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Encyclopedia > Reserve Officer Training Corps
ROTC links here. For other uses, see ROTC (disambiguation)

A Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program is a college-based, officer commissioning program, predominantly in the United States. It is designed as a college elective that focuses on leadership development, problem solving, strategic planning, and professional ethics. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... ROTC may refer to: Reserve Officer Training Corps Rise of the Cybermen Republic of the Congo Romance of the Three Kingdoms Righteously Outrageous Twirling Corps a gay visual performance ensemble based in Chicago Category: ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... Elective used as a adjective means that it is optional and chosen, for example, by election. ...


The U.S. Armed Forces and a number of other national militaries, particularly those countries with strong historical ties to the United States, have ROTC programs. The Republic of the Philippines established its program in 1912, with the creation of the first unit at the University of the Philippines during the American occupation of the islands. ROTC in the Republic of South Korea started in 1963; while Taiwan created its own program in 1997. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The Oblation UP Diliman, the flagship campus of the U.P. System UP Baguio UP Extension Program in Pampanga Temporary Campus UP Los Baños UP Manila This article is about the University of the Philippines System. ...

Newly graduated and commissioned officers of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) Unit Hampton Roads stand at attention as they are applauded during the Spring Commissioning Ceremony
Newly graduated and commissioned officers of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) Unit Hampton Roads stand at attention as they are applauded during the Spring Commissioning Ceremony

ROTC produces officers in all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces except the U.S. Coast Guard: 56 percent of U.S. Army, 11 percent of the U.S. Marine Corps, 20 percent of the U.S. Navy, and 41 percent of the U.S. Air Force, for a combined 39 percent of all active duty officers in the Department of Defense.[1] The Philippine-based National ROTC Alumni Association (NRAA) estimates that 75 percent of the officer corps of the Armed Forces of the Philippines come from ROTC.[2] NRTOC, US Navy, PD 040508-N-2383B-377 Norfolk, Va. ... NRTOC, US Navy, PD 040508-N-2383B-377 Norfolk, Va. ...


For those countries, a ROTC program serves as the equivalent of the British Officers Training Corps. The Officer Training Corps (OTC) is a part of the British Army that provides military leadership training to students at UK universities. ...


With the exception of the U.S. Coast Guard, each of the U.S. armed forces offer competitive, merit-based scholarships to ROTC students, often covering full tuition for college. U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force ROTC students are referred to as cadets, while U.S. Naval ROTC students are known as midshipmen; these terms coincide with their service academy counterparts. The Naval ROTC program commissions both U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps officers. The Coast Guard sponsors only a JROTC program. Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... A military academy is a military educational institution. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) is a program put forth by the United States Armed Forces in high schools across the nation that train highschool students in Leadership and Military Sciences. ...


Army ROTC units are organized as brigades and battalions. Air Force units are detachments with the students organized into wings, groups, squadrons, and flights, like the active Air Force. Navy units are organized into Naval battalions. If the Marine students are integrated with the Navy students, there are companies, but having the Navy students in departments and divisions like a ship, and the Marines in a separate company is only done when an ROTC unit has sufficient members to warrant an extra division. The Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets (or the Corps of Cadets or, often, just The Corps) is an organization at Texas A&M University that trains students in the ways of the military with the option of a commission to the military upon graduation. ...

Contents

History of U.S. ROTC

The concept of ROTC in the United States began with the Morrill Act of 1862 which established the land-grant colleges. Part of the federal government's requirement for these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their curriculum, forming what became known as Army ROTC. The college from which ROTC originated is Norwich University in Northfield, Vermont. Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy.[1] The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are pieces of US legislation which allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, which would be funded by the grant of federally-controlled land to each of the states which had stayed with the United States during the American Civil War. ... Land-grant universities (also called land-grant colleges or land grant institutions) are American institutions which have been designated by a Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. ... Norwich University (NU) is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont. ... Northfield is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. ...

Army ROTC cadets on a field training exercise
Army ROTC cadets on a field training exercise

Until the 1960s, many major universities required compulsory ROTC for all of their male students. However, because of the protests that culminated in the opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, compulsory ROTC was dropped in favor of voluntary programs.[2] In some places ROTC was expelled from campus altogether, although it was always possible to participate in off-campus ROTC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 507 KB) Summary Description: Cadets from University of Delaware Army ROTC during a squad situational training exercise (STX); note the ROTC shoulder patch and M16A2 rifle Source: My own photograph Date: Taken 2005-3-19; timestamp is for EDT Author... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 507 KB) Summary Description: Cadets from University of Delaware Army ROTC during a squad situational training exercise (STX); note the ROTC shoulder patch and M16A2 rifle Source: My own photograph Date: Taken 2005-3-19; timestamp is for EDT Author... Children run down a road near Trang Bang after an ARVN napalm attack on villages suspected of harboring National Liberation Front fighters in this June, 1972 photo by Huynh Cong Ut, which became a symbol of the international movement against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. ...


In recent years, concerted efforts are being made at some Ivy League universities that have previously banned ROTC, including Harvard and Columbia, to return ROTC to campus.[3] In the 21st century, the debate often focuses around the Congressional don't ask, don't tell law, signed into law by President Bill Clinton in 1993, which forbids homosexuals serving in the United States military from disclosing their sexual orientation at the risk of expulsion. Some schools believe this legal mandate would require them to waive or amend their non-discrimination policies. The Supreme Court ruled in March 2006 that they are entitled to hold this opinion, but at the expense of federal funding (see Solomon Amendment). For the record label, see Ivy League Records. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      Dont ask, dont tell is the common term for the U.S. military policy which implements Pub. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The 1996 Solomon Amendment is the popular name of 10 U.S.C. § 983, a United States federal law that allows the Secretary of Defense to deny Federal grants (including research grants) to institutions of higher education if they prohibit or prevent ROTC or military recruitment on campus. ...


Under current law, there are three types of ROTC programs administered, each with a different element.[4]

  • The first are the programs at the six senior military colleges, also known as military schools. These institutions grant baccalaureate degrees (at a minimum) and organize all or some of their students into a corps of cadets under some sort of military discipline. Those participating in the cadet program must attend at least 2 years of ROTC education.
  • The second are programs at "civilian colleges." As defined under Army regulations, these are schools that grant baccalaureate or graduate degrees and are not operated on a military basis.
  • The third category is programs at military junior colleges (MJC). These are military schools that provide high school and junior college education. These schools do not grant baccalaureate degrees but meet all other requirements of military colleges, but currently are only permitted to commission officers into the US Army. They may also support a JROTC program.

One difference between civilian colleges and the senior or junior military colleges is enrollment option in ROTC. ROTC is voluntary for students attending civilian colleges and universities; however, with few exceptions (as outlined in Army regulations), it is required of students attending the senior and junior military colleges. In the United States, a Senior Military College is one of six colleges that offer military Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) programs and are recognized under 10 USC 2111a. ... In the United States, a Military Junior College is a military-style junior college that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the armed forces in two years, instead of the usual four. ...


Another major difference between the senior military colleges and civilian colleges is that under federal law, graduates of the SMCs are guaranteed active duty assignments if requested.[5] In the United States military active duty refers to military members who are currently serving full time in their military capacity. ...


U.S. Army ROTC history

US Army ROTC Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
US Army ROTC Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

The modern Army ROTC was created by the National Defense Act of 1916 and commissioned its first class of lieutenants in 1920. It was patterned after the British Officers Training Corps, which supplied most of the British officers in World War I. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Defense Act of 1916 provided for an expanded army during wartime, expansion of the National Guard, more federal funding for the National Guard, and creation of the ROTC. Categories: | | | ... The Officer Training Corps (OTC) is a part of the British Army that provides military leadership training to students at UK universities. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Notable Army ROTC graduates

In 1960, General George H. Decker became the first ROTC graduate named chief of staff of the Army (although General of the Army George C. Marshall, chief of staff of the Army during WWII, was a product of the Virginia Military Institute, he technically received a direct commission, since the modern-day ROTC program had not officially been established when he graduated). General Colin Powell was the first ROTC graduate named Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was a graduate of the City College of New York. GEN George Decker, official portrait by Woodi Ishmael General George Henry Decker (February 16, 1902–February 6, 1980) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1960 to 1962. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for insuring readiness of the Army. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for insuring readiness of the Army. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ... The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as City) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ...


Chiefs of staff of the Army or Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to come out of Army ROTC include: The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for insuring readiness of the Army. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ...

George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... GEN George Decker, official portrait by Woodi Ishmael General George Henry Decker (February 16, 1902–February 6, 1980) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1960 to 1962. ... Lafayette College is a private coeducational liberal arts college located in Easton, Pennsylvania, USA. The school, founded in 1826 by citizens of Easton, first began holding classes in 1832. ... GEN Frederick C. Weyand Frederick Carlton Weyand was born in Arbuckle, California, on September 15, 1916. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... General Gordon R. Sullivan General Gordon R. Sullivan (born September 25, 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts) was a U.S. Army general. ... Norwich University (NU) is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont. ... General Peter Schoomaker (b. ... The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyomings high plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy ranges. ... George William Casey, Jr. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: ), is the public university system of New York City. ... Henry H. Shelton Henry Hugh Shelton (born January 2, 1942) is a retired American career military officer. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ...

Army ROTC trivia

Virginia Military Institute holds the record among ROTC schools for the most general and flag officers produced, with 265 as of 2006.[6] The college ROTC program to produce the most four-star generals is North Carolina State University.[citation needed] The University of Oregon has produced the highest number of general officers out of the non-military ROTC schools, with a total of 44.[7] The Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University consistently produces more officers for the Armed Forces than any other ROTC program, largely because of the university's long history as a military college.[8] The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... A Flag Officer is a naval officer of a high rank entitling him to fly a personal flag, especially on his flagship. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas. ... In the United States, a Senior Military College is one of six colleges that offer military Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) programs and are recognized under 10 USC 2111a. ...


U.S. Air Force ROTC history

U.S. Air Force R.O.T.C. emblem
U.S. Air Force R.O.T.C. emblem

(As quoted from Air Force ROTC's Official Website) The first Air ROTC units were established between 1920 and 1923 at the University of California at Berkeley, Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Illinois, the University of Washington, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (now Texas A&M University). After World War II Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, chief of staff of the War Department, signed General Order No. 124, establishing Air ROTC units at 77 colleges and universities throughout the nation. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 581 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 1000 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Reserve Officer Training... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 581 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 1000 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Reserve Officer Training... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France and Singapore. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas. ... Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


The Air Force ROTC Vitalization Act of 1964 authorized a new two-year Senior Program, scholarships and a Junior Program. An experimental program to commission women through Air Force ROTC was first conducted from 1956 to 1960. Women were again enrolled in the Senior Program, starting in 1969, and in the Junior Program four years later. The Air Force ROTC Detachment at Auburn University was the first to commission a woman in the program who also became the first female Lieutenant General (three star) of the Air Force. Eligible Air Force enlisted men and women pursuing a college degree who are interested in becoming commissioned officers are given that opportunity through competition in the Air Force ROTC Airman Scholarship and Commissioning Program, established in 1973. In 1978, Air Training Command, with headquarters at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, assumed responsibility for the Air Force ROTC programs.


On July 1, 1993, Air Training Command merged with Air University to form Air Education and Training Command. Air University became a direct reporting unit under Air Education and Training Command, and Air Force ROTC realigned under Air University. In February 1997, in an effort to reduce duplication of effort and streamline administrative and reporting procedures within Air University, Air Force ROTC and Officer Training School realigned under the newly created umbrella organization, Air Force Officer Accession and Training Schools (AFOATS). This restructuring placed oversight for three-quarters of Air Force officer production under one command, the AFOATS commander—a brigadier general. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of Air University Air University (AU) is a component of the United States Air Forces Air Education and Training Command, headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. ... Air Education and Training Command (AETC), with headquarters at Randolph AFB near San Antonio, Texas, was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. ...


U.S. Navy ROTC programs

The U.S. Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) program was founded in 1926. In 1932, the Marine Corps joined the program and in 1990, the first Navy Nurse Corps scholarships were awarded. The Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps commissions individiuals into either the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps. ...


U.S. Coast Guard ROTC programs

There are no current ROTC programs sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard, but there is a Direct Commissioning program for Graduates of Maritime Academies. The Direct Commission Maritime Academy Graduate Program is available to individuals who hold a degree from a qualifying state or federal Maritime Academy and hold a Third Mate or Third assistant Engineer license, or a degree major in Marine Environmental Protection or a related field. Maritime Academy Graduates have education and training that enhances the Coast Guard's ability to carry out its operational missions. Individuals selected will serve as a Coast Guard Reserve Officer on full-time active duty. In addition, there is one JROTC program currently in existence. Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ... The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) is a program put forth by the United States Armed Forces in high schools across the nation that train highschool students in Leadership and Military Sciences. ...


See also

The Officer Training Corps (OTC) is a part of the British Army that provides military leadership training to students at UK universities. ... New York Military Academy Army JROTC cadets at Annual Formal Inspection in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. ... The Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps commissions individiuals into either the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps. ... U.S. Air Force R.O.T.C. shield // One of the three commissioning sources for officers in the United States Air Force, the other two being the Air Force Academy and Officer Training School. ... The United States military academies, sometimes known as the United States service academies, are federal academies for the education and training of commissioned officers for the United States armed forces. ... In the United States, a Senior Military College is one of six colleges that offer military Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) programs and are recognized under 10 USC 2111a. ... In the United States, a Military Junior College is a military-style junior college that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the armed forces in two years, instead of the usual four. ... A military academy is a military educational institution. ... A Gold Bar Recruiter (GBR) is a newly commissioned second lieutenant who has been ordered to active duty to assist the Professor of Military Science and the Recruiting Operations Officer (ROO) with training and recruiting duties. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Images of Its Past. History of Norwich University. Norwich University (2004). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  2. ^ The Fight Against Compulsory R.O.T.C.. Free Speech Movement Archives. Free Speech Movement Archives (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  3. ^ Advocates for ROTC. Advocates for ROTC. advocatesforrotc.org (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  4. ^ AR 145-1 (Reserve Officers’ Training Corps). Army Regulation. United States Army (1996). Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  5. ^ 10 USC 2111a. United States Code. Legal Information Institute ([[]]). Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  6. ^ Alumni. VMI Profile. VMI (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  7. ^ University of Oregon ROTC History. University of Oregon Army ROTC. University of Oregon (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  8. ^ ROTC Participation. About the Corps. TAMU (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.

  Results from FactBites:
 
RESERVE OFFICERS’ TRAINING CORPS (1648 words)
The mission of the United States Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program is to prepare quality college students to assume the role of a commissioned officer in the United States Army upon graduation.
After completion of the ROTC program the student is obligated to serve four years in the active Army or eight years in the United States Army Reserves or Army National Guard.
It should be known that junior officers are among the highest recruited population group of people in their 20’s because of their leadership, management, and interpersonal skills.
Reserve Officers' Training Corps: Information from Answers.com (1996 words)
It was patterned after the British Officer Training Corps, which supplied most of the British officer corps in World War I. In 1960 General George H. Decker, ROTC commissionee at Lafayette College, became the first ROTC graduate named Chief of Staff of the Army.
ROTC is voluntary for students attending civilian colleges and universities; however, with few exceptions (as outlined in army regulation), it is required of students attending the senior military colleges and military junior colleges.
ROTC programs provide a high percentage of U.S. Military officers and represent an important part of the recruitment system, especially by injecting the officer corps with persons educated in a civilian environment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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