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Encyclopedia > Resurrection appearances of Jesus
In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus
In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus
Major events in Jesus' life in the Gospels

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The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. These are:Matthew 28:8–20, Mark 16:9–20 (see also the article on Mark 16), Luke 24:13–49, John 20:11–21:25, Acts 1:1–11, and1 Corinthians 15:3–9. Image File history File links Caravaggio. ... Image File history File links Caravaggio. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (September 28, 1573 – July 18, 1610), usually called Caravaggio after his hometown near Milan, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon on the... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... For the plant species, see Ficus. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles before his death. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... ά This is a sub-article of Death of Jesus. ... The swoon hypothesis is a hypothesis which attempts to explain Jesus apparent resurrection from death described in the Gospels. ... The vision hypothesis is a term used to cover a range of theories that question the physical resurrection of Jesus, and suggest that sightings of a risen Jesus were visionary experiences. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... This is a sub-article of Death of Jesus. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... This article is about the film. ... Did Jesus Die? is a BBC documentary regarding the swoon hypothesis, which theorizes that Jesus did not die on the cross but was temporarily unconscious. ... An image of the chevron-adorned entrance to the Talpiot Tomb, as it was unearthed in 1980. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

Contents

Appearances reported in the New Testament

1 Corinthians 15

  1. To Cephas (Simon Peter)
  2. and "the twelve." 15:5
  3. To "five hundred brothers at once." 15:6
  4. To James
  5. and "all the apostles." 15:7
  6. To Paul himself. 15:8–9, also claimed in 9:1

Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...

Matthew 28

  1. To Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," as they were running from the empty tomb to inform the disciples. Jesus tells the women to instruct the disciples to go to Galilee to meet him.
  2. To the eleven, on a mountain in Galilee where Jesus had told the apostles to go, see Great Commission.

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Mary Magdalene is described, both in... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ...

Mark 16

  1. To Mary Magdalene.
  2. To two of Jesus's followers as they were walking in the countryside (Jesus appeared to them in "another form").
  3. To the eleven while they were dining.

(Note that the verses of Mark 16 that describe resurrection appearances are absent in the oldest manuscripts). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Mary Magdalene is described, both in... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Luke 24

  1. To Cleopas and one other disciple as they walked to Emmaus. At first "their eyes were holden" so that they could not recognize him. Later while having supper at Emmaus "their eyes were opened" and they recognized him.
  2. To "Simon." This appearance is not described directly by Luke but it is reported by the other apostles. It is not clear whether it happened before, after or contemporaneously with the appearance at Emmaus.
  3. To the eleven, together with some others (including Cleopas and his companion), in Jerusalem.

In the New Testament, Cleophas is the single English rendering of two men, who are in the Greek originalsCleopas, an abbreviated form of Cleopatros, a commonplace Hellenistic name meaning son of a renowned father, and the other Clopas. Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the risen... Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio, 1601 Emmaus is the name of two places in Palestine. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the...

John 20–21

  1. To Mary Magdalene. At first she did not recognize him and thought that he was a gardener. When he spoke she recognized him.
  2. To the disciples (not including Thomas) on that same day. They were indoors "for fear of the Jews."
  3. To the disciples including Thomas. This was eight days later, again indoors.
  4. To Peter, Nathanael from Cana of Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two other disciples, by Lake Tiberias, see also Catch of 153 fish. The disciple whom Jesus loved was present in this group.

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Mary Magdalene is described, both in... St. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Look up Nathanael in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... Zebedee (zibhdi, the gift of God; Zebedaios) is a name used in several contexts: In the Bible, Zebedee was a Hebrew fisherman, the husband of Salome, and the father of James and John, two of the Apostles of Jesus Zebedee was a character in the popular BBC childrens programme... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about 21 km (13 miles) long, and 13 km (8 miles) wide; it... The Catch of 153 fish is an episode in the appendix of the Gospel of John, in which seven of the Twelve Apostles were out fishing when they unexpectedly witness one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ...

Acts 1

  1. To the Church in Jerusalem— forty days after the resurrection when he ascended into heaven, with a prophecy to return (1:1-11).

The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...

Appearances reported outside the New Testament

Gospel of the Hebrews

  1. To James the Just[1]

The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure...

Problems with Mark's account

Each appearance has been the focus of much literary comment during the mediaeval era, and the York Cycle of English mystery plays has a whole play about the appearance to Mary. However, the ending of Mark varies substantially between ancient manuscripts, and scholars are in near universal agreement that the final portion of the traditional ending, in which all Mark's resurrection appearances occur, is a later addition not present in the original version of Mark's gospel. Unhelpfully it is the general opinion of textual scholars that none of the known variant endings, including the traditional one, is actually the original ending. York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


According to the theory of Markan priority, Matthew and Luke are largely derived from Mark. Some scholars however favour an earlier date for Matthew. (See the Augustinian hypothesis.) Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Marks Gospel as one of their sources. ... The Augustinian hypothesis holds that Matthew was written first, then Mark, then Luke, and each Evangelist depended on those who preceded him. ...


The appearance to Mary Magdalene

Rembrandt's perception of the moment when Mary turns her head and sees the newly-risen Jesus. He is holding a spade to explain her initial belief that he was a gardener
Rembrandt's perception of the moment when Mary turns her head and sees the newly-risen Jesus. He is holding a spade to explain her initial belief that he was a gardener

While Mark doesn't mention when the incident occurred, Matthew states that Jesus appeared to Mary and Mary while they were returning to tell the disciples what they had seen. John, on the other hand, presents a completely different incident. John's account parallels the synoptic accounts of Mary's first visit to the tomb, though in John, Mary has already been to the tomb once, and Peter has already inspected it. Unlike the first visit, the second, in John, is much more similar to the synoptic account of the empty tomb, with Mary peering into the tomb and witnessing two angels inside dressed in shining white. Having been questioned by the angels about her concern for the tomb's emptiness, Mary turns and sees Jesus, according to John. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x700, 96 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x700, 96 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ...


Mary's presence at the tomb, however, jars with the preceding narrative in John, which presents Mary as having left the tomb, and having told Peter that it was empty. C.K. Barrett has attempted to resolve this by suggesting that Mary may have gone with Peter to witness his examination of the tomb.[citation needed] Some scholars feel that Mary never really left the tomb in the original form of John, and that Peter's visit has somehow become misplaced before she sees the angels in the tomb, rather than after.[citation needed] Brown has argued that the text for John 20 was combined from two separate sources, that John inexpertly interlaced together. To many it seems illogical for Mary to not have actually looked into the tomb before going and telling Peter and the Beloved Disciple that Jesus' body was gone. This is the only time in the Gospel of John that angels appear, and so some scholars believe that the angels were a later addition to the narrative [citation needed], perhaps in an attempt to harmonise the account of Mary's visit to the tomb with the synoptic Gospels. Rationalists like Rudolf Schnackenberg, however, believe that the angels were added to reinforce the lack of a corpse—by indicating that the angels were sitting where the head and feet of Jesus's corpse should have been, it shows that a full examination of the spot had been conducted. As a later addition, or misplacing of the text, an explanation is provided for why the angels are so quickly forgotten in the rest of the chapter, and for why the angels failed to appear to Peter when he examined the tomb. Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ...


Why John describes Mary as loitering outside the tomb is unknown, though Augustine of Hippo proposed that when the men went away, a stronger affection kept the weaker sex firmly in place. Bruce believed that Mary was hoping someone would pass by who could give her some information, though why Mary does not seek out Joseph of Arimathea, the owner of the tomb, for information is an obvious question. One theory is that Joseph was so far above Mary's in terms of social class that it would not be right for her to disturb him, but a more obvious solution is presented by Schnackenberg—the Codex Sinaiticus version of John has Mary waiting inside rather than outside, and this may be the original form—though again this still raises the question of why she was waiting at all, with several textual scholars[citation needed] arguing that Mary waiting outside is a redaction that was added once the angels part of the narrative, for the original tomb visit, became misplaced. “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ...


John depicts Mary as weeping, ultimately causing her name to be associated with Maudlin (a corruption of Magdalen, "typifying tearful repentance").[2] Both the angels address Mary as woman, and then ask why she had been crying. This is not as uncouth as it first appears, since the underlying Greek term—gunai—was, in Greek, the polite way to address an adult female. While the synoptic Gospels demonstrate an awareness of Jewish beliefs, and people there are presented as being shocked and afraid of angels, John demonstrates no such awareness, instead presenting Mary as responding nonchalantly, and while some believe that this is due to Mary not recognising the figures as angels, due to grief or tears, some scholars tend to see this as owing to issues surrounding the author of John. The conversation itself differs considerably from the one reported by the synoptics, and the angels are brief and do not give any hint of resurrection having happened, which Calvin attempted to justify by arguing that John was only including what was necessary to back up the resurrection. At this point the angels abruptly disappear from the narrative, and John and the synoptics begin to share the order of events again. El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...


Mark mentions Mary's post-tomb encounter with Jesus but gives no details, though he does remark that Jesus had cast seven devils out from her, presumably indicating an off-screen exorcism. Matthew instead reports that Jesus met Mary and Mary as they were returning to the other disciples; that they fell at his feet and worshipped him; and that he instructed them to tell the disciples that they would see him in Galilee. Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ...


John presents a far more elaborate conversation. According to John, once Mary has explained to the angels about her concern at the emptiness of the tomb, she turns and suddenly sees Jesus, but mistakes him for a gardener (the word gardener is a hapax legomenon in the bible). In John's account of the conversation, Jesus repeats the angels' question of why Mary is weeping, and Mary responds similarly, by requesting to know what Jesus (whom she has mistaken for someone else) has done with Jesus' body. After this response, John states that Jesus says Mary's name, she turns, and apparently realises who he is, whereupon Jesus enigmatically tells her to Touch [him] not, for [he is] not yet ascended to [his] father (see Noli me tangere) and then to inform the disciples. To resolve the differences between the Gospels, some inerrantist scholars like Norman Geisler believe that after the events recounted by John, Mary runs into another group of women, whereupon the events of the synoptic accounts occur, though there is no evidence whatsoever for such a conclusion from John itself. A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ... A hapax legomenon (pl. ... Noli me Tangere by Hans Holbein the Younger Noli me tangere is the Latin version of the words spoken, according to the Gospel of John, by Jesus to Mary Magdalene, meaning dont touch me (the quotation appears in John 20:17). ...


The significance of Mary Magdalene

Saint Mary Magdalene approaching the Sepulchre by Gian Girolamo Savoldo
Saint Mary Magdalene approaching the Sepulchre by Gian Girolamo Savoldo

That three of the Gospels portray Mary Magdalene as the first to see Jesus post-death, is generally considered to be of significance. Mary Magdalene was a major figure in Gnosticism, and one of the main teachers besides Jesus, the only other of similar significance being Thomas Didymus. Supporters of Gnostic priority (that Gnosticism is the original form of Christianity) see this as clear evidence that Mark, and hence, due to Markan priority, the entire resurrection narrative, was intended to be interpreted gnostically. Though owing to intrinsic beliefs about the nature of the physical world, Gnosticism generally viewed women as equals, in Judaism of the era women were not considered valid legal witnesses. Westcott, and other supporters of John's authenticity, sometimes use this to argue that the narratives must be factual, since someone faking it would be more likely to use a prominent and respected witness. Image File history File links John_20_11. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Marks Gospel as one of their sources. ...


Why John portrays Mary as initially not recognising Jesus, even though she had known him well for a long time, is something of much debate. One theory is that, since Luke records two disciples as failing to recognise a post-death appearance of Jesus, the physical form of Jesus after resurrection must have been different, either due to the resurrection process itself, or due to the ordeal of crucifixion. More down-to-earth explanations have also been advanced, the most prominent being that Mary's tears had clouded her vision, or alternately that she is so focused on recovering Jesus' body, that she is temporarily blind to its being in front of her. However, John Calvin, and many other Christians, read this as a metaphor: that Mary's blindness despite seeing Jesus represents the blindness, according to Christians, of non-Christians who have already been informed about Jesus. Why Jesus initially encourages Mary's lack of recognition is also something of a mystery, though Dibelius sees it as a literary conceit, since the trope of a returning hero's being unrecognised or disguised dates back at least as far as Homer's Odyssey, and Feuillet sees echoes of the Song of Solomon in this passage. Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Martin Dibelius (born September 14, 1883 in Dresden; died November 11, 1947 in Heidelberg) was German theologian and a professor for the New Testament at the University of Heidelberg. ... Look up conceit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ...


Amongst those who see John as a deliberate piece of polemical orthodox propaganda, it is seen as a deliberate attack by John against the gnostics, by portraying one of their key figures as being stupid. The frequently raised idea that John is orthodox propaganda has also been proposed to explain the reference to gardeners. A Jewish anti-Christian story from the period sought to discredit the resurrection, by claiming that a gardener named Judas moved Jesus' body to another tomb to avoid his cabbages' being trampled upon by the crowds that came to see it, causing the resurrection myth to arise when Mary and the others found the tomb empty.[citation needed] Hans Von Campenhausen has argued that John adds the mention of a gardener as a deliberate reference to this Jewish story, and as an attempt to discredit it, though Rudolf Schnackenberg regards the sequence of cause and effect to be the reverse—that the Jewish story originated from John's mention of a gardener. Amongst Victorian commentators, Hoskyns and Lightfoot regarded the mention of a gardener as a metaphor relating to the Garden of Eden. Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13, 1828–December 21, 1889) was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Noli me tangere

Jesus telling Mary not to touch him, by Hans Holbein the Younger
Jesus telling Mary not to touch him, by Hans Holbein the Younger

What is meant by Jesus telling Mary to Touch [him] not, for [he is] not yet ascended to [his] father has historically been the subject of extremely heavy debate. Touch me not became an extremely well known phrase, albeit in Latin as Noli me tangere, and is still generally regarded as a direct reference to John's account of Jesus making this statement. The phrase does appear to be quite at odds with the other gospels and even with later parts of John, since John has Jesus asking Thomas Didymus to probe his wounds, and Mark has Mary and Mary holding Jesus by his feet. Detail of Noli me tangere (1524), by Hans Holbein the Younger, from the Web Gallery of Art, referenced in the Public Domain image resources page This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Detail of Noli me tangere (1524), by Hans Holbein the Younger, from the Web Gallery of Art, referenced in the Public Domain image resources page This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Noli me Tangere by Hans Holbein the Younger Noli me tangere is the Latin version of the words spoken, according to the Gospel of John, by Jesus to Mary Magdalene, meaning dont touch me (the quotation appears in John 20:17). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ...


There are a wide variety of solutions, perhaps the most obvious being the suggestion of textual corruption, with some suggesting that the word not was not originally there, while W.E.P Cotter has proposed that the text originally said fear rather than touch (i.e. do not fear me), and W.D. Morris has proposed it originally said fear to touch (i.e. do not fear to touch me). There is however no linguistic evidence for these suggestions, and so most scholars concentrate on other avenues of argument. Some have proposed that Jesus' wounds were sore and so he disliked the pain inflicted by being touched, while others believe there to be ritualistic reasons involved. Kraft proposes that it was against ritual to touch a corpse, and Jesus wished to enforce this, regarding himself as dead, while C. Spicq proposes that Jesus saw himself as a (Jewish) high priest, who were not meant to be sullied by physical contact, and others still have proposed that Mary is being ordered to have faith and not seek physical proof.


All of the aforementioned non-textual solutions, however, neglect the fact that John later describes Thomas Didymus as being encouraged to touch Jesus' wounds, apparently contradicting the prior arguments. Consequently many proposals hinge on portraying Jesus as upholding some form of propriety, with Chrysostom and Theophylact arguing that Jesus was asking that more respect be shown to him, a view often linked to the notion that while it was not appropriate for a woman to touch Jesus it was fine for a man like Thomas. Kastner has argued that Jesus was naked, since the grave clothes were left in the tomb, and so John portrays Jesus as being concerned with Mary being tempted by his body. John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Theophylact of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Теофилакт Български) (d. ...


Interpretations concentrating more on the subsequent context have also been proposed. H.C.G. Moule suggested that Jesus is merely re-assuring Mary that he is firmly on Earth and she need carry out no investigation, and others have suggested that Jesus is merely concerned with staying on-topic, essentially instructing Mary don't waste time touching me, go and tell the disciples. Barrett has suggested that as Jesus prohibits Mary by arguing that he has not ascended to [his] father, he could have ascended to heaven before meeting Thomas (and after meeting Mary), returning for the meeting with Thomas, though this view implies that the meeting with Thomas is some form of second visit, hence raising several theological issues, including that of a second coming, and is consequently unfavourably viewed by most Christians. John Calvin argued that Mary (and Mary) had started to cling to Jesus, as if trying to hold him down on Earth, and so Jesus told them to give up; in consequence many Protestant translations, particularly those that are Calvinist, use cling to describe how Jesus refers to Mary's behaviour (i.e. do not cling to me), and touch elsewhere, such as with Thomas, even though both these are translations of the same Greek word. Nevertheless, if we focus on the actual situation rather than always resorting to textual criticism to try to solve every assumed variation in the accounts, it does look as if Jesus was concerned with motives here: Jesus was willing to provide Thomas with sufficient evidence to overcome his unbelief, whereas this was not a problem for Mary. In the case of Mary, she had evidently loved Jesus deeply, not surprising in view of her deliverance (Mark 16:9), and was reluctant for Jesus to leave her now that he had returned. This shows Jesus' ability to penetrate beneath the surface and understand each individual's deepest motivations. For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


Historically, the phrase formed one of the main arguments in the debate on Christology, seemingly suggesting some form of intangibility—a view shared in the modern era by Bultman—and hence appearing to advocate docetism (a view where Jesus' body is not resurrected as a physical object—do not touch me because you can't). This is quite at odds with John's general emphasis elsewhere against docetism, and so those who regard John as deliberate polemic tend instead to see this verse as an attack on Mary. Gnostics frequently viewed Mary Magdalene as being greater than the other disciples, and much closer to Jesus on both a spiritual and personal level, and hence Jesus treating Mary with disdain would question the respect and emphasis that gnosticism placed on her, much in the same way that Thomas Didymus is presented as doubting Jesus is physically there until he actually confirms it, while Gnostics viewed Thomas as a great teacher who had many revelations, and advocated docetism. All of this however presupposes Gnosticism is earlier than the Gospel of John. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...


Mary's report

Jesus Appearing to the Magdalene by Fra Angelico. Jesus is shown holding an axe, symbolizing Mary's thinking of him as a gardener
Jesus Appearing to the Magdalene by Fra Angelico. Jesus is shown holding an axe, symbolizing Mary's thinking of him as a gardener

Mark reports merely that Jesus met Mary, and Luke doesn't even report this, but Matthew reports Jesus as instructing Mary to arrange for the disciples to meet him, while John has Jesus giving Mary a specific message to deliver—that he ascend[s] to [his] father and [her] Father, and to [his] God and [her] God. Matthew also reports that while Mary and Mary were returning to the disciples, the watchmen of the city informed the chief priests of the things that were done, and the sanhedrin gave money to the soldiers to spread the message that Jesus' corpse had been stolen by his disciples. Matthew mentions that this had become a common claim of the Jews. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (598x784, 184 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (598x784, 184 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... The Maestà (Madonna enthroned) with Saints Cosmas and Damian, Saint Mark and Saint John, Saint Lawrence and three Dominicans, Saint Dominic, Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Peter Martyr; San Marco, Florence. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


Typically for John, the message that Jesus gives Mary seems to strongly assert a specific Christology, though many dispute quite which one. Jesus identifies the intended recipients of his message as being his adelphoi, a Greek term meaning both cousin and brother, which Alford believes is an implication that a new closeness exists between Jesus and his followers and an indication that Jesus is still fully human and a brother to other men. The message itself is one that is central to the debate between Monophysitism and Dyophysitism, with Dyophysitism holding that the passage asserts that Jesus was both human and divine. That the passage is seen more to uphold the orthodox position than the non-orthodox position is often cited as evidence that the author of John wrote the Gospel as deliberate propaganda for the purpose of refuting non-orthodoxy in the second century, rather than being a devout work of an eyewitness from the first century, a period when the Monophysitism/Dyophysitism debate was a non-issue. That the message seems more concerned with the ascension than with the resurrection itself is sometimes read, particularly by Pentecostalists to imply that the ascension has far greater importance. Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal can...


Textual features

In John, after Mary has first turned around and seen Jesus, and after Mary and Jesus have started conversing, when Jesus states her name Mary turns around again and speaks to him. Almost no-one believes that this means that when Jesus calls her name she turns her back to him and converses, and so the question arises as to how she could still be facing him if she has twice turned around. One school of thought is that Mary had turned away between these two turns, Kastner arguing that she had done so due to Jesus being nude, while another school of thought suggests, like Brown, that the first turn was only partial and the second was a complete turn—as if she was standing at right angles to Jesus the first time she speaks. Schnackenberg and many textual scholars argue that the initial part of the narrative is misplaced, and hence that these two turns occurred at originally quite separate incidents.


According to John, when Jesus calls Mary's name she responds by stating Rabboni. Mark translates (into Greek) the word Rabboni, claiming it means beloved teacher, while John translates it (into Greek) as teacher. The exact translation of Rabboni is disputed, but most linguists see it as sharing the same etymology as Rabbi, though a more polite form—something like my dear Rabbi. Mark's translation agrees with this, since Rabbi is generally considered to mean teacher, while John's demonstrates slightly less knowledge of Aramaic, apparently unaware of Aramaic grammar. While many religiously conservative scholars, like W.F. Albright, agree with this linguistic analysis, a few have sought to claim the term as evidence of divinity; Hoskyns, for example, has claimed that the similarly spelled word Rabbuni was used in works of the period as a name for God, and hence that Mary was claiming that Jesus was divine. Due to the lack of certain forms of punctuation in early manuscripts of the Gospels, it is uncertain whether Rabboni is used as an exclamation of recognition, or whether it is questioning and uncertain—Rabboni?. Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


John uses the wording Miriam when Jesus is described as speaking Mary's name, which according to Brown is more Hebrew than the Aramaic term Mariam (from which, via Latin, her English name—Mary—derives). Several scholars argue that this is evidence that the author of John wasn't actually a disciple, and didn't really understand Jewish culture, since though Hebrew was still the liturgical and scriptural language, everyday speech of the period was generally Aramaic. Other scholars, though, disagree, arguing instead that authors in this period tended to vary between Miriam and Mariam indiscriminately. Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...


Other explanations

Critics have suggested that Jesus may have existed and the events chronicled in the Bible may have happened but were misinterpreted by his followers. Scholars such as James A. Keller question the reliabilty of the resurrection appearances, claiming: "All we have is other people's accounts of what the eyewitnesses purportedly saw, and these accounts are typically sketchy and were written many years later. Thus, the historian who wants to understand what the resurrection event was must use later, sketchy, second-hand accounts of what the eyewitnesses saw, and from these accounts he must try to determine what the resurrection event was."[3]


Some suggest that Jesus only appeared to be dead because he was a temporal lobe epileptic. It has also been suggested that Jesus may have been under the influence of reserpine, a botanical extract found in shrubs in the area at that time. The massive release of stress hormones brought on by physical abuse and restraint may have induced a coma like form of hypothermia; once the hormones dissipated and his body warmed up 48 hours later Jesus would have emerged from that coma.[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Hypothermia refers to any condition in which the temperature of a body drops below the level required for normal metabolism and/or bodily function to take place. ...


Liturgical use

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Resurrection appearances of Jesus are divided into 11 Gospel readings, known as Matins Gospels which are chanted in an eleven-week cycle at Matins on Sunday mornings. The readings are: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... A lection is a reading, in this context, from Scripture. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ...

  1. Matthew 28:16-20
  2. Mark 16:1-8
  3. Mark 16:9-20
  4. Luke 24:1-12
  5. Luke 24:12-35
  6. Luke 24:36-53
  7. John 20:1-10
  8. John 20:11-18
  9. John 20:19-31
  10. John 21:1-14
  11. John 21:15-25

The cycle begins on the Sunday after Pentecost, and continues until Palm Sunday of the succeeding year. The 11 lessons are read in order and without interruption, except on Great Feasts of the Lord, which have their own Matins Gospels. During the Pentecostarion—the period from Pascha (Easter) until Pentecost—the same Gospels are read at Sunday Matins, but not in the same order. The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... // Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church Easter/Pascha The feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Easter or Pascha, is the greatest of the feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Pentecostarion (Greek: Πεντηκοστάριον, Pentekostárion; Slavonic: Цвѣтнаѧ Трїωдь, Tsvyetnaya Triod , literally Flowery Triodon; Romanian: Penticostar) is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite during the Paschal Season which extends from Pascha (Easter) to the Sunday following All Saints Sunday (i. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two...


See also

The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ...

References

  1. ^ Kirby, Peter (2001), "The Gospel of the Hebrews", Early Christian Writings: New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Church Fathers, www.earlychristianwritings.com, <http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/gospelhebrews-mrjames.html> (retrieved on 2007-08-13)
  2. ^ Morris, William, ed. (1973), "s.v., maudlin", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Boston: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., SBN 395-09066-0
  3. ^ Keller, James A. "Contemporary Doubts About the Resurrection." Faith and Philosophy 5 (1988): 40-60.
  4. ^ Spignesi, Stephen (2005-05-01). Resurrection. Citadel Press, 297-301. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Barrett, C.K. The Gospel According to John, 2nd Edition. London:SPCK, 1978.
  • Westcott, B.F. The Gospel of St. John. London: John Murray, 1889.
  • Brown, Raymond E. "The Gospel According to John: XIII-XI" The Anchor Bible Series Volume 29A New York: Doubleday & Company, 1970.
  • Bruce, F.F. The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983.
  • Leonard, W. "St. John." A Catholic Commentary on the Bible. B. Orchard ed. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1953.
  • Schnackenberg, Rudolf . The Gospel According to St. John: Volume III. Crossroad, 1990.
  • Wesley, John. The Wesleyan Bible Commentary. Ralph Earle ed. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964.
  • Westcott, B.F. The Gospel of St. John. London: John Murray, 1889.

Brooke Foss Westcott (January 12, 1825–July 27, 1901) was an English churchman and theologian, Bishop of Durham from 1890 until his death. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...

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