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Encyclopedia > Respiratory system


Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. A diaphragm pulls and pushes it out. Respiratory systems of various types are found in a wide variety of organisms. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ...


In humans and other mammals, the respiratory system consists of the airways, the lungs, and the respiratory muscles that mediate the movement of air into and out of the body. Within the alveolar system of the lungs, molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous environment and the blood. Thus, the respiratory system facilitates oxygenation of the blood with a concomitant removal of carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the circulation. The system also helps to maintain the acid-base balance of the body through the efficient removal of carbon dioxide from the blood. This article is about modern humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Alveolars are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, the internal side of the upper gums (known as the alveoles of the upper teeth). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Anatomy

The human respiratory system

In humans and other animals, the respiratory system can be conveniently subdivided into an upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract, trachea and lungs, or into the conducting zone (for gas transport, anywhere from atmosphere to alveoli) and the respiratory zone (the alveolated region where gas exchange occurs). The respiratory zone also contains the transitional zone. The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Air moves through the body in the following order

The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Windpipe redirects here. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body, that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ...

Upper respiratory tract/condocting zone

The conducting zone begins with the nares (nostrils) of the nose, which open into the nasopharynx (nasal cavity). The primary functions of the nasal passages are to: 1) filter, 2) warm, 3) moisten, and 4) provide resonance in speech. The nasopharynx opens into the oropharynx (behind the oral cavity). The oropharynx leads to the laryngopharynx, and empties into the larynx (voicebox), which contains the vocal cords, passing through the glottis, connecting to the trachea (wind pipe). This article is about nares, the scientific term for a birds or a frogs([[for Mr. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... Windpipe redirects here. ...


Ventilation

Ventilation of the lungs is carried out by the muscles of respiration. In respiratory physiology, ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung. ...


Control

Ventilation occurs under the control of the autonomic nervous system from parts of the brain stem, the medulla oblongata and the pons. This area of the brain forms the respiration regulatory center, a series of interconnected brain cells within the lower and middle brain stem which coordinate respiratory movements. The sections are the pneumotaxic center, the apneustic center, and the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups. This section is especially sensitive during infancy, and the neurons can be destroyed if the infant is dropped and/or shaken violently. The result can be death due to "shaken baby syndrome."[1] The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The pneumotaxic center of the upper pons antagonises the apneustic centre. ... The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus. ... Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a form of child abuse affecting between 1,200 and 1,600 children every year in the USA.[1] SBS encompasses a variety of outcomes that are attributed to shaking an infant or small child. ...


Inhalation is initiated by the diaphragm and supported by the external intercostal muscles. Normal resting respirations are 10 to 18 breaths per minute. Its time period is 2 seconds. During vigorous inhalation (at rates exceeding 35 breaths per minute), or in approaching respiratory failure, accessory muscles of respiration are recruited for support. These consist of sternocleidomastoid, platysma, and the strap muscles of the neck. In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The Intercostales externi (External intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. ... In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscles are muscles in the neck that acts to flex and rotate the head. ... The platysma is a superficial muscle that stretches from the clavicle to the mandible overlapping the sternocleidomastoid. ... Strap muscles of the neck are termed as such since they appear as a strap of muscle running along the neck and onto the shoulder. ...


Inhalation is driven primarily by the diaphragm. When the diaphragm contracts, the ribcage expands and the contents of the abdomen are moved downward. This results in a larger thoracic volume, which in turn causes a decrease in intrathoracic pressure. As the pressure in the chest falls, air moves into the conducting zone. Here, the air is filtered, warmed, and humidified as it flows to the lungs. In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ...


During forced inhalation, as when taking a deep breath, the external intercostal muscles and accessory muscles further expand the thoracic cavity. The Intercostales externi (External intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. ...


Exhalation

Exhalation is generally a passive process, however active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles. During this process air is forced or exhaled out. Exhalation (or expiration) is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing. ... The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The Intercostales interni (Internal intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. ...


The lungs have a natural elasticity; as they recoil from the stretch of inhalation, air flows back out until the pressures in the chest and the atmosphere reach equilibrium.[2]


During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles, generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The Intercostales interni (Internal intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. ...


Circulation

The right side of the heart pumps blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. The trunk branches into right and left pulmonary arteries to the pulmonary blood vessels. The vessels generally accompany the airways and also undergo numerous branchings. Once the gas exchange process is complete in the pulmonary capillaries, blood is returned to the left side of the heart through four pulmonary veins, two from each side. The pulmonary circulation has a very low resistance, due to the short distance within the lungs, compared to the systemic circulation, and for this reason, all the pressures within the pulmonary blood vessels are normally low as compared to the pressure of the systemic circulation loop. The right ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. ... The pulmonary valve (or pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary blood vessels are those which carry blood from and to the lungs. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... The pulmonary veins carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ...


Virtually all the body's blood travels through the lungs every minute. The lungs add and remove many chemical messengers from the blood as it flows through pulmonary capillary bed . The fine capillaries also trap blood clots that have formed in systemic veins.


Gas exchange

The major function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. As gas exchange occurs, the acid-base balance of the body is maintained as part of homeostasis. If proper ventilation is not maintained two opposing conditions could occur: 1) respiratory acidosis, a life threatening condition, and 2) respiratory alkalosis. Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Respiratory acidosis is acidosis (abnormal acidity of the blood) due to decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli, leading to elevated arterial carbon dioxide concentration. ... Respiratory alkalosis results from increased alveolar respiration (hyperventilation) leading to decreased plasma carbon dioxide concentration. ...


Upon inhalation, gas exchange occurs at the alveoli, the tiny sacs which are the basic functional component of the lungs. The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx. 0.2 micrometres), and are permeable to gases. The alveoli are lined with pulmonary capillaries, the walls of which are also thin enough to permit gas exchange. The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ...


Development

The respiratory system lies dormant in the human fetus during pregnancy. At birth, the respiratory system is to the under-developed lungs. This is due to the incomplete development of the alveoli type II cells in the lungs, necessary for the production of surfactant. The infant lungs do not function due to collapse of alveoli caused by surface tension of water remaining in the lungs, which in normal cases would be prohibited by the presence of surfactant. This condition may be avoided by giving the mother a series of steroid shots in the final week prior to delivery, which will have weard the development of type II alveolar cells.[3] The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ...


Role in communication

The movement of gas through the larynx, pharynx and mouth allows humans to speak, or phonate. Because of this, gas movement is extremely vital for communication purposes. This article is about modern humans. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...


Conditions of the respiratory system

Disorders of the respiratory system can be classified into four general areas: Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ...

The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to microbes due to the extensive surface area, which is why the respiratory system includes many mechani to defend itself and prevent pathogens from entering the body. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by allergies. ... Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... In medicine, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Disorders of the respiratory system are usually treated internally by a pulmonologist or Respiratory Physician. In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ...


Gas exchange in plants

Plants use carbon dioxide gas in the process of photosynthesis, and then exhale oxygen gas, a waste product of photosynthesis. However, plants also sometimes respire as humans do, using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... assimilation. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Plant respiration is limited by the process of diffusion. Plants take in carbon dioxide through holes on the undersides of their leaves known as stomata(sing:stoma). However, most plants require little air.[citation needed] Most plants have relatively few living cells outside of their surface because air (which is required for metabolic content) can penetrate only skin deep. However, most plants are not involved in highly aerobic activities, and thus have no need of these living cells. diffusion (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ...


See also

Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which someone breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually from the perfluorocarbon family), rather than breathing air. ... Aquatic respiration refers to the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from the surrounding water. ... The bodys involuntary control of respiration is mediated by the brains respiratory center located in the brainstem, particularly in the medulla oblongata and pons. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... The major systems of the human body consist of: Circulatory system Digestive system Endocrine system Immune system Integumentary system Lymphatic system Muscular system Nervous system Reproductive system Respiratory system Skeletal system Urinary system Category: ... The various muscles of respiration aid in both inspiration and expiration, which require changes in the pressure within the thoracic cavity. ...

References

  • Perkins, M. 2003. Respiration Power Point Presentation. Biology 182 Course Handout. Orange Coast College, Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Medical Dictionary

Notes

  1. ^ *Fact sheet on Shaken Baby Syndrome
  2. ^ A simple model of how the lungs are inflated can be built from a bell jar
  3. ^ Department of Environmental Biology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia

A bell jar is a piece of laboratory glassware in the shape of a bell. ...

External links

Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... It has been suggested that Gas exchange be merged into this article or section. ... ... Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. ... Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is a medical term referring to the amount of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. ... Respiratory minute volume (or minute ventilation, or flow of gas) is the volume of air which can be inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a persons lungs in one minute. ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the alveoli collapse. ... In physiology, dead space is air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not partake in gas exchange. ... Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. ... Body Plethysmographs-To do a body plethysomograph, the person is enclosed in an airtight chamber often referred to as a body box. ... A peak flow meter is a small, hand-held device used to manage asthma by monitoring airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of restriction in the airways. ... A term coined by Dr. Gerald Gause of the University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Thoracic Independent Volume is the volume of the thoracic cavity without the lungs. ... There are some respiratory diseases such as exercise-induced asthma that are not apparent unless the patient is exposed to some sort of trigger, such as a chemical irritant, an allergen, cold or dry air, or rigorous exercise. ... In respiratory physiology, ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung. ... Positive Pressure ventilators help patients with respiratory problems to breathe easier. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... Exhalation (or expiration) is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Minute volume. ... ... Diagram of the alveoli with both cross-section and external view Pulmonary surfactant is a surface-active lipoprotein complex formed by type II alveolar cells. ... Compliance is the ability of the lungs to stretch in a change in volume relative to an applied change in pressure. ... “Hysteresivity” derives from “hysteresis”, meaning “lag”. It is the tendency to react slowly to an outside force, or to not return completely to its original state. ... Airway resistance is a concept used in respiratory physiology to describe mechanical factors which limit the access of inspired air to the pulmonary alveoli, and thus determine airflow. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. ... Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction is the phenomenon when pulmonary arterioles vasoconstrict in the presence of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) without hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels). ... Pulmonary shunts exist when there is normal perfusion to an alveolus, but ventilation fails to supply the perfused region. ... In respiratory physiology, the ventilation/perfusion ratio (or V/Q ratio) is a measurement used to the efficiency and adequacy of the matching of two variables:[1] V - ventilation - the air which reaches the lungs Q - perfusion - the blood which reaches the lungs A normal value is approximately 0. ... A ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan, is a medical test to measure the circulation of air and blood within a patients lungs. ... The zones of the lung proposed by West in 1964,[1] divide the lung into three vertical regions, based upon the relationship between the pressure in the alveoli (PA), in the arteries (Pa), and the veins (Pv): #1: alveolar > arterial > venous #2: arterial > alveolar > venous #3: arterial > venous > alveolar The... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... Following is a list of average partial pressures (in torr) for a human at rest: // The alveolar oxygen pressure is lower than the atmospheric O2 partial pressure for two reasons. ... The alveolar pO2 is not routinely measured but is calculated from blood gas measurements by the Alveolar gas equation: where: R is the Respiratory quotient (normally about 0. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve plots the proportion of haemoglobin in its saturated form on the vertical axis against the prevailing oxygen tension on the horizontal axis. ... 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG, also known as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or 2,3-DPG) is a three carbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. ... Oxyhaemoglobin Dissociation Curve. ... The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin first described by the British physician John Scott Haldane. ... Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ... In red blood cells, synthesis of carbonic acid by carbonic anhydrase produces bicarbonate and a free proton. ... The Respiratory Quotient is used in BMR calculations (basal metabolic rate) and is a form of indirect calorimetry. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... In biology, diffusion capacity is a measurement of the lungs ability to transfer gases. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Control of ventilation refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of ventilation (physiology). ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The pneumotaxic center of the upper pons antagonises the apneustic centre. ... The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The dorsal repiratory group is found in many types of fish and marine mammals. ... The ventral respiratory group is a group of neurons in the medulla which initiates inhalation. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface, are sensitive to the pH of their environment. ... Peripheral chemoreceptors act most importantly to detect variation of the oxygen in the arterial blood, in addition to detecting arterial carbon dioxide and pH. These nodes, called the aortic body and carotid body, are located on the arch of the aorta and on the common carotid artery, respectively. ... Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs. ... The Hering-Breuer reflex is a reflex triggered to prevent overinflation of the lungs. ... There are several effects of high altitude on humans: The percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen determines the content of oxygen in our blood. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... ÏŽ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... FLU redirects here. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... SARS redirects here. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An MRI image showing a congenitally deviated nasal septum A deviated septum commonly occurs when the anterior spine of the maxilla is severed in half. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax - Blood in the chest cavity). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... This article is about prenatal development in humans. ... Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs begin to form during the fourth week of embryonic development. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Respiratory System - MSN Encarta (1143 words)
The organs of the respiratory system extend from the nose to the lungs and are divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose and the pharynx, or throat.
The lower respiratory tract includes the larynx, or voice box; the trachea, or windpipe, which splits into two main branches called bronchi; tiny branches of the bronchi called bronchioles; and the lungs, a pair of saclike, spongy organs.
Respiratory System - MSN Encarta (1311 words)
The respiratory system is also subject to allergic reactions such as hay fever and asthma, brought about when the immune system is stimulated by pollen, dust, or other irritants.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is the name for a cluster of symptoms that indicate severe malfunctioning of the lungs.
The respiratory system of birds, adapted for flight, is very different from that of land-bound animals.
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