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Encyclopedia > Respiration (physiology)

In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is in contrast to the biochemical definition of respiration, which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy). Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the animal, while physiologic respiration concerns the bulk flow and transport of metabolites between the organism and external environment. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Look up Tissue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Cellular respiration describes the metabolism reactions and processes that take place in a cell to obtain biochemical energy from fuel molecules. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Cellular respiration describes the metabolism reactions and processes that take place in a cell to obtain biochemical energy from fuel molecules. ... Fluid mechanics or fluid dynamics is the study of the macroscopic physical behaviour of fluids . ...


In unicellular organisms, simple diffusion is sufficient for gas exchange: every cell is constantly bathed in the external environment, with only a short distance for gases to flow across. In contrast, complex multicellular organisms such as humans have a much greater distance between the environment and their innermost cells, thus, a respiratory system is needed for effective gas exchange. The respiratory system works in concert with a circulatory system to carry gases to and from the tissues. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ...


In air-breathing vertebrates such as humans, respiration of oxygen includes four stages: Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ...

  • Ventilation from the ambient air into the alveoli of the lung.
  • Pulmonary gas exchange from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries.
  • Gas transport from the pulmonary capillaries through the circulation to the peripheral capillaries in the organs.
  • Peripheral gas exchange from the tissue capillaries into the cells and mitochondria.

Note that ventilation and gas transport require energy to power mechanical pumps (the diaphragm and heart respectively), in contrast to the passive diffusion taking place in the gas exchange steps. The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Respiratory physiology is the branch of human physiology concerned with respiration. It has been suggested that Gas exchange be merged into this article or section. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ...

Contents

Classifications of respiration

There are several ways to classify the physiology of respiration:


By species

Aquatic respiration refers to the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from the surrounding water. ... Buccal pumping is a method of respiration using the throat muscles. ...

By mechanism

Breathing / Respiration organs are used by most, or all, animals to exchange the gasses necessary for their life functions, known as respiration. ... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... Control of ventilation refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of ventilation (physiology). ... Apnea (British spelling - apnoea) (Greek απνοια, from α-, privative, πνεειν, to breathe) is a technical term for suspension of external breathing. ...

By experiments

Huff and Puff Apparatus respiration demonstration This Huff and Puff Apparatus is used in school biology labs to demonstrate that carbon dioxide is a product of respiration. ... ... Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry is a sensitive and quantitative mass spectrometry technique for trace gas analyses using chemical ionisation of sample trace gases by selected positive ions during a well-defined time period along a flow tube. ...

By disorders

Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...

By medication

A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Allergic asthma. ...

By intensive care and emergency medicine

CPR being performed Wikibooks First Aid has more about this subject: Basic Life Support Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or, in some circumstances, respiratory arrest. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... An Emerson iron lung. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which someone breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually from the perfluorocarbon family), rather than breathing air. ... In intensive care medicine, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique of providing oxygen to patients whose lungs are so severely diseased that they can no longer serve their function. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... Ambulance ventilation equipment A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia (AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs. ... This drawing shows a bronchoscope inserted through the mouth, trachea, and bronchus into the lung; lymph nodes along trachea and bronchi; and cancer in one lung. ... Laryngoscope in use intubating a dummy A laryngoscope is a medical instrument that is used to obtain a view of the glottis by direct laryngoscopy. ...

By other medical topics

Respiratory therapy is categorized as an allied health profession in the United States and Canada. ... Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Description An air embolism, or more generally gas embolism, is a medical condition caused by gas bubbles in the bloodstream. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a reduction in the pressure surrounding their body. ... Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between an air space inside or beside the body and the surrounding gas or liquid. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... Nitrogen narcosis or inert gas narcosis is a reversible alteration in consciousness producing a state similar to alcohol intoxication in scuba divers at depth. ... Hypercapnia is a condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... HPNS, High Pressure Nervous Syndrome or Helium Tremors is a diving disorder caused by using breathing gases that contain helium at depths in excess of 130 metres / 429 feet. ... Salt water aspiration syndrome is a rare diving disorder suffered by SCUBA divers who inhale a mist of sea water from a faulty demand valve causing irritation of the lungs. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
respiration - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about respiration (1761 words)
Aerobic respiration is a complex process of chemical reactions in which oxygen is used to break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water.
Respiration at the cellular level is termed internal respiration, and in all higher organisms occurs in the mitochondria.
Respiration – the release of energy within cells – is a complex series of reactions which employs about 70 different enzymes that act as catalysts.
Respiration (physiology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (194 words)
Respiration is the process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy).
Respiration takes place on a cellular level whereas breathing is on a different level.
Respiration takes place in the mitochondria of the cells and provide the cells with energy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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