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Encyclopedia > Respiratory failure
Respiratory failure
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 J96.
ICD-9 518.81
DiseasesDB 6623
eMedicine med/2011 
MeSH D012131

Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. Respiratory failure can be indicated by observing a drop in blood oxygen level (hypoxemia) and/or a rise in arterial carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). Classification into type I or type II relates to the absence or presence of hypercapnia respectively. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Hypercapnia (from the Greek hyper = above and kapnos = smoke) is a condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body. ...

Contents

Types

Type 1

  • Type 1 respiratory failure is defined as hypoxia without hypercapnia, indeed the CO2 level may be normal or low. It is typically caused by a ventilation/perfusion mismatch; the air flowing in and out of the lungs is not matched with the flow of blood to the lungs.
  • Causes:

Hypoxia may refer to: Hypoxia (medical), the lack of oxygen in tissues Hypoxia or Oxygen depletion, a reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body leading to stress or even death in aquatic organisms This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Hypercapnia (from the Greek hyper = above and kapnos = smoke) is a condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body. ...

Type 2

  • Type 2 respiratory failure is defined as hypercapnia with hypoxia. It is due to inadequate air flow in the alveoli of the lungs that causes a build up of carbon dioxide that has been generated by the body. The underlying causes are reduced breathing effort (in the fatigued patient), increased resistance to breathing (such as in asthma) or an increase in the area of the lung that is not available for gas exchange (such as in emphysema).

Bronchitis


Causes

asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterised by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Left-sided pneumothorax (on the right side of the image) on CT scan of the chest with chest tube in place. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... In medicine, hyperventilation (or hyperpnea) is the state of breathing faster or deeper (hyper) than necessary, and thereby reducing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood below normal. ... In medicine, metabolic acidosis is a state in which the blood pH is low (under 7. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered as minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnestic properties which is brought upon by this class of drug slowing down the central nervous system. ...


Treatment

Emergency treatment follows the principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Treatment of the underlying cause is required. Mechanical ventilation may be required. Wikibooks has more about this subject: First Aid/CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency first aid procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Respiratory Failure : Article by Margaret A Priestley, MD (6017 words)
Respiratory failure develops when the rate of gas exchange between the atmosphere and blood is unable to match the body's metabolic demands.
As a result, type I respiratory failure is characterized by arterial hypoxemia with normal or low arterial CO As an alternative, type II respiratory failure results from inadequate alveolar ventilation in relation to physiologic needs and is characterized by arterial hypercarbia and hypoxemia.
Respiratory failure may be the sign of an irreversible progressive disease that leads to death (eg, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension).
Respiratory failure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (238 words)
Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system.
Respiratory failure can be indicated by observing a drop in blood oxygen level (hypoxemia) and/or a rise in arterial carbon dioxide (hypercapnia).
Type 1 respiratory failure is defined as hypoxia without hypercapnia, indeed the CO level may be normal or low.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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