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Encyclopedia > Reservoir (water)
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The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water.
The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water.
A view across Yarrow Reservoir, the newest of those built at Rivington in Lancashire
A view across Yarrow Reservoir, the newest of those built at Rivington in Lancashire
Gelmersee is a reservoir in Switzerland.
Gelmersee is a reservoir in Switzerland.

A reservoir is, most broadly, anything used for storage of large amounts of a liquid, which can be put into and drawn from the reservoir. It is in essence a buffer. Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ashokan_Reservoir_from_Wittenberg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ashokan_Reservoir_from_Wittenberg. ... The Ashokan Reservoir is a reservoir in Ulster County, New York, USA. The reservoir is in the eastern end of the Catskill State Park, and is one of several reservoirs created to provide the City of New York with water. ... Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the states beautiful Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3001x1793, 2826 KB) Summary by me, released Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3001x1793, 2826 KB) Summary by me, released Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Yarrow Reservoir - named after its tributary, the River Yarrow, is the newest reservoir in the whole Rivington chain in Lancashire, and has a storage capacity second only to Anglezarke Reservoir. ... This tower is one of the many structures that Lord Leverhulme built in this area. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Image File history File links Gelmersee04. ... Image File history File links Gelmersee04. ... Storage is the at least semi-permanent holding of an amount of something. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: buffer Buffer can refer to: Buffer state, a country lying between two potentially hostile greater powers, thought to prevent conflict between them Buffer zone, any area that keeps two or more other areas distant from one another, may be demilitarized Buffer (rail transport...


Most often, a reservoir refers to an artificial lake, used to store water for various uses. They are created first by building a sturdy dam, usually out of cement, earth, rock, or a mixture of all three. Once the dam is completed, a stream is allowed to flow behind it and eventually fill it to capacity. Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Water is a tasteless, odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... A running stream. ...

Contents

Reservoir uses

Primary uses

Reservoirs are most usually made for one of the following reasons:

High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ... It has been suggested that Safe water be merged into this article or section. ... A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environmental water needs. ... A watermill is a machine constructed by connecting a water wheel to a pair of millstones. ... Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reduction of signal strength during transmission. ...

Secondary uses

Reservoirs may have a secondary use other than a primary use. These may include:

The Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... An example of leisure, someone falling asleep whilst bathing in the sun. ... Sailing at sunset Wooden sailing boat Sailing is the skillful art of controlling the motion of a sailing ship or sailboat, across a body of water. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... World Water Skiing Champions List of world champions - Men: Slalom 1949 Christian Jourdan, FRA 1950 Dick Pope, USA 1953 Charles Blackwell, CAN 1955 Alfredo Herrendoza, USA 1957 Joe Cash, USA 1959 Chuck Stearns, USA 1961 Jimmy Jackson, ua 1963 Billy Spencer, USA 1965 Roland Hillier, USA 1967 Tito Antunano, MEX...

Construction of reservoirs and dams

Strictly speaking the reservoir is the storage area created by the construction of the dam, but in general parlance the two terms are interchangeable.


There are 2 basic types of reservoir - the commonly seen dam across a valley or the less common fully bunded dam.


A fully bunded dam has a continuous man made embankment around its entire perimeter, most commonly using a central clay core as the waterproof element. The core is held in place by earth or rock piled either side of it in suitable volumes to resist the outward forces exerted by the water. The clay is joined directly to the natural underlying material, which itself is usually clay in order for the dam to be water tight. The reservoir is filled by mechanical pumps that draw water from an adjacent water course such as a river.


If a water tight roof is added then this dam can then be used for storing treated water before it goes to the tap and is known as a "Service" reservoir.


The more common dam across a valley relies on naturally formed features to form the water tight elements. Generally, surveyors have to find river valleys which are deep and narrow; the valley sides can then act as natural walls. The best place along the valley for building a dam has to be determined according to where the dam can best be tied into the valley walls and floor to form a water tight seal. If necessary, humans have to be re-housed and/or historic sites have to be moved, e.g. the temples of Abu Simbel before the construction of the Aswan Dam, creating Lake Nasser in the Nile River, Egypt. Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley Mt. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ... The Nile (Arabic: ‎, translit: , Ancient Egyptian iteru) is a river in Africa, often regarded as the longest river on Earth, although some sources claim the Amazon in South America is longer. ...


First, the river must be redirected slightly so as to not disturb construction of the dam. Once that is done, building of the dam may commence. This may take anywhere from a few months to a few years, depending on its size and complexity. After the dam is complete, the river is allowed to begin filling the large area behind the dam.


Some reservoirs are entirely underground. In the UK Thames Water has many underground reservoirs beneath London built in the 1800's by the Victorians, most of which are lined with thick layers of brick. Honor Oak Service reservoir, which was completed in 1909, is the largest of this type in Europe. The roof is supported using large brick pillars and arches and the outside surface is used as a golf course. Thames Water, known originally as the Thames Water Authority and after privatisation as Thames Water plc, is the utility responsible for water supply and waste water treatment in London and the Thames Valley. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Dam and reservoir operation

Standard reservoir

A raw water reservoir doesn't simply hold water until it is needed. It is the first part of the treatment process. The time the water is held for before it is released is known as the retention time, and is a design feature that allows larger particles and silts to settle out as well as time for the biological treatment of algae and bacteria by plankton-like creatures that naturally live within the water.


Water is then released from the reservoir, generally by gravity, to be cleaned (for drinking water). In the event that major rain occurs, water can be released, decreasing the reservoir's water level. Rain falling For other uses see Rain (disambiguation). ...


Hydroelectric reservoir

A hydroelectric power station consists of large turbines that rely on a gravity flow of water through pipes from the dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity. The water can then be either released to the surrounding water course or pumped back into the reservoir and reused. Generally, hydroelectric dams are built specifically for electricity generation and are not used for drinking or irrigation water. Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ...


Irrigation reservoir

Water in an irrigation reservoir is released into networks of canals mainly for use in farmlands or secondary water systems. Water in an irrigation reservoir is generally not used for drinking water, but in some cases is. As with all reservoirs, water can be released if the reservoir is too full. High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ...


Flood control reservoir

Commonly known as an "Attenuation" reservoir, these are used to prevent flooding to lower lying lands, flood control reservoirs collect water at times of unseasonally high rainfall, then release it slowly over the course of the following weeks or months. See transvasement. Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A transvasement is an artificial passing of water from one river basin to another one, to solve problems of hydrographic imbalance. ...


Recreational reservoir

Very rarely is a reservoir built solely for a recreational purpose. Most reservoirs are built to a civic purpose, but still allow fishing, boating, and other activities. At most reservoirs, special rules apply for the safety of the public. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... Boating on the Royal Military Canal at Hythe. ...


Largest reservoirs

Lake Volta in western Africa covers around 8,500 km². Lokka is Northern Europe's largest artificial lake, 417 km² in size. The IJsselmeer is Western Europe's largest artificial lake, 1250 km² in size Lake Volta in Ghana Lake Volta from space, April 1993 Lake Volta (located at ) is the largest reservoir in the world (being larger than Lake Nasser), lying in Ghana and covering almost 8,500 km² (3,275 square miles). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... A Cannabis sativa plant Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ...


Surface area

The following are the world's ten largest reservoirs by surface area:

  1. Lake Volta (8,482 km²; Ghana)
  2. Samara Reservoir (6,450 km²; Russia)
  3. Smallwood Reservoir (5,698 km²; Canada)
  4. Lake Kariba (5,580 km²; Zimbabwe, Zambia)
  5. Bukhtarma Reservoir (5,490 km²; Kazakhstan)
  6. Bratsk Reservoir (5,426 km²; Russia)
  7. Lake Nasser (5,248 km²; Egypt, Sudan)
  8. Rybinsk Reservoir (4,580 km²; Russia)
  9. Caniapiscau Reservoir (4,318 km²; Canada)
  10. Lake Guri (4,250 km²; Venezuela)

Lake Volta in Ghana Lake Volta from space, April 1993 Lake Volta (located at ) is the largest reservoir in the world (being larger than Lake Nasser), lying in Ghana and covering almost 8,500 km² (3,275 square miles). ... The Samara Reservoir (formerly Kuybyshev Reservoir) is a reservoir of the middle Volga and lower Kama in Tatarstan, Ulyanovsk Oblast, and Samara Oblast, Russia. ... The Smallwood Reservoir is a large reservoir located in the western part of Labrador in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Kariba Dam is a hydroelectric dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi River basin in Southern Africa (28. ... The Bratsk Reservoir is a reservoir of the Angara in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. ... View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ... The Rybinsk Reservoir, informally called the Rybinsk Sea (Rybinskoye vodokhranilishche), is a vast water reservoir on Volga River and its tributaries Sheksna and Mologa. ... The Caniapiscau Reservoir (in French, réservoir Caniapiscau) is a reservoir on the upper Caniapiscau River in the Côte-Nord administrative region of Québec, Canada. ... The Guri Dam is one of the largest in the world. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
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