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Encyclopedia > Resin
Insect trapped in resin.
Insect trapped in resin.

Resin or Rosin (Oxford dictionary) is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees, valued for its chemical constituents and uses such as varnishes, adhesives, as an important source of raw materials for organic synthesis, or for incense and perfume. Fossilized resins are the source of amber. The term is also used for synthetic substances of similar properties. Download high resolution version (980x1360, 144 KB) Resin This image shows resin with an insect (an ant?). Photographer André Karwath aka Aka Date 2005-04-23 License GNU FDL Camera data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron SP AF 90mm/2. ... Download high resolution version (980x1360, 144 KB) Resin This image shows resin with an insect (an ant?). Photographer André Karwath aka Aka Date 2005-04-23 License GNU FDL Camera data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron SP AF 90mm/2. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... Amber pendants. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Resin of a pine
Resin of a pine

The resin produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, typically composed mainly of volatile fluid terpenes, with lesser components of dissolved non-volatile solids which make resin thick and sticky. The most common terpenes in resin are the bicyclic terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes longifolene, caryophyllene and delta-cadinene. Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids. The individual components of resin can be separated by fractional distillation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (530x820, 82 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (530x820, 82 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... R-phrases 10-20/21/22-36/37/38-43-51 S-phrases 16-26-36-37-60-61 RTECS number DT7000000 (unspec. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... Carene, or delta-3-carene, is a bicyclic diterpene which occurs naturally as a constituent of turpentine, with a content as high as 42% depending on the source. ... Sabinene is a natural bicyclic diterpene with the molecular formula C10H16. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Isoprene Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... Longifolene is the common (or trivial) chemical name of a naturally-occurring, oily liquid hydrocarbon found primarily in the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins. ... Caryophyllene, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, especially clove oil and the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


A few plants produce resins with different compositions, most notably Jeffrey Pine and Gray Pine, the volatile components of which are largely pure n-heptane with little or no terpenes. The exceptional purity of the n-heptane distilled from Jeffrey Pine resin, unmixed with other isomers of heptane, led to its being used as the defining zero point on the octane rating scale of petrol quality. Because heptane is highly flammable, distillation of resins containing it is very dangerous. Some resin distilleries in California exploded because they mistook Jeffrey Pine for the similar but terpene-producing Ponderosa Pine. At the time the two pines were considered to be the same species of pine; they were only classified as separate species in 1853. Binomial name Pinus jeffreyi Balf. ... Binomial name Pinus sabineana The Gray Pine (Pinus sabineana) is a pine endemic to California in the United States. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point −4 °C Autoignition temperature 285 °C Explosive limits 1. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point −4 °C Autoignition temperature 285 °C Explosive limits 1. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Binomial name Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a widespread and very variable pine native to western North America. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Some resins when soft are known as oleo-resins, and when containing benzoic acid or cinnamic acid they are called balsams. Other resinous products in their natural condition are a mix with gum or mucilaginous substances and known as gum resins. Many compound resins have distinct and characteristic odors, from their admixture with essential oils. Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Cinnamic acid has the formula C6H5CHCHCOOH and is an odorless white crystalline acid, which is slightly soluble in water. ... Balsam (pronounced balm) is a term used for various pleasantly scented plant products. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ...


Certain resins are obtained in a fossilized condition, amber being the most notable instance of this class; African copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are also procured in a semi-fossil condition. Amber pendants. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Binomial name Agathis australis (D. Don) Loudon The Kauri (Agathis australis) is a coniferous tree native to the northern North Island of New Zealand. ...


Derivatives

Solidified resin from which the volatile terpene components have been removed by distillation is known as rosin. Typical rosin is a transparent or translucent mass, with a vitreous fracture and a faintly yellow or brown colour, non-odorous or having only a slight turpentine odour and taste. A 20 g cake of amber violin bow rosin. ...


1)It is insoluble in water, mostly soluble in alcohol, essential oils, ether and hot fatty oils, 2)softens and melts under the influence of heat, is not capable of sublimation, and burns with a bright but smoky flame. Sublimation has three separate meanings: Sublimation (physics), the change from solid to gas without passing the liquid state Sublimation (psychology), the transformation of emotions Dye sublimation, the transference of printed images to a synthetic substrate by the application of heat Category: ...


This comprises a complex mixture of different substances including organic acids named the resin acids. These are closely related to the terpenes, and derive from them through partial oxidation. Resin acids can be dissolved in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the purified resin acids are regenerated by treatment with acids. Examples of resin acids are abietic acid (sylvic acid), C20H30O2, plicatic acid contained in cedar, and pimaric acid, C20H35O2, a constituent of gallipot resin. Abietic acid can also be extracted from rosin by means of hot alcohol; it crystallizes in leaflets, and on oxidation yields trimellitic acid, isophthalic acid and terebic acid. Pimaric acid closely resembles abietic acid into which it passes when distilled in a vacuum; it has been supposed to consist of three isomers. This article needs to be wikified. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Also known as: abietinic acid, sylvic acid, 13-isopropylpodocarpa-7,13-dien-15-oic acid Molecular formula: C19H29COOH CAS No: 514_10_3 EINECS No: 208_173_3 The ester is called an abietate. ... Plicatic acid Plicatic acid is a carboxylic acid from the resin acid group. ... Pimaric acid Pimaric acid is a carboxylic acid from the resin acid group. ... Isophthalic acid, or benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Synthetic resins

Main article: plastic

Synthetic resins are materials with similar properties to natural resins—viscous liquids capable of hardening. They are typically manufactured by esterification or soaping of organic compounds. The classic variety is epoxy resin, manufactured through polymerization-polyaddition or polycondensation reactions, used as a thermoset polymer for adhesives and composites. One more category, which constitutes 75% of resins used, is unsaturated polyester resin. Ion exchange resin is another important class with application in water purification and catalysis of organic reactions. See also AT-10 Resin, melamine resin. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. ... Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. ... SOAP (see below for name and origins) is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over computer networks, normally using HTTP/HTTPS. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the Web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions in... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ... link title AT-10 is a synthetic resin, mainly used in the manufacture of ultra-thin condoms. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ...


Uses

Lumps of dried Frankincense resin
Lumps of dried Frankincense resin

The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarac, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, elemi, turpentine, copaiba) and gum resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, and scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x900, 438 KB) Summary Description: Frankincense I bought in Yemen on 15/Jul/2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x900, 438 KB) Summary Description: Frankincense I bought in Yemen on 15/Jul/2005. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Dammar gum is obtained from the Dipterocarpaceae family of trees in India and East Asia, principally those of the genera Shorea, Balanocarpus, or Hopea. ... Binomial name L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3–4 m tall, mainly cultivated for its aromatic resin on the Greek island of Chios,[1]. It is native throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Iberia at the east through southern France and... In mineralogy, sandarac, or sandarach, may refer to realgar or native arsenic disulphide, but is generally (a use found in Dioscorides) a resin obtained from the small coniferous tree Tetraclinis articulata, native to the northwest of Africa, and especially characteristic of the Atlas mountains. ... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... Binomial name Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A.Gray Elemi Canarium luzonicum is a tree native to the Philippine Islands, and an oleo-resin harvested from it. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... Visit this site for fascinating information on healing remedies from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil. ... Portions of this article or section may be outdated. ... Binomial name Ferula assafoetida L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Gamboge is a rather transparent dark mustard yellow pigment. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Binomial name Convolvulus scammonia Scammony (Convolvulus scammonia) is a bindweed native to the countries of the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin; it grows in bushy waste places, from Syria in the south to the Crimea in the north, its range extending westward to the Greek islands, but not to... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ...


Resin in the form of rosin is used for the upkeep of bows for stringed instruments (i.e. violin, viola, cello, double bass), because of its quality for adding friction to the hair. A 20 g cake of amber violin bow rosin. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, a member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


Resin has also been used as a medium for sculpture by artists such as Eva Hesse, and in other types of artwork. Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ...


Also, resin is used in some skateboard decks. It makes the skateboard more durable, making it less likely to get pressure cracks, chippings, or break in half. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Akira Ifukube, who wrote and composed the music to numerous Godzilla films, also created Godzilla's roar by rubbing a resin-covered leather glove over the loosened strings of a double bass. Akira Ifukube (伊福部 昭 Ifukube Akira, 31 May 1914 – 8 February 2006) was a Japanese composer of classical music and film scores, perhaps best known for his work on the soundtracks of the Godzilla movies. ... Godzilla is a series of giant monster films starring Godzilla, a Japanese creation usually portrayed by a man in a rubber suit. ... For other uses, see Godzilla (disambiguation). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...

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Resin

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Resin as produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, typically composed mainly of volatile fluid terpenes, with lesser components of dissolved non-volatile solids which make resin viscous and sticky.
The most common terpenes in resin are the bicyclic terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes longifolene, caryophyllene and delta-cadinene.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarac, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, elemi, turpentine, copaiba) and gum resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, and scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
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