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Encyclopedia > Responsible government

Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Governments in Westminster democracies are responsible to Parliament (and more specifically to the lower, more representative house) rather than to the monarch, or, in the colonial context, to the imperial government. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government) is a social institution composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance (or government) of a state. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...

Contents

Overview

Responsible government and the principle of parliamentary accountability manifests itself in several ways. Ministers must firstly account to Parliament for their policy decisions and for the performance of their departments. This requirement to make announcements and to answer questions in Parliament means that ministers have to be members of either house of Parliament. Secondly, although ministers are officially appointed by the head of state and can theoretically be dismissed at pleasure, they retain office subject to their holding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament. Once the lower house has passed a motion of no confidence in the government, the government must immediately resign or submit itself to the electorate in a new general election. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


British North America

In Canadian history, responsible government was a major plank of the programme of development towards independence in Canada and other settler colonies in Australia and South Africa. The concept of responsible government is associated in Canada more with self-government than with parliamentary accountability: hence the notion that Newfoundland "gave up responsible government" when it surrendered its dominion status, even though it continued to have a democratic government in the Westminster tradition. Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ...


In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the British government was sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of British colonists. After Louis-Joseph Papineau's abortive Lower Canada Rebellion in 1837 and William Lyon Mackenzie's matching Upper Canada Rebellion, both of which lasted through the next year, Lord Durham was appointed governor general of British North America and given the task of examining the issues and determining how to defuse tensions. In his report, one of his recommendations was that colonies which were sufficiently developed should be granted "responsible government", a term which specifically meant the policy of British-appointed governors bowing to the will of elected colonial assemblies. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. ... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... The Republic of Canadas flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. ... John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (also known as Radical Jack) GCB PC (London 12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840 Cowes), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Canada and the British Empire. ...


The first instance of responsible government in the British Empire was achieved by the colony of Nova Scotia in January–February 1848 through the efforts of Joseph Howe. The plaque in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada reads: The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was a ship builder and born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Stone cairns marked NHSs in the early- to mid-20th Century. ...

First Responsible Government in the British Empire.
The first Executive Council chosen exclusively from the party having a majority in the representative branch of a colonial legislature was formed in Nova Scotia on 2 February 1848. Following a vote of want of confidence in the preceding Council, James Boyle Uniacke, who had moved the resolution, became Attorney General and leader of the Government. Joseph Howe, the long-time campaigner for this "Peaceable Revolution", became Provincial Secretary. Other members of the Council were Hugh Bell, Wm. F. Desbarres, Lawrence O.C. Doyle, Herbert Huntingdon, James McNab, Michael Tobin, and George R. Young.

The colony of New Brunswick soon followed in May 1848 when Lieutenant Governor Edmund Walker Head brought in a more balanced representation of Members of the Legislative Assembly to the Executive Council and ceded more powers to that body. An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system exercizes executive power and is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator (all governors). Until the advent of responsible government, Executive Councils existed primarily to advise the governor of... James Boyle Uniacke (1799 – 26 March 1858) led the first responsible government in Canada or any colony of the British Empire. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Sir Edmund Walker Head (February 16, 1805-January 28, 1868) was British colonial administrator. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ... An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system exercizes executive power and is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator (all governors). Until the advent of responsible government, Executive Councils existed primarily to advise the governor of...


In the Province of Canada responsible government was put to the test in 1849 when Reformers in the legislature passed the Rebellion Losses Bill, a law that provided compensation to French-Canadians who suffered losses during the Rebellions of 1837-1838 in Lower-Canada. The Governor, Lord Elgin, had serious misgivings about the bill but nonetheless signed it into law in spite of demands from the Tories that he refuse assent. Elgin was physically assaulted by an English-speaking mob for this, and the Montreal Parliament building was burned to the ground in the ensuing riots. Nonetheless, the Rebellion Losses Bill helped entrench responsible government into Canadian politics. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rebellion Losses Bill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1811 - November 20, 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Rebellion Losses Bill was a controversial law enacted by the legislature of the Province of Canada in 1849. ...


In time, the granting of responsible government became the first step on the road to complete independence. In contrast to the American experience, Canada (for example) gradually gained greater and greater autonomy over a considerable period of time through inter imperial and commonwealth diplomacy, including 1867's British North America Act, 1931's Statute of Westminster, and even as late as the patriation of the British North America Act in 1982 (see Constitution of Canada). This article is about negotiations. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ...


Australia

While the various colonies in Australia were either sparsely populated or penal settlements or both, executive power was in the hands of the Governors, who because of the great distance from their superiors in time and space in London, necessarily exercised vast powers. However the early colonials coming mostly from the United Kingdom were familiar with the Westminster system and the efforts to reform it to increase the opportunity for ordinary men to participate. The Governors and London therefore set in motion a gradual process of establishing a Westminster system in the colonies, not so fast as to get ahead of population or economic growth, nor so slow as to lead for clamouring for change. The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


Former British colonies with responsible government

Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... VIC redirects here. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... NSW redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Orange River Colony The Orange River Colony was a British colony created by the annexation of the Orange Free State in 1900, after the Boer War. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Responsible government - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (656 words)
Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Governments in Westminster democracies are responsible to Parliament (and more specifically to the lower, popularly-representative, house) rather than to the monarch, or, in the colonial context, to the imperial government.
In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the British government was sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of British colonists.
Responsible Government, 1855-1933: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage (1633 words)
In 1855, responsible government was instituted in Newfoundland.
'Responsible government' meant that the Executive Council, or the government, was 'responsible' to the legislature.
Responsible government was instituted in Newfoundland in 1855, following a general election won by the Liberal (Reform) party led by Philip F. Little.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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