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Encyclopedia > Restaurant
Tom's Restaurant, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld
Tom's Restaurant, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld

A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to describe take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service. A restaurant is a place to eat. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... There are various types of restaurants. ... Seinfeld restaurant, 2000, by Rick Dikeman This is actually Toms Restaurant, NYC. Famous as Monks in Seinfeld, and as Toms Diner, in the Suzanne Vega song of that name. ... Seinfeld restaurant, 2000, by Rick Dikeman This is actually Toms Restaurant, NYC. Famous as Monks in Seinfeld, and as Toms Diner, in the Suzanne Vega song of that name. ... Toms Restaurant is a New York City diner located at 2880 Broadway between W. 112th and W. 113th in Morningside Heights. ... Suzanne Vega (born Suzanne Nadine Vega, 11 July 1959, Santa Monica, California) is an American songwriter and singer known for her highly literate lyrics and eclectic folk-inspired music. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... For other uses, see Seinfeld (disambiguation). ... A customer is someone who purchases or rents something from an individual or organisation. ... Take-out, carry-out ( in American English ) or take-away ( in British English ) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ... Delivery is the process of transporting goods. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Customer service (also known as Client Service) is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase. ...


A restaurant owner is called a restaurateur; both words derive from the French verb restaurer, meaning to restore.

Contents

History

China

Further information: Culture of the Song Dynasty#Food and cuisine

Food catering establishments which may be described as restaurants were known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's northern capital during the first half of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). With a population of over 1 million people, a culture of hospitality and a paper currency, Kaifeng was ripe for the development of restaurants. Probably growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from other regions of China.[1] Stephen H. West argues that there was a direct correlation between the growth of restaurant businesses and institutions of theatrical stage drama, gambling, and prostitution which serviced the burgeoning merchant middle class during the Song.[2] A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Yugao-tei, Kanazawa A tea house (茶室, cha-shitsu) is a structure designed for holding Japanese tea ceremonies. ... A tavern is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than likely, also be served food, though not licenced to put up guests. ... A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ...


Restaurants catered to different styles of cuisine, price brackets, and religious requirements. Even within a single restaurant much choice was available, and people ordered what entree they wanted from written menus.[1] An account from 1275 writes of Hangzhou, the capital city for the last half of the dynasty: In a restaurant, a menu is the list of options for a diner to select. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...

"The people of Hangzhou are very difficult to please. Hundreds of orders are given on all sides: this person wants something hot, another something cold, a third something tepid, a fourth something chilled; one wants cooked food, another raw, another chooses roast, another grill".[3]

The restaurants in Hangzhou also catered to many northern Chinese who had fled south from Kaifeng during the Jurchen invasion of the 1120s, while it is also known that many restaurants were run by families formerly from Kaifeng.[4] The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House was established in Kaifeng in 1153 AD during the Jurchen-controlled Jin Dynasty (though documentation does not exist to prove continuous service) and is still serving up meals today. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: Jīn 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ...


Western world

Restaurant in Bath, Somerset.
Restaurant in Bath, Somerset.

In the West, while inns and taverns were known from antiquity, these were establishments aimed at travellers, and in general locals would rarely eat there. Restaurants, as businesses dedicated to the serving of food, and where specific dishes are ordered by the guest and generally prepared according to this order, emerged only in the 18th century. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the Sobrino de Botin in Madrid, Spain is the oldest restaurant in existence today. It opened in 1725. , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient redirects here. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Sobrino de Botin (Calle de Cuchilleros 17, Madrid, Spain) is a restaurant established in 1725 and listed by the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest eatery currently in existence. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


The term restaurant (from the French restaurer, to restore) first appeared in the 16th century, meaning "a food which restores", and referred specifically to a rich, highly flavoured soup. It was first applied to an eating establishment in around 1765 founded by a Parisian soup-seller named Boulanger. The first restaurant in the form that became standard (customers sitting down with individual portions at individual tables, selecting food from menus, during fixed opening hours) was the Grand Taverne de Londres (the "Great Tavern of London"), founded in Paris in 1782 by a man named Antoine Beauvilliers, a leading culinary writer and gastronomic authority[5] who achieved a reputation as a successful restaurateur. He later wrote what became a standard cookbook, L'Art du cuisinier (1814). For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For the 2005 Missy Elliott album, see The Cookbook. ...


Restaurants became commonplace in France after the French Revolution broke up catering guilds and forced the aristocracy to flee, leaving a retinue of servants with the skills to cook excellent food; whilst at the same time numerous provincials arrived in Paris with no family to cook for them. Restaurants were the means by which these two could be brought together — and the French tradition of dining out was born. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


A leading restaurant of the Napoleonic era was the Véry, which was lavishly decorated and boasted a menu with extensive choices of soups, fish and meat dishes, and scores of side dishes. Balzac often dined there.[citation needed] Although absorbed by a neighbouring business in 1869, the resulting establishment Le Grand Véfour is still in business. Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 - August 18, 1850), was a French novelist. ...


The restaurant described by Britannica as the most illustrious of all those in Paris in the 19th century was the Café Anglais (the "English coffee-shop") on the Boulevard des Italiens, showing for a second time the high regard that Parisians evidently had for London, England, and the English — at least when it came to naming their restaurants.

Boris Kustodiev: Restaurant in Moscow (1916)
Boris Kustodiev: Restaurant in Moscow (1916)

Restaurants then spread rapidly across the world, with the first in the United States (Jullien's Restarator) opening in Boston in 1794. Most however continued on the standard approach of providing a shared meal on the table to which customers would then help themselves (Service à la française, commonly called "family style" restaurants), something which encouraged them to eat rather quickly. Another formal style of dining, where waiters carry platters of food around the table and diners serve themselves, is known as Service à la russe, as it is said to have been introduced to France by the Russian Prince Kurakin in the 1810s, from where it spread rapidly to England and beyond. The familiar pattern of service where customers are given a plate with the food already arranged on it is called "American Service," though it surely did not originate in America. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 657 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 657 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Self-Portrait in front of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, 1912 Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Russian: ) (March 7, 1878–May 28, 1927) was a Russian art deco painter. ... Boston redirects here. ... Service à la française is the practice of serving all the dishes of a meal at the same moment. ... Service à la russe (French, literally service in the Russian style) is a manner of dining that involves courses being brought to the table sequentially. ... Portrait of Alexander B. Kurakin, by Vladimir Borovikovsky. ...


Types of restaurants

Main article: Types of restaurants
Restaurants in Greek islands are often situated right on the beach. This is an example from Astipalea.

Restaurants range from unpretentious lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal, or even in rare cases formal wear. There are various types of restaurants. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1039 KB)Photo by KF. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1039 KB)Photo by KF. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Astipalea Astipalea (or Astypalea or Astypalaia, Αστυπάλαια) is a Greek island with 1. ... Lunch is an abbreviation of luncheon, meaning a midday meal. ... mariah and nicola are sexy Eat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into formal wear. ... This article is about the dress code. ... Semi-casual is a dress code in the American context. ... Semi-formal is a dress code can be synonomous to black tie, indicating a level of dress between a lounge suit and white tie. ... Formal wear (more often in the United States) or formal dress (in the United Kingdom) is a general fashion term used to describe clothing suitable for formal events, including weddings, debutante cotillions, etc. ...


Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the customers pay the bill before leaving. In finer restaurants there will be a host or hostess or even a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them. Other staff waiting on customers include busboys and sommeliers. A waiter in a resort setting A waiter is one who waits on tables, often at a restaurant or a bar. ... The maître dhôtel, literally master of the hall, in a suitably staffed restaurant, is the person in charge of assigning customers to tables in the establishment, and dividing the dining area into areas of responsibility for the various waiters on duty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant. Theme restaurants are restaurants in which the concept of the restaurant takes priority over everything else, influencing the architecture, food, music, and overall feel of the restaurant. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


Restaurant regulations

Due to a controversy over oils and grease, restaurants are required by United States law that oils' contents must be animal free, or otherwise state so on the menu. There has also been more talk about restaurants either frying or using the same oils and grease on certain food due to cases of allergic reaction to certain minerals or other substances of the food. While most restaurants are not forced to do this by law, they are required to state so on their menu.[citation needed]


Depending on local customs and the establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcohol. Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions. Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol ("fully licensed"), and/or permit customers to "bring your own" alcohol (BYO / BYOB). In some places restaurant licenses may restrict service to beer, or wine and beer. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Singles bar redirects here. ... BYO (Bring your own) is a term used at restaurants to show that you can bring your own drinks (usually alcoholic beverages), as opposed to Fully Licensed where such drinks must be bought at the respective restaurant, which would be fully licensed to sell alcohol. ... For the System of a Down song, see B.Y.O.B. (song). ...


Restaurant guides

Main article: Restaurant rating
Restaurants offering ethnic food have spread all over North America and Australia in the past few decades. One of many Italian restaurants in the Heights commercial district of North Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Restaurants offering ethnic food have spread all over North America and Australia in the past few decades. One of many Italian restaurants in the Heights commercial district of North Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Restaurant guides review restaurants, often ranking them or providing information for consumer decisions (type of food, handicap accessibility, facilities, etc). In 12th century Hanzhou (mentioned above as the location of the first restaurant,) signs could often be found posted in the city square listing the restaurants in the area and local customer's opinions of the quality of their food. This was an occasion for bribery and even violence.[citation needed] Today, restaurant review is carried out in a more civilized manner. One of the most famous contemporary guides, in Western Europe, is the Michelin series of guides which accord from 1 to 3 stars to restaurants they perceive to be of high culinary merit. Restaurants with stars in the Michelin guide are formal, expensive establishments; in general the more stars awarded, the higher the prices. In the United States, the Mobil Travel Guides and the AAA rate restaurants on a similar 1 to 5 star (Mobil) or diamond (AAA) scale. Three, four, and five star/diamond ratings are roughly equivalent to the Michelin one, two, and three star ratings while one and two star ratings typically indicate more casual places to eat. In 2005, Michelin released a New York City guide, its first for the United States. The popular Zagat Survey compiles individuals' comments about restaurants but does not pass an "official" critical assessment. The Good Food Guide, published by the Fairfax Newspaper Group in Australia, is the Australian guide listing the best places to eat. Chefs Hats are awarded for outstanding restaurants and range from one hat through three hats. The Good Food Guide also incorporates guides to bars, cafes and providers. Restaurant ratings identify restaurants according to quality, using various notations such as stars or other symbols, or numbers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x1050, 337 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x1050, 337 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... Alpha Avenue south of Hastings Street, with Confederation Park and the North Shore Mountains in the distance // A recently renovated old building on Hastings Street near Ingleton Avenue, in the popular Heights area A typical North Burnaby streetscape North Burnaby is a general name for a large neighbourhood in the... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... New York City 2006 First Michelin Red Guide for North America The Michelin Guide (Le Guide Michelin) is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. ... The 4-star Manor House Hotel at Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England. ... The AAA logo The AAA (usually read triple-A, or sometimes three As), formerly known as the American Automobile Association, is an American not-for-profit automobile lobby group and service organization, with their national headquarters based in Heathrow, Florida. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Zagat Survey (pronounced Zuh-GOT) was established by Tim and Nina Zagat in 1979 as a way to collect and correlate the ratings of restaurants by diners. ...


Nearly all major American newspapers employ restaurant critics and publish online dining guides for the cities they serve. A few papers maintain a reputation for thorough and thoughtful review of restaurants to the standard of the good published guides, but others provide more of a listings service. Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ... The terms food critic, food writer, and restaurant critic can all be used to describe a writer who analyses food or restaurants and then publishes the results of their findings. ...


More recently Internet sites have started up that publish both food critic reviews and popular reviews by the general public. This is a growing area and the market is still immature with no sites yet gaining dominant public or critical support. Several are gaining traction including, Zagot.com and Fodors.com. Their major competition comes from bloggers and search engines since search engines often favor active bloggers over large somewhat static websites. The term Blogger may refer to: A blogger, someone who maintains a weblog. ...


One interesting twist is Menuism.com, they review the dishes rather than the restaurant. Many of these sites also offer discount coupons and maps.


Economics

Lunch at a restaurant
Lunch at a restaurant

As of 2006, there are approximately 215,000 full-service restaurants in the United States, accounting for $298 billion, and approximately 250,000 limited-service (fast food) restaurants, accounting for $260 billion, according to the 2006 U.S. Industry & Market Outlook by Barnes Reports. Lunch is an abbreviation of luncheon, meaning a midday meal. ...


See also

The National Restaurant Association, founded in 1919, is a restaurant industry business association in the United States. ... Food street in Gawalmandi, Lahore is a centre of traditional Pakistani food. ... A culinary profession is cooking as a profession, i. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Gernet, 133.
  2. ^ West, 69–76.
  3. ^ Kiefer, 5–7.
  4. ^ Gernet, 133–134.
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th Ed.

References

  • Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. Translated by H. M. Wright. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0720-0
  • Kiefer, Nicholas M. (August 2002). "Economics and the Origin of the Restaurant". Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,: pp 5 - 7. 
  • West, Stephen H. "Playing With Food: Performance, Food, and The Aesthetics of Artificiality in The Sung and Yuan," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (Volume 57, Number 1, 1997): 67–106.

Further reading

  • Rebecca L. Spang (2000), The Invention of the Restaurant, Harvard University Press
  • Whitaker, Jan (2002), Tea at the Blue Lantern Inn: A Social History of the Tea Room Craze in America", St. Martin's Press.

External links

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Restaurant

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Make a reservation at one of our 170,000+ restaurants in over 13,000 cities
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Restaurant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1711 words)
Restaurants are sometimes a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are provided for the convenience of the residents and, of course, for the hotel to maximise their potential revenue.
Restaurants became commonplace in France after the French Revolution broke up catering guilds and forced the aristocracy to flee, leaving a retinue of servants with the skills to cook excellent food; whilst at the same time numerous provincials arrived in Paris with no family to cook for them.
Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions.
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