press, 1995.
  • J. J. Atick and A. N. Redlich, What does the retina know about natural scenes?, Neural Computation, p. 196-210, 1992.
  • Schulz, H., Goetz, T., Kaschkoetoe, J., Weber B.H. (2004). The Retinome - defining a reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina/retinal pigment epithelium - RetinaCentral. BMC Genomics. 2004 Jul 29;5(1):50. Institute of Human Genetics, Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany. [email protected]

Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852–October 17/18, 1934), Nobel laureate, 1906, was a Spanish histologist and is considered to be the father of modern neuroscience. ...

See also

  • Charles Schepens - "the father of modern retinal surgery"
  • EVI-GENORET: the European Vision Institute "functional GENomics of the RETina" project An European Union Integrated Project funded through the European Union research programme (FP6)

Charles L. Schepens (March 13, 1912 - April 6, 2006) was an influential American ophthalmologist regarded by many in the profession as the father of modern retinal surgery[1][2]. Early life: medical training and member of the French Resistance Schepens was born in Mouscron, Belgium in 1912 [1]. He initially... The project EVI-GENORET aims at building through a comprehensive and systematic research strategy the basis for deciphering, understanding and integrating the function of major genes involved in retinal development, maintenance, physiology and degeneration. ...

Additional images

Actual Fundus Photos

One of the most extensive online glaucoma case histories assembled to date is available at fiteyes.com/blogs/dave. As part of this, the patient's actual fundus photos are viewable online.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Webvision: Simple Anatomy of the Retina (3357 words)
A radial section of a portion of the retina reveals that the ganglion cells (the output neurons of the retina) lie innermost in the retina closest to the lens and front of the eye, and the photosensors (the rods and cones) lie outermost in the retina against the pigment epithelium and choroid.
The second neuropil of the retina, is the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and it functions as a relay station for the vertical-information-carrying nerve cells, the bipolar cells, to connect to ganglion cells.
The latter layer is absent in peripheral retina.
Vulnerability Assessment | Vulnerability Scanner | Security Assessment | Network Security Scanner (181 words)
Retina Network Security Scanner, the industry and government standard for multi-platform vulnerability management, identifies known and zero day vulnerabilities plus provides security risk assessment, enabling security best practices, policy enforcement, and regulatory audits.
Retina discovers all connected computers, routers, and other network devices...even those not 'officially' deployed.
Retina helps get a handle on all of your current configurations and patches, regardless of device type.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m