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Encyclopedia > Resistance during World War II
Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.
Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. Resistance movements are sometimes also referred to as "the underground". Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead,wounded or missing 6,450 Captured 2,000 Killed 6,000 Wounded Operation... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ...


Among the most notable resistance movements were the Yugoslav Partisans (they were the most numerous, and the First Sisak Partisan Brigade established in Croatia, Yugoslavia was the first anti-fascist unit in Europe), the Polish Home Army, the French Maquis, the Italian CLN, the Greek Resistance and the Norwegian Milorg. Many countries had resistance movements dedicated to fighting the Axis invaders, and Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi movement. Although mainland Britain did not suffer invasion in World War II, the British made preparations for a British resistance movement, called the Auxiliary Units, in the event of a German invasion. Various organisations were also formed to establish foreign resistance cells or support existing resistance movements, like the British SOE and the American OSS (the forerunner of the CIA). Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... First Sisak Partisan Brigade or Croatian Prvi Sisački odredwas the first anti-fascist armed unit in Croatia and Europe. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Maquis is a type of high ground in southeastern France]] covered with scrub growth. ... The Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (CLN) was the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation of Italy in the last years of the Second World War. ... An ELAS fighter The Greek Resistance (Greek: , i. ... Milorg was a secret military organization under World War II in Norway. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Widerstand (German: resistance) is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ... The Auxiliary Units (or Auxunits) were specially trained highly secret units created with the aim of resisting the expected invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany during World War II. Britain was the only country during the war to create such a resistance movement in advance of an invasion. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... “CIA” redirects here. ...


There were also resistance movements fighting against the Allied invaders. The German resistance petered out within a few years, while the Baltic states resistance operations against the Soviet occupation continued into the 60‘s. A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miÅ¡ko broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of... The occupation of Baltic states generally refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) by the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany during World War II, and to the Soviet presence in the Baltics from 1945 until the re-establishment of their independence. ...

Contents

Organization

Soviet partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus, 1943.
Soviet partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus, 1943.

After the first shock after the Blitzkrieg, people slowly started to get organised, both locally and on a larger scale, especially when Jews and other groups were starting to be deported and used for the Arbeitseinsatz (working for the Germans). Organisation was dangerous, so much resistance was done by individuals. The possibilities depended much on the terrain; where there were large tracts of uninhabited land, especially hills and forests, resistance could more easily get organised undetected. This favoured in particular the partisans in Eastern Europe. But also in the much more densely populated Netherlands, the Biesbosch wilderness could be used to go into hiding. There were many different types of groups, ranging in activity from humanitarian aid to armed resistance, and sometimes cooperating to a varying degree. Resistance usually arose spontaneously, but was encouraged and helped mainly from London, the "capital of the European resistance" (also helping communist resistance groups) and Moscow (helping the partisans). Image File history File links Soviet_guerilla. ... Image File history File links Soviet_guerilla. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Arbeitseinsatz was German forced labor during World War II in occupied countries Categories: | | ... Belorussian guerrillas liquidated, injured and took prisoner some 1. ... Satellite image of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Biesbosch (8) The Biesbosch (Reed Woods) is one of the largest natural parks of the Netherlands. ...


Forms of resistance

Members of the French resistance group Maquis in La Tresorerie, 14 September 1944, Boulogne, France.
Members of the French resistance group Maquis in La Tresorerie, 14 September 1944, Boulogne, France.

Various forms of resistance were: Image File history File links Members_of_the_Maquis_in_La_Tresorerie. ... Image File history File links Members_of_the_Maquis_in_La_Tresorerie. ... Maquis is a type of high ground in southeastern France]] covered with scrub growth. ...

  • Sabotage - the Arbeitseinsatz ("Work Contribution") forced locals to work for the Germans, but work was often done slowly or intentionally badly
  • Strikes and manifestations
  • Based on existing organisations, such as the churches, students, communists and doctors (professional resistance)
  • Armed
    • raids on distribution offices to get food coupons or various documents such as Ausweise or on birth registry offices to get rid of information about Jews
    • temporary liberation of areas, such as in Yugoslavia and Northern Italy, occasionally in cooperation with the Allied forces
    • uprisings such as in Warsaw in 1943 and 1944
    • assassination of members of occupying forces and prominent collaborators (e.g. local pro-Axis politicians and police)
    • continuing battle and guerrilla warfare, such as the partisans in the USSR and Yugoslavia and the Maquis in France
  • Espionage, including sending reports of military importance (e.g. troop movements, weather reports etc.)
  • Illegal press to counter the Nazi propaganda
  • Political resistance to prepare for the reorganisation after the war. For instance, the Dutch resistance took part in forming the new government in the Netherlands after the war.
  • Helping people to go into hiding (e.g. to escape the Arbeitseinsatz or deportation) - this was one of the main activities in the Netherlands, due to the large number of Jews and the high level of administration, which made it easy for the Germans to identify Jews
  • Helping military people caught behind lines get back
  • Helping POW with illegal supplies, breakouts, communication,...
  • Forgery of documents

“Saboteur” redirects here. ... Manifestation refers to a concept of either recurring or transitive phenomena, as instances which become manifest or realised. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Famous resistance operations

1941

in February, the Dutch Communist Party organized a general strike in Amsterdam and surrounding cities , known as the February strike, in protest against anti-Jewish measures by the German occupier and violence by fascist street fighters against Jews. Several hundreds of thousands of people participated in the strike, with was mercilessly struck down by the Germans, who executed many participants. The Communist party of the Netherlands (CPN, in Dutch Communistische Partij Nederland) was a communist party of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The 1941 February strike, also known as The Strike of February 1941, was a general strike organized during World War II in The Netherlands against the anti-Jewish measures made by the Nazis. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews. ...


Operation Anthropoid was a resistance move during the WWII to assassinate Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazi “Protector of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia” and the chief of Nazi's final solution, by the Czech resistance in Prague. Over fifteen thousand Czechs were killed in reprisals, with the most infamous incidents being the complete destruction of the towns of Lidice and Ležáky. Reinhard Heydrich, the target of Operation Anthropoid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Czech resistance during the Second World War is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance. ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in former Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic) which was completely destroyed by the Germans during World War II. About 340 men, women, and children from the village were murdered by the Germans. ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) which was completely eradicated by the Nazis during World War II. // History The village is first mentioned in writing in 1318. ...


1942

On 25 November 1942, Greek guerrillas with the help of 12 British saboteurs carried out a successful operation which disrupted the German ammunition transportation to the German Africa Corps under Rommel - the destruction of Gorgopotamos bridge (Operation Harling). is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rommel is the family name of Eddie Rommel baseball pitcher; Erwin Rommel (German Field Marshal), and his son Manfred Rommel (former Mayor of Stuttgart). ...


1943

On April 19, 1943 three members of the Belgian resistance movement were able to stop the Twentieth convoy, which was the 20th prisoner transport in Belgium organised by the Germans during World War II. The exceptional action by members of the Belgian resistance occurred to free Jewish and gypsy civilians who were being transported by train from the Dossin army base located in Mechelen, Belgium to the concentration camp Auschwitz. The XXth train convoy transported 1,631 Jews (men, women and children). Some of the prisoners were able to escape and marked this kind of liberation action from the Belgian resistance movement unique in the European history of the Holocaust. In October the rescue of the Danish Jews meant that nearly all of the Danish Jews were saved from KZ camps by the Danish resistance. This action is considered one of the bravest and most significant displays of public defiance against the Nazis. April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The 2nd statue created to remember the resistance action against the 20th Jew transport in Belgium. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... In the summer of 1942, the Germans made preparations to deport the Jews of Belgium. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly... The Danish Resistance Movement was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Due to the unusually lenient terms given to Denmark by the Nazi occupation authority, the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in some other...


1944

The Vemork hydroelectric plant in Norway, site of the heavy water production, and a part of the German nuclear program, sabotaged by Norwegians between 1942 and 1944
The Vemork hydroelectric plant in Norway, site of the heavy water production, and a part of the German nuclear program, sabotaged by Norwegians between 1942 and 1944

An intricate series of resistance operations were launched in France prior to, and during, Operation Overlord. On June 5 1944, the BBC broadcasted a group of unusual sentences, which the Germans knew were code words—possibly for the invasion of Normandy. The BBC would regularly transmit hundreds of personal messages, of which only a few were really significant. A few days before D-Day, the commanding officers of the Resistance heard the first line of Verlaine's poem , "Chanson d'automne", "Les sanglots longs des violons de l'automne" (Long sobs of autumn violins) which meant that the "day" was imminent. When the second line "Blessent mon cœur d'une langueur monotone" (wound my heart with a monotonous langour) was heard, the Resistance knew that the invasion would take place within the next 48 hours. They then knew it was time to go about their respective pre-assigned missions. All over France resistance groups had been coordinated, and various groups throughout the country increased their sabotage. Communications were cut, trains derailed, roads, water towers and ammunition depots destroyed and German garrisons were attacked. Some relayed info about German defensive positions on the beaches of Normandy to American and British commanders by radio, just prior to 6 June. Victory did not come easily; in June and July, in the Vercors plateau a newly reinforced maquis group fought more than 10,000 German soldiers (no Waffen-SS) under General Karl Pflaum and was defeated, with 840 casualties (639 fighters and 201 civilians). Following Tulle Murders, Major Otto Diekmann's Waffen-SS company wiped out the village of Oradour-sur-Glane on June 10. The resistance also assisted later Allied invasions in south of France in Operations Dragoon and Anvil. They started insurections in cities as Paris when allied forces came close The Vemork hydroelectric plant near Rjukan in the Telemark region. ... The Vemork hydroelectric plant near Rjukan in the Telemark region. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... -1... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Chanson dautomne (Song of Autumn) is a poem by Paul Verlaine, one of the best known in the French language. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Geography of France | Plateaus ... Tulle Murders refers to two related events, taking place in June 1944 in the town of Tulle, France. ... Oradour-sur-Glane was a village in the Limousin région of France that was destroyed on 10 June 1944, when 642 of its inhabitants — including men, women and children — were murdered by a German Waffen-SS company. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ...


Operation Tempest launched in Poland in 1944 would lead to several major actions by Armia Krajowa, most notable of them being the Warsaw Uprising. For other uses, see Tempest. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ...


Norwegian sabotages of the German nuclear program (see Norwegian heavy water sabotage). The raid was later dubbed by the British SOE as the most successful act of sabotage in all of World War II, and was used as a basis for the US war movie The Heroes of Telemark. The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... SOE can stand for: Secret of Evermore, a SNES Computer_role-playing_game from Squaresoft Sony Online Entertainment, a computer game developer Special Operations Executive State-owned enterprise Splicing by Overlapping Extensions This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Heroes of Telemark is a 1965 war film based on the story of the Norwegian heavy water sabotage during World War II. Norwegian resistance fighters sabotage the Nazi German effort to produce heavy water for German atomic research during World War II. Snowy Norwegian locations serve as a backdrop for...


Resistance movements during World War II

Plaque to honour the Dutch resistance fighters executed at Sachsenhausen, Germany.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 1411 pixel, file size: 515 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commemorative plaque for Dutch resistance fighters who were executed in Sachenhausen. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 1411 pixel, file size: 515 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commemorative plaque for Dutch resistance fighters who were executed in Sachenhausen. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Sachsenhausen may refer to a quarter of Oranienburg in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg), and a detention facility here a quarter of Frankfurt am Main in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main) a municipality of Weimarer Land, see Sachsenhausen (Thüringen) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... The Auxiliary Units (or Auxunits) were specially trained highly secret units created with the aim of resisting the expected invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany during World War II. Britain was the only country during the war to create such a resistance movement in advance of an invasion. ... The Austrian resistance to the Nazi rule that started with the Anschluss in 1938 started with socialist and communist activism against the era of Austrofascism from 1934. ... Belarusian partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943 Belarusian resistance movement was a resistance movement in Belarus, part of the anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany during World War II. It was in 1942-43 when underground cells sprang... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Bulgarian resistance movement was part of the Resistance during World War II. It consisted of armed and unarmed actions of resistance groups against the Wehrmacht forces in Bulgaria and Kingdom of Bulgarias authorities. ... The Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League (better known as the AFPFL) was the main political party in Burma from 1946 until 1962. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miÅ¡ko broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of... Local Lithuanian Detachment (Lietuvos vietinÄ— rinktinÄ—) - short lived anti-Soviet resistence movement created and disbanded in 1944 in Lithuania. ... Povilas Plechavičius (born on February 1, 1890 in present day Mažeikiai district municipality - died on December 19, 1973 in Chicago, Illinois) was General of the army of Lithuania in the interwar period. ... Czech resistance during the Second World War is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance. ... The Danish Resistance Movement was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Due to the unusually lenient terms given to Denmark by the Nazi occupation authority, the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in some other... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... The Valkenburg Resistance was the resistance movement in Valkenburg (Limburg, Netherlands) during the Second World War. ... The Estonian resistance movement (Estonian Eesti vastupanuliikumine) was an underground insurgency movement to resist the Nazi occupation in Estonia during World War II. Due to the unusually lenient terms given to Estonia by the Nazi occupation authority, the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Maquis were the dominantly rural guerrilla bands of Belgian and French Resistance. ... The phrase Francs-tireurs was used to describe irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and from that usage is is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who fight outside the laws of war[1]. The term... The French Forces of the Interior (Fr. ... The Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR) or the National Council of the Resistance is the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943. ... The Bureau Central de Renseignements et dAction (Intelligence and Operations Central Bureau), commonly referred as just BCRA is the World War II-era forrunner of the SDECE French intelligence service. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... Widerstand is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ... Monument to the Weiße Rose in front of the Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of a number of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. ... Die Rote Kapelle (the Red Orchestra) was the name given by the Gestapo to two Communist resistance rings in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II. The Gestapo used the name Red Orchestra to refer to the Schulze-Boysen / Harnack group, an anti-Hitler resistance movement in Germany with international... The Edelweiss Pirates (Edelweißpiraten) were a loose group of youth culture in Nazi Germany. ... The Stijkel Group were a Dutch resistance group that fought the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... An ELAS fighter The Greek Resistance (Greek: , i. ... The National Liberation Front (EAM) (Greek: , Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. It was founded in 27 September 1941 by representatives of four left-wing parties : Lefteris Apostolou for the Communist Party of Greece (KKE... The National Republican Greek League (Greek: , Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos, abbreviated EDES) was a World War II Greek resistance movement. ... National and Social Liberation (Greek: , Ethniki Kai Koinoniki Apeleftherosis), also known by its initials EKKA, was the Greek Resistance movement founded by Colonel Dimitrios Psarros during Axis occupation of Greece. ... In the invasion of the Northeast or Manchuria it is assumed that Japan was soon able to establish complete control and that, after the League of Nations refused to do more than voice its disapproval, the Manchurian Incident was over. ... After the Empire of Japan invaded and occupied the Northeast in 1931, the Chinese Communist Party organized anti-Japanese guerrilla units, and formed the Northeastern Peoples Revolutionary Army. ... Anti-Japanese Army For The Salvation Of The Country was a volunteer army led by Li Hai-ching resisting the pacification of Manchukuo. ... One of the most successful volunteer armies was the Chinese Peoples National Salvation Army or NSA, led by a former bandit turned soldier, Wang Delin. ... On September 27th 1932, the forces of Gen. ... The Jilin Self-Defence Army was formed in late January 1932, as the Manchukuoan and Japanese troops closed in on Harbin. ... Ma Zhanshan, who had surrendered in January 1932 and joined the Manchukuo regime, rebelled again in late April, forming his own volunteer army in Heilongjiang province at the beginning of May, and then he established another 11 troops of volunteers at Buxi, Gannan, Keshan, Kedong and other places and thus... After the Empire of Japan invaded and occupied the Northeast in 1931, the Chinese Communist Party organized anti-Japanese guerrilla units, and formed the Northeastern Peoples Revolutionary Army. ... The Northeast Peoples Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army was led by Tang Juwu, formerly the commander of a Northeastern infantry regiment, interned by the Japanese at the beginning of the invasion. ... Following the defeat of the the forces of Ting Chao at Harbin in February 1932, Feng Zhanhai withdrew his forces to Shan-Ho-Tun, a village in the Wuchang District. ... After the Empire of Japan invaded and occupied the Northeast in 1931, the Chinese Communist Party organized small anti-Japanese guerrilla units, and formed their own Northeastern Peoples Revolutionary Army, dedicated to social revolution, but these were dwarfed by the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies which had been raised by... Wang Fengge, a student of traditional martial arts and later an officer in the Chinese Northeast Army, became involved in the Big Swords Society. ... The Japanese prostitutes of Hong Kong began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... The Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (CLN) was the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation of Italy in the last years of the Second World War. ... The Jewish resistance movement were several attempts of resistence of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Żydowski Związek Walki (ŻZW, Polish for Jewish Fighting Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... The Korean Liberation Army was the armed force of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and was created on September 17, 1941 in Chongqing, China. ... Latvian resistance movement. ... Eastern Front, June 1941-December 1941 Eastern Front, August 1943-December 1944 During World War II, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union (1940-1941), Nazi Germany (1941-1944), and the Soviet Union again in 1944. ... The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... Milorg was a secret military organization under World War II in Norway. ... Xu can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames: 徐 (pinyin Xú, also spelled Hsu or Tsui or Eu) 許 (traditional) or 许 (simplified), (pinyin XÇ”, also spelled Hui or Hii) In this context it is pronounced somewhat like Shoo or simply Shh. ... Norwegian Independent Company 1 (NOR.I.C.1, also Norisen) was a SOE group formed in March of 1941 for the purpose of perfoming commando raids in occupied Norway. ... The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administer the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German controlled areas. ... The Hukbalahap was the militant arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), formed in 1942 to fight the Japanese occupation in the Philippines during World War II. The term is a contraction of the Filipino term Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon which means Peoples Army... German supply train blown up by the Armia Krajowa during World War II. Polish resistance movement was a resistance movement in Poland, part of the anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany during World War II. Resistance to the Nazi German occupation began... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Narodowe SiÅ‚y Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... Bataliony ChÅ‚opskie (BCh, Polish Peasants Battalions) was a Polish World War II resistance movement and partisan organisation. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a communist armed organisation in Poland, organised by the Soviet created Polish Workers Party. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Dalforce, or the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army (星华义勇军; Xinghua Yi Yong Jun) was an irregular forces/guerrilla unit within the British Straits Settlements Volunteer Force during World War II. Its members were recruited among the ethnic Chinese people of Singapore. ... Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the British World War II organisation, the Special Operations Executive. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... Belorussian guerrillas liquidated, injured and took prisoner some 1. ... The Free Thai Movement (Thai: ขบวนการเสรีไทย, Khabuankarn Seri Thai) was an underground resistance movement against Japan during World War II. The movement was one of the important sources to the Allies for military intelligence in this region. ... UPA appeal poster. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... It has been suggested that Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland be merged into this article or section. ...

Notable individuals

[[Image:aniel. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (Bór being one of his wartime code-names), Polish military leader, was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine). ... Pierre Brossolette (June 25, 1903 - March 22, 1944) was a French socialist, journalist and member of French Resistance. ... Manolis Glezos Manolis Glezos (Greek: Μανώλης Γλέζος) is a Greek left wing politician and writer, world-wide known especially for his participation in the World War II resistance. ... Stefan Paweł Rowecki (pseudonym: Grot, hence called Stefan Grot-Rowecki, 1895-1944?) was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. ... Jens Christian Hauge (born 1915) was the leader of the secret military organisation Milorg in WWII occupied Norway. ... Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ... There are two hundred million of us, you can’t hang us all! Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya (Космодемья́нская, Зо́я Анато́льевна in Russian) (September 13, 1923 - November 29, 1941) was a Soviet partisan, Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously). ... Martin Linge (11 December 1894 – 27 December 1941) was a former Norwegian actor who became the commander of the WWII SOE Norwegian Independent Company 1 (NOR.I.C.1), formed in March 1941. ... Luigi Longo (1900 - 1980) was an Italian Communist political figure. ... Max Manus was a famous Norwegian World War II resistance fighter. ... Jean Moulins most famous depiction Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a high-profile member of the French Resistance during World War II. He is remembered today as an emblem of the Resistance primarily due to his courage and death at the hands of the Germans. ... Christian Pineau, French resistance leader and statesman Christian Pineau (October 14, 1904 - April 5, 1995) was a noted French Resistance fighter. ... Jannetje Johanna (Jo) Schaft (16 September 1920 - 17 April 1944), was a Dutch resistance fighter during World War II. Her nickname was the girl with the red hair (Het meisje met het rode haar, in Dutch). ... Hans Scholl, Sophie Magdalena Scholl, and Christoph Probst, who were executed for participating in the White Rose resistance movement against the Nazi regime in Germany. ... Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or the pseudonym Maring (May 13, 1883 - April 13, 1942), was a Dutch Communist, who was active in both the Netherlands and the Dutch East-Indies. ... Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried... Gunnar Fridtjof Thurmann Sønsteby DSO (born 11 January 1918) is the most highly decorated Norwegian, based in large part on his efforts as a Norwegian resistance fighter during World War II. Known also as Kjakan (The Chin) and , he participated in the resistance effort from 1940. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Aris Velouchiotis (Άρης Βελουχιώτης), (August 27, 1905-June 16, 1945, real name Thanassis Klaras/Θανάσης Κλάρας) was a prominent leader of the communist segment of Greek guerrilla resistance during World War II which was followed by the Greek Civil War. ... 1945 Studio portrait of Nancy Wake (AWM P00885. ... Luis Taruc (June 21, 1913 - May 4, 2005) was a Philippine Communist political figure and revolutionary. ... Napoleon Zervas ( Arta, May 17, 1891 - 1957) was a Greek general and resistance leader during World War II. He organized and led the National Republican Greek League (EDES), a resistance organization against the Nazi occupation of Greece. ...

Documentaries

  • Confusion was their business (from the BBC series Secrets of World War II is a documentary about the SOE (Special Operations Executive) and its operations
  • The Real Heroes of the Telemark is a book and documentary by survival expert Ray Mears about the Norwegian sabotage of the German nuclear program (Norwegian heavy water sabotage)
  • Making Choices: The Dutch Resistance during World War II (2005) This award-winning, hour-long documentary tells the stories of four participants in the Dutch Resistance and the miracles that saved them from certain death at the hands of the Nazis.

Ray Mears (born 1964) is a British author and TV presenter on the subject of bushcraft and survival techniques. ... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ...

Dramatisations

  • The Longest Day (1962) features scenes of the resistance operations during Operation Overlord
  • The Heroes of Telemark (1965) is very loosely based on the Norwegian sabotage of the German nuclear program (the above Real heroes of Telemark is more accurate)
  • L’Armée des ombres(1969) internal and external battles of the French resistance. Directed by Jean-Pierre Melville
  • Massacre in Rome (1973) is based on a true story about Nazi retaliation after a resistance attack in Rome
  • Secret Army (1977) a television series about the Belgian resistance movement, based on real events
  • Soldaat van Oranje (1977) (Dutch) is about some Dutch students who enter the resistance in cooperation with England
  • 'Allo 'Allo! (1982-1992) a situation comedy about the French resistance movement (a parody of Secret Army)
  • Het Meisje met het Rode Haar (1982) (Dutch) is about Dutch resistance fighter Hannie Schaft
  • Charlotte Gray (2001) - thought to be based on Nancy Wake
  • Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage (2005) is about the last days in the life of Sophie Scholl
  • My Opposition: the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner (2007) is a Canadian film about Justice Inspector Friedrich Kellner of Laubach who challenged the Nazis before and during the war

The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long 1962 war film with a very large cast, based on the 1959 book The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan, about D-Day, the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, during World War II. // The movie was adapted by Romain Gary, James... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Heroes of Telemark is a 1965 war film based on the story of the Norwegian heavy water sabotage during World War II. Norwegian resistance fighters sabotage the Nazi German effort to produce heavy water for German atomic research during World War II. Snowy Norwegian locations serve as a backdrop for... LArmée des ombres (Army of Shadows) is a 1969 French film directed by Jean-Pierre Melville. ... Jean-Pierre Melville (born Jean-Pierre Grumbach) (October 20, 1917 – August 2, 1973) was a noted French director. ... Massacre in Rome (Rappresaglia) is a 1973 film directed by George Pan Cosmatos about the Ardeatine massacre which occurred at the Ardeatine caves in Rome, 24 March 1944, committed by the Germans as a reprisal for a partisan attack. ... Secret Army was a BBC television series created by Gerald Glaister that ran for three seasons from September 7, 1977 to December 15, 1979. ... Soldaat van Oranje (Soldiers of Orange) is a 1977 film by Paul Verhoeven, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbe. ... Allo Allo! was a long-running British sitcom broadcast on BBC1 from 1982 to 1992 comprising eighty-five episodes. ... This article is about a genre of comedy. ... Jannetje Johanna (Jo) Schaft (16 September 1920 - 17 April 1944), was a Dutch resistance fighter during World War II. Her nickname was the girl with the red hair (Het meisje met het rode haar, in Dutch). ... Charlotte Gray is a 1999 book by Sebastian Faulks. ... 1945 Studio portrait of Nancy Wake (AWM P00885. ... Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage (Sophie Scholl - The Final Days) is a 2005 German film from director Marc Rothemund. ... Hans Scholl, Sophie Magdalena Scholl, and Christoph Probst, who were executed for participating in the White Rose resistance movement against the Nazi regime in Germany. ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... Laubach is a town known as a “Luftkurort,” a climatic health resort. ...

See also

Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the following non-tripartite countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Egypt and Italy. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6),[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ...

External links

  • European Resistance Archive
  • Interviews from the Underground Eyewitness accounts of Russia's Jewish resistance during World War II; website & documentary film.

 
 

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