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Encyclopedia > Reservation in India

Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except in the Minority and Religious Educational Institutions, for the socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or/and for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes who are perceived by the Government to be inadequately represented in these services and institutions. Indian Law is largely derived from English common law. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ...


Reservation is a phenomenon unique to India and is different from affirmative action which is practiced in many other countries. The main difference between the two is that in affirmative action the amount of concessions to be made in order to increase representation in an underrepresented group is at the discretion of individual organizations, whereas the reservation system in India is based on statutory quota that must be met. Affirmative action refers to concrete steps that are taken both to increase the representation of underrepresented and arguably underprivileged minorities and to redress the effects of past discrimination. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ...

Contents

Purpose

Caste and Community of Profile People below povertyline inIndia. as reported in sachhar committee report

Reservations are intended to increase the social diversity in campuses and workplaces by lowering the entry criteria for certain identifiable groups that are grossly under-represented in proportion to their numbers in general population. However caste is most used criteria to identify under represented groups. There are other identifiable under represented groups like Gender (Women are under represented), State of domicile (North Eastern States, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh are under represented), rural people etc as revealed by Government of India sponsored National Family Health and National Sample surveys. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1976 × 1488 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1976 × 1488 pixel, file size: 1. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. ...


The underlying theory is that the under-representation of the identifiable groups is a legacy of the Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The Constitution laid down that 15% and 7.5% of vacancies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/ public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively. The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as jātis. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Tribal peoples in India comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ...


Later reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The supreme court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (that would be violative of equality guaranteed by the constitution) has put a cap on reservations, but there are state laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the supreme court. For example, the caste based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu (see section on Tamil Nadu below).


Types of Reservation

Seats in Educational institutions and jobs are reserved based on a variety of criteria. The quota system sets aside a proportion of all possible positions for members of a specific group. Those not belonging to the designated communities can compete only for the remaining positions, while members of the designated communities can compete for all positions (reserved and open). For example when 2 position out of 10 clerical in Railways are reserved for Ex-Servicemen, those who have served in Army can compete both in the General Category as well as in the Specific Quota. The Quota Borda System or Quota Preference Score was devised by the british philosopher Michael Dummett and first published in 1984 in his book, Voting Procedures, and again in his Principles of Electoral Reform in 1997. ...


Caste

Seats are reserved for Schedules Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Most backward Castes, Backward Castes, Other Backward Castes in varying ratio by the Central Government and State Government. This caste is decided based on birth, so it will never get changed. The advantage of this system is that this cannot be changed. While a person can change his religion, and his economic status can fluctuate, the caste is permanent. In Central government-funded higher education institutions: 22.5% for scheduled caste (dalit) and scheduled tribe (adivasi) students. (15% for SC and 7.5% for ST) It has been proposed to raising this to 49.5%, by including 27% reservation for OBCs also.[1]. In AIIMS 14% reserved for SC, 8% for ST. In addition, SC/ST students with only 50% scores are eligible. This ratio is followed even in Parliament and all elections where few constituencies are earmarked for those from Certain communities. In few states like Tamil Nadu, the percentage of reservation is 18% for SC and 1% for ST and this is based on the population. In Andhra Pradesh educational institutes and government jobs 25% for BCs, 15% for SCs, 6% for STs and 5% to Muslims, total: 51% (Note: 5% Muslim Quota is under the purview of the Court) Backward Castes people are generally a group of people in India who generally live off income derived from self employment on caste-dependent skills assignment. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... Ä€divāsÄ«s (आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, or tribal people comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ... All India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS) (created 1956) is a premier medical college located at New Delhi in India. ... Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ...


The post of Temple priest in some Hindu temples is reserved only for a man from Brahmin Caste. However, the appointment of a temple priest is completely subjective and these temples may accept anyone else if they have proper training. For example, in Tamil Nadu the post of temple priest is now open to a person belonging to any caste as long as they have proper training. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Religion

Government of Andhra Pradesh has introduced a law enabling 5% reservations for Muslims which has been contested in the court. Kerala Public Service Commission Muslim quota: 12%. Religious minority status education institutes have also 50% reservation for their particular religion. Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... The Kerala Public Service Commission is a body created by the Constitution of India to select applicants for civil service jobs in the Indian state of Kerala according to the the merits of the applicants and the rules of reservation. ...


State of Domicile

Usually Jobs under State Government are 100% reserved to those who are domicile under that government with few exceptions. In PEC Chandigarh, earlier 80% of seats were reserved for Chandigarh domiciles and now it is 50%.

College of Undergraduation

Admission to Post Graduate courses in Delhi Medical Colleges is 100% reserved for those who have studied MBBS in Delhi. Institutes like JIPMER have a policy of reserving Post Graduate seats for those who completed their MBBS in JIPMER. AIIMS used to reserve 33% of its 120 Postgraduation seats for the 40 Undergraduate students (meaning everyone who has completed MBBS in AIIMS are assured of a PG Seat) which was held illegal by a Court.

JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research) is a medical institute in Pondicherry, India. ...

Other

Some reservations are also made for:

  • Gender (around 30% of seats are reserved for females in many institutions)
  • Sons/Daughters/Grandsons/Grand daughters of Freedom Fighters
  • Physically handicapped
  • Sports personalities
  • Non-Resident Indians (NRIs)
  • Candidates sponsored by various organisations
  • Those who have served in the armed forces (Ex-Servicemen quota) in jobs
  • Dependants of armed forces personnel killed in action
  • Repatriates
  • Those born from inter-caste marriages
  • Widows and deserted women

The Contras were often referred to as Freedom Fighters by US President Ronald Reagan. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ...

Relaxations

Many times, the selection criteria for those coming under reservation are relaxed (some times they are altogether done away with.) The criteria that is relaxed are

  1. The minimum high school marks criteria are relaxed for reserved seats. For example in IIT JEE Reserved category candidates scoring about 65% of the last admitted general category candidate are directly offered admission. Candidates not meeting this cutoff but scoring as low as half of this are offered admission to a one year preparatory course. In AIIMS, for example SC/ST students are eligible only if they score 50%. But this 50% is not mandatory for the Institute Quota and in occasion the Honourable High Court of Delhi had found that “AIIMS students, who had secured as low as 14% or 19% or 22% in the (all-India) entrance examination got admission to PG courses[2]
  2. Age
  3. Fees, Hostel Room Rent etc
Tuition fees and room rent is waived.

But the final marks needed to clear the exam and gain the degree are never relaxed.


History of the practice

Main articles: Mandal Commission, Poona Pact, and 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests

India is divided into many endogamous groups, or castes and sub-castes, as a result of centuries of practicing a form of social hierarchy called the caste system. Proponents of reservation policy says that traditional caste system, as it is practised, leads to severe oppression and segregation of the lower castes and limited their access to various freedoms, including education. Caste, according to ancient scriptures such as "Manu Smriti", is "Varnasrama Dharma", which translates to "offices given according to colour". The practice of caste in India followed this rule. The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... Poona Pact (1932) is the popular name of a resolution taken by the Indian National Congress leaders in Pune (now in Maharashtra), India in order to reach a compromise between several factions of the leaders who were not uninamious regarding the proposed seperate electorate of different castes of Hindu populace... Candles aligned to write No Quotas, street of Delhi. ... Endogamous group is a community in which the members generally marry within the group. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as jātis. ... Oppression is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ... Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space. ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

    • 1921-Madras Presidency introduces reservation of 44 per cent for non-Brahmins, 16 per cent for Brahmins, 16 per cent for Muslims, 16 per cent for Anglo-Indians/ Christians and eight per cent for Scheduled Castes.
    • 1935-Indian national congress passes resolution called Poona Pact to allocate separate electoral constituencies for depressed classes.
    • 1942-B.R.Ambedkar established the All India Depressed Classes federation to support the advancement of the scheduled castes. He also demanded reservations for the Scheduled castes in government services and education.
    • 1947-India obtained Independence. Dr. Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the drafting committee for Indian Constitution. The Indian constitution prohibits any discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth [3]. But, while providing equality of opportunity for all citizens, the constitution also contains special clauses to ensure reservation, "for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes"[3]. Separate constituencies allocated to Scheduled Castes and Tribes to ensure their political representation for 10 years.(These were subsequently extended for every 10 years through constitutional amendments).
    • 1979 Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward.[4] The commission didn't have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class(OBC), and used the 1930[5] census data to estimate the OBC population at 52%, and further classified 1257 communities as backward.[5]
    • 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%[4].As of 2006 number of castes in Backward class list went up to 2297 which is the increase of 60% from community list prepared by Mandal commission.
    • 1990, Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs. Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami Delhi university student attempted self immolation. Many students followed suit.
    • 1991 Narasimha rao Government introduced 10% separate reservation for Poor Among Forward Castes.
    • 1992 Supreme court upheld reservations to Other backward classes. Also see Reservations and Judiciary section
    • 1998, Central Government conducted large nationwide survey for the first time to estimate economical and educational status of various social groups.. The National Sample Survey puts the figure at 32%[2]. There is substantial debate over the exact number of OBC's in India, with census data compromised by partisan politics. It is generally estimated to be sizable, but lower than the figures quoted by either the Mandal Commission or and national Sample Survey[3].Mandal commission has been criticised of fabricating the data. National surveys indicated that status of OBC is comparable to Forward castes in many areas.[4]
    • 2005 93rd Constitutional amendment brought for ensuring reservations to other backward classes and Scheduled castes and Tribes in Private Educational institutions
    • 2006 Reservations introduced for Other backward classes in Central Government Educational Institutions. Total Reservation went up to 49.5%. Also See Recent Developments
    • 2007 Suprem Court give stayed on OBC reservation in Central Government Educational Institutions.

Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Poona Pact (1932) is the popular name of a resolution taken by the Indian National Congress leaders in Pune (now in Maharashtra), India in order to reach a compromise between several factions of the leaders who were not uninamious regarding the proposed seperate electorate of different castes of Hindu populace... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ... The term race serves to distinguish between populations or groups of people based on different sets of characteristics which are commonly determined through social conventions. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on classifications such as occupation, race, ethnicity, etc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which ensure people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ... In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Representative... An amendment is a change to the constitution of a nation or a state. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... The Other Backward Classes (or OBCs) in India are a group of castes officially recognized as having been traditionally subject to exclusion. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Rajiv Goswami (d. ... The University of Delhi (Hindi: दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय) is a university in India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (Telugu: , Hindi: ) (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was the twelfth Prime Minister of the Republic of India, and led one of the most important administrations in Indias modern history, overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. ... Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ...

Caste Based Reservations in Tamil Nadu

The reservation system in Tamil Nadu is much in contrast to the rest of India, not by the nature of reservation but by its history. The National Sample survey of 99-00 shows Tamilnadu as the state with highest percentage of OBC/SC/ST. It has been argued that large number of rich agricultural castes were introduced into the OBC category in Tamil Nadu by various governments, as a means of securing vote banks, since unlike the SC/ST category, there is no scientific basis for including castes in the OBC category in India. Current Anti Reservation Protests were triggered by Mr.Arjun Singh Indian Education Minister's announcement prior to Tamilnadu Elections regarding the implementation of 27% Reservation to Backward classes in Central Educational institutions. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... HRD Minister Arjun Singh Arjun Singh, (Hindi: born November 5, 1930, Madhya Pradesh) is a veteran Congress (I) Leader. ...


In spite of the above mentioned fact the state introduced Caste Based Reservations as early as 1921 i.e. during the British Raj when most of the higher offices were held by Brahmins themselves. At present there is a 69% caste based reservation in Education and Employment. This 69% reservation has been challenged as unconstitutional on the basis of an earlier supreme court ruling limiting reservations to 50%. While the case is pending, admissions are based on 69% reservation, but those candidates who are denied admission because of the reservation exceeding 50% are also admitted (effectively reducing the reservation to something between 50% and 69%). The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


However this rule is being followed only in Medical Education and in Govt quota of Engineering admissions. As a result of the sustained reservations for over 60 years, and also because of the facts that seats are reserved for Backward and Most Backward Caste, candidates from reserved categories (only backward caste) are able to outperform candidates from Forward Castes (see analysis below the table) The following table gives the Census, quanta of reservation and the number of those selected under General Category in MBBS Admissions in Tamil Nadu. It can be observed from the table that all other communities gained seats more than their population at the expense of Forward Castes in total number of seats. Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ...


Timeline

Tamilnadu Reservations
Tamilnadu Reservations

Sourced from a Rediff.com new article[6]. Image File history File links TNReservationTimeline. ... Image File history File links TNReservationTimeline. ...

1921
Anti Brahmin movement spearheaded by Justice Party, Communal Reservation introduced to restrict Brahmins to 16% of total seats.
1951
16% Reservation for SC/ST and 25% Reservation for OBCs introduced. Total Reservation Stood at 41%
1971
Sattanathan Commission recommended Introduction of "Creamy Layer" and altering Reservation percentage for Backward Classes to 16% and separate reservation of 17% to Most Backward Classes (MBCs).
DMK Government increased OBC reservation to 31% and Reservation for SC/ST has been increased to 18%. Total Reservation stood at 49%
1980
ADMK government excludes "Creamy Layer" from OBC reservation benefits. Income Limit for availing Reservation benefit has been fixed at Rs 9000 Per Annum. DMK and other Opposition parties protested the decision.
Creamy Layer scheme withdrawn and Reservation % for OBC has been increased to 50%. Total Reservation Stood at 68%
1989
Statewide Road Blockade Agitations were launched by Vanniar Sangam (Parent Body of Pattali Makkal Katchi) demanding 20% reservations in State Government and 2% Reservations in Central Government exclusively for Vanniyar Caste.
DMK Government Split OBC reservations as 2 Parts with 30% for OBC and 20% for MBC. Separate Reservation of 1% introduced for Scheduled Tribes. Total Reservation percentage stood at 69%.
1992
Supreme Court, in Mandal Judgement, reiterated that Reservation percentage cannot exceed 50% and "Creamy Layer" to be excluded from Reservation benefits.
1994
Court instructed Tamil Nadu Government to follow 50% reservations in the case filed by famous lawyer K. M. Vijayan on behalf of VOICE Consumer forum. Anandakrishnan, one of the members of Oversight committee, and then Anna University chairman announced that 50% reservation will be followed. His house was attacked.
69% Reservation was included in 9th Schedule.
K. M. Vijayan was brutally attacked and maimed while leaving to New Delhi to file case in Supreme Court against inclusion of 69% reservation in 9th Schedule[7]
2006
Supreme Court asked Tamil Nadu Government to exclude Creamy Layer from Reservation benefits.


Admission Data from http://www.hindu.com/2005/07/20/stories/2005072011970100.htm It is not worthy to have such a big Talk page on this issue. ... Justice Party was the political wing of Then Nala Urimai Sangam (literal translation: The South Indian Welfare Association). ... The Other Backward Classes (or OBCs) in India are a group of castes officially recognized as being traditionally subject to exclusion, while still having a higher status than scheduled castes or scheduled tribes. ... Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) is a regional political party in the Tamil Nadu state of India, but also has presence in near by southern Indian states, Pondicherry, Kerala and Karnataka. ... M.G.R. Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, splinter-group of All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. ... Pattali Makkal Katchi (பாட்டாளி மக்கள் கட்சி, abbreviated PMK), a Tamil political party. ... Veerappan was of Vanniyar origin Vanniyar, also Vanniar is the name given to a social group or caste, some of whose members were chiefs, rulers and former warriors in northern Tamil Nadu, southern Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. ... Anna University is one of Indias premier universities. ... This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ...

Community Population (in Tamil Nadu only) Population % (in Tamil Nadu only) Reserved Seats(%) (in Tamil Nadu only) Seats secured in OC (in Tamil Nadu only) % in OC (in Tamil Nadu only) +/- Over Population in OC (in Tamil Nadu only) % in Total (in Tamil Nadu only) +/- Over Population in Total (in Tamil Nadu only)
BC 2,87,93,980 46.14% 425(30%) 321 74.65% (+)28.51 52.72% (+)6.58
MBC/DC 1,30,24,065 20.86% 285(20%) 57 13.25% (-)7.61 24.16% (+)3.30
SC 1,18,57,504 19.00% 260(18%) 14 3.25% (-)15.75 19.36% (+)1.36
ST 6,51,321 1.04% 15(1%) 0 0% (-)1.04 1.06% (+)0.02%
Forward Castes 80,78,809 12.95% 0(0%) 38 8.83% (-)4.12% 2.68% (-)10.27%
Total 6,24,05,679 100.00% 100% 430 100% 100% 100% 100%
Performance of Various communities in Tamilnadu(All percentages rounded off to nearest integer)
Performance of Various communities in Tamilnadu(All percentages rounded off to nearest integer)

Please note that in Medical College Admissions in 1950s, 95% [8]of the seats were taken by those from the forward Castes. This table (in 2005) clearly shows that the Reservation in Tamil Nadu has uplifted the Backward Castes who are able to perform on par with the Forward Castes. The results of Reservation in Tamil Nadu are used a proof to show the efficiency and effectiveness of reservation. In fact, on the basis of this table, the following facts can be ascertained Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Image File history File links TNPerformance. ... Image File history File links TNPerformance. ...

  • The backward community has improved due to reservation as they have secured about 75% of seats in unreserved category (while their population fraction is around 50%) and they do not need reservation any further.
  • It can be seen that the Backward Castes have gained more seats than their population at the expense of Forward Castes, Most Backward Castes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • On calculating the % of forward castes among all students admitted it works out 2.68% in 2005 (38 out of 1415) and 1.9% in 2004 (28 out of 1415).
  • Even without reservation the percentage of students from forward castes who are admitted out of the total students admitted in general category is less than the percentage of their population.
  • It may be noted that 'Forward Castes' have secured only 9% seats in General Category (or less than 3% of seats overall) as against their population of 13%.
  • In total seats, all castes except Forward Castes were able to secure more than their population.
  • The 'backward castes' who form about 46% of the population have secured over 52% of the total available seats. This would actually suggest that 'forward castes' may be considered for reservation and the 'backward castes' may be considered for discontinuance of reservation.
  • The SC and ST communities, are able to secure 19.36% and 1.08% respectively of the total number of seats and 3% and 0% seats in General Category. This shows that they have improved over the years to get 3% of seats even without reservations, but reservations are still needed for social equality and can be discontinued when they are able to secure 18% of seats in unreserved category.

However, the above statistics are provided afer fulfilling the quota requirements for that admission year. It would be interesting to find out the statistics related to the distribution of seats to various communities before fulfilling the quota requirements for that particular admission year. This is particularly important because the top 39% of the unreserved (in Tamil-nadu) seats are given first to the top 39% of candidates which includes students from all the community. Once this is fulfilled the unreserved communities are removed from the pool and the reserved communities are given the rest of the remaining 69% of the seats as mandated by the reservation system.


Reservations and Judiciary

Indian Judiciary has pronounced some Judgments upholding reservations and some judgments for fine tuning its implementations. Lot of judgments regarding reservations have been modified subsequently by Indian parliament through constitutional amendments. Some judgments of Indian judiciary has been flouted by state and central Governments. Given below are the major judgments given by Indian courts and its implementation status[9][10]:

Year Judgement Implementation Details
1951 Court has pronounced that caste based reservations to backward classes violate equality for all principle under article 14. 1st constitutional amendment introduced to make judgement invalid.
1963 Court has put 50% cap on reservations in Balaji vs State of Mysore case Almost all states except Tamilnadu has not exceeded 50% limit. Tamilnadu exceeded limit in 1980. Andhra Pradesh tried to exceed limit in 2005 which was again stalled by high court.
1992 Supreme court in Indra Sawhney case
Upheld Implementation of separate reservation for other backward classes in central government jobs. Judgement implemented
Ordered to exclude Creamy layer of other backward classes from enjoying reservation facilities. All states except Tamilnadu implemented. Recent Reservation bill for providing reservations to other backward classes in educational institutions also has not excluded creamy layer. (Still under the consideration of Standing committee).
Ordered to restrict reservations within 50% limit. All states except Tamilnadu followed.
Declared separate reservations for economically poor among forward castes as invalid. Judgement implemented
Reservations cannot be applied in promotions. 77th Constitution amendment introduced to make judgement as invalid.
1994 Supreme court advised Tamilnadu to follow 50% limit Tamilnadu Reservations put under 9th Schedule of the constitution
2005 Supreme court ruled that caste based reservations cannot be enforced on Unaided private educational institutions. 93rd constitutional amendment introduced

Recent developments

Main articles: 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests and Reservation policy in Indian Institutes of Technology
December 2005- April 2006
93rd Constitutional amendment brought to make court judgement on Reservations to Private educational institutions as invalid
Human Resource Minister Mr. Arjun Singh said that the Central Government plans to introduce 27% Reservations for Other Backward Classes in Central Government funded institutes of higher education thereby taking the percentage of reserved positions to 49.5% of the total seats. The Election Commission criticized Mr. Arjun Singh for making this announcement before Assembly elections in Tamil Nadu, Kerala & West Bengal.[5]
May 2006 -August 2006
Anti Reservation Protests intensified in all parts of India.[11][12][13]). Pro reservationists claim protests were intensified by media bias."[14] Tamil Nadu stayed calm. This is attributed to low percentage of Forward castes in Tamilnadu (13%) as against 36% in India. Due to high reservations for decades their representation in various spheres of life is much less than their population. (See Tamilnadu Section). Those who opposed reservations in Tamilnadu faced violent attacks [6]
Alternative systems of Affirmative Action proposed by academics Prof. Purushottam Agrawal of the Jawaharlal Nehru University in the form of the Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action (MIRAA) - http://www.sabrang.com/cc/archive/2006/june06/report3.html and by Prof. Satish Deshpande and Dr. Yogendra Yadav of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies - http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/22/stories/2006052202261100.htm
Dr. Sam Pitroda, Chairperson of the National Knowledge Commission [an advisory body instituted by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh] came out in opposition to the proposed scheme to extend caste-based reservations to OBCs in institutes of Higher Education (http://www.indiadaily.org/entry/sam-pitroda-review-quota-policy/)
Dr. Pratab Bhanu Mehta, member-convener of the National Knowledge Commission resigns from his post in protest against the policy of reservations [Dr. Mehta's open letter of resignation - http://www.indianexpress.com/story/4916.html].
Indian Prime Minister appoints Oversight committee headed by former chief minister of Karnataka M. Veerappa Moily to suggest ways for implementation of reservations for Other Backward Classes and to suggest measures for increasing seats in educational institutions.
Oversight committee submits interim report and suggests phased implementation of reservations in central educational institutions for other backward classes.[7]
OBC reservation bill introduced in the Lok Sabha and referred to standing committee. It has not excluded creamy layer (rich and affluent amongst the other backward classes) from enjoying reservation benefits per supreme court judgement.[8]
Supreme court referred inclusion of 69% reservation in Tamilnadu in 9th schedule to 9 member bench
September 2006 -Till Date
Supreme court advised Tamilnadu to exclude creamy layer among Backward classes from enjoying reservation facilities.[9]
Supreme court observed that central Government is trying to introduce quota without adequate data.
Oversight committee submits final report.
Supreme court upheld constitutional amendment for providing reservations in promotions for Scheduled castes and Tribes. It reiterated 50% limit and exclusion of Creamy layer from enjoying reservation benefits.[10]
Parliamentary standing committee recommended preference for non creamy layer (Poor among backwards) among backward classes from enjoying reservation benefits and comprehensive populationar survey to identify real backward people.[11]
Sachar committee submitted its report regarding backwardness of Indian Muslims. It made many recommendations for uplifting Indian Muslims. It indicated that current enrollment in educational institutions of non Muslim OBC's is almost equal to/close to their population. It also recommended alternative methodfor identifying real needy people.[12]
Sachar committee report indicated that Hindu OBC's enrollment in all educational institutions is close to their populations per the 2004-5 national survey taken in 2004-05 (page 93/425 of Sachar committee report). Union Human Resources minister appointed panel to study about sachar committee recommendations regarding Indian Muslims[1] but did not give his opinion on this subject.
Sachar committee report indicated that Hindu OBC's enrollment in all educational institutions is close to their populations per the 2004-5 national survey taken in 2004-05 (page 93/425 of Sachar committee report). Union Human Resources minister appointed panel to study about sachar committee recommendations regarding Indian Muslims[1] but did not give his opinion on this subject.
Union cabinet meeting rejected Parliamentary standing committee recommendations and decided to bring reservations bill by including creamy layer (Super rich) among other backward classes. Parliament passed OBC Reservations bill through voice vote.[13]
AIIMS doctors started indefinite hunger strike protesting against reservations law.

[14] Candles aligned to write No Quotas, street of Delhi. ... The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) offer reservation for backward sections of the society. ... The sprawling campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University is located in New Delhi, the capital of India. ... Binomial name Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ... Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda, better known as Dr. Sam Pitroda, born in Titlagarh, Orissa, is an inventor, entrepreneur and policymaker. ... On 13th June, 2005 , the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, constituted the National Knowledge Commission, as a think-tank charged with considering possible policy that might sharpen Indias comparative advantage in the knowledge-intensive service sectors. ... See also Karnataka. ... Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Image File history File links CurrentEducation. ... Image File history File links CurrentEducation. ...


Population data

**NFHS Survey estimated only Hindu OBC population.Total OBC population derived by assuming Muslim OBC population in same proportion as Hindu OBC population )
**NFHS Survey estimated only Hindu OBC population.Total OBC population derived by assuming Muslim OBC population in same proportion as Hindu OBC population )
SC/ST
Only SC/ST population details are collected in Indian census. The SC/ST population is 24.4%.[15]
Other Backward Classes
After 1931,caste data is not collected for non SC/ST caste-groups in census. Mandal commission estimated OBC population based on 1931 census as 52%.There is an ongoing controversy about the estimation logic used by Mandal commission for calculating OBC population. Famous psephologist and researcher, Dr. Yogendra Yadav of the CSDS [who is a known votary of Affirmative Action] agrees that there is no empirical basis to the Mandal figure. According to him "It is a mythical construct based on reducing the number of SC/ST, Muslims and others and then arriving at a number.”

National Sample Survey's 1999-2000 (NSS 99-00) round estimated around 36 per cent of the country's population is defined as belonging to the Other Backward Classes (OBC). The proportion falls to 32 per cent on excluding Muslim OBCs. A survey conducted in 1998 by National Family Health Statistics (NFHS) puts the proportion of non-Muslim OBCs as 29.8 per cent.[16].These surveys are considered as large by Oversight committee in its final report and by Dr. Yogendra Yadav. Oversight committee has used these surveys extensively in its final report.[15] State population of backward classes in NSS 99-00 can be found in other section of this article. In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... The Other Backward Classes (or OBCs) in India are a group of castes officially recognized as being traditionally subject to exclusion, while still having a higher status than scheduled castes or scheduled tribes. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Image File history File links PopulationEstimations. ... Image File history File links PopulationEstimations. ...

Forward Castes
NSS 99-00
NSS 99-00
Many political and social leaders who supports reservations for the Other Backward classes like M Karunanidhi of the DMK, Dr.Udit Raj (President, Indian Justice Pary) etc normally estimate "forward castes" population as anywhere between 5-15%.

[16] This figure has hotly been disputed by such famous sociologists and commentators as Prof. Andre Beteille (Delhi School of Economics), Prof. Dipankar Gupta (Jawaharlal Nehru University), Prof. Satish Desphande (Delhi School of Economics), Dr Yogendra Yadav (CSDS) and Prof. Purushottam Agrawal (Jawaharlal Nehru University). National sample survey estimates "upper caste" population almost same as Backward classes at around 36%.Family health survey combined Forward castes population along with all communities of other religions. If you exclude Backward castes of other religions then it comes roughly around 38.6% which is more than Backward castes population. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1017x745, 59 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1017x745, 59 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Udit Raj (born Ram Raj 1st Jan 1958, Ramnagar, Distt. ... Andre Béteille is an Indian sociologist and writer. ...


Arguments

There are several arguments provided both in support and in opposition to reservation. Some of the arguments on either side are often disputed by the other, while others are agreed upon by both sides, with a possible third solution proposed to accommodate both parties.


Arguments offered by supporters of reservation

  • Affirmative Action schemes are in place in many countries including USA, South Africa, Malaysia, Brazil etc. It was researched in Harvard University that Affirmative Action programmes are beneficial to the under-privileged. [17] The studies said that Blacks who enter elite institutions with lower test scores and grades than those of whites achieve notable success after graduation. They earn advanced degrees at rates identical to those of their white classmates. They are even slightly more likely than whites from the same institutions to obtain professional degrees in law, business and medicine. They become more active than their white classmates in civic and community activities. [18].

Counter Point: Affirmative Action programmes in these countries, especially in the USA, differ significantly from the caste-based reservation system in place in India. Affirmative Action in the USA recognizes that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination working in society (such as race, gender, economic factors etc) while caste-based reservations focus only on caste at the cost of addressing social justice concerns more effectively for the sake of narrow political ends. Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ...

  • Affirmative Action has helped many - if not everyone from under-privilaged and/or under-represented communities to grow and occupy top positions in the world's leading industries. (See the Section on Tamil Nadu) Reservation in education is not THE solution, it is just one of the many solutions. Reservations is a means to increase representation of hitherto under-represented caste groups and thereby improve diversity on campus.

Counter Point: Reservation only on the basis of caste tends to only perpetuate caste in society rather than eliminate it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the Indian Constitution. It also weakens the notion of democratic citizenship by evaluating a person not on the basis of his/her merits or achievements or personal characteristics, but rather on the basis of accidents of birth.

  • To provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivilaged is our duty and their human right. Reservation will really help these marginalized people to lead successful lives, thus eliminating caste-based discrimination which is still widely prevalent in India especially in the rural areas. (about 60% of Indian population stays in Villages)

Counter Point: Villages consist not only of the so called "lower classes" but also of the "upper castes"(30% rural population comprises upper castes according to national surveys[17]). The economic conditions of the latter might not be much better than the former due to the fact that India's rural areas are generally not developed and lack in basic infrastructure and education and health facilities(More than 25% of Upper castes are illiterates and 65% upper castes income is below Rs 525/Month [18]). In light of this, it is unfair to exclude the poor amongst the "upper castes". It is also unfair to not toexclude the rich or the influential amongst the "lower castes"(Many people from backward classes & minorities appear in Forbes rich Indians list[19]).

  • Reservations in Tamil Nadu over 30 years have worked to such a level that OBCs are able to outshine the Forward Castes (See Tamil Nadu Figure Below) and hence the overall performance of the students have increased validating the argument that reservation brings out the best from the weaker sections of the society.

Counter Point:It is not surprising that OBC's outshining Forward castes in Tamilnadu where Forward castes are denied educational opportunities for more than 85 years through exhorbitant reservations. We should be proud if we bring equality through our policies and should be ashamed if our policies result in reverse discrimination and generates new set of depressed classes as happened in Tamilnadu.

  • Casteism is the root cause of the suffering of more than half (according to the disputed Mandal Commission) of India's population. To eliminate casteism we need to help underprivilaged people to do well in their education and share the same social status as the upper caste people. There are Reservations for SCs, STs and OBCs in all the southern states of India and the quality of education has only increased[citation needed].. The fact that most of the software, Information Technology and other advanced industries are found in the southern states prove that the persons getting seats through reservations after graduation are competent.

Counterpoint: The basic feature of the caste system is endogamy. To actually weaken the caste system, the government should provide incentives like reservations to people who marry outside their caste, thereby weakening the hold of the caste system in Indian Society. The fact that advanced industry is located in the south does not imply that only people gradudating from that region are employed in these companies. Instead, these companies employ people from a pan-India level. A root cause is a cause that is at a root of an effect. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ...

  • Reservation is everywhere in India - The head of a big firm is always the son of the company's chair, irrespective of the fact that there is another meritious person. The post of Temple priest in some temples is reserved only for a man from the Brahmin Caste, even if there is another person who knows the mantras. There exists practices of having separate temples with Gods like Ayyanar, Mariammal etc , which are situated outside the village and the priests in these temples are not brahmins. Janitor jobs are mostly done by people from the lowest caste, with very few exceptions, which are rare enough to make headlines [19] There is no opposition to these kind of reservations, since these are for the benefits of "upper castes". The only opposition is the reservations in education, since those would benefit people from the "lower castes" to climb the social ladder.

Counterpoint: A distinction has to be drawn between the actions of a family-owned company or a religious foundation and the policies of a state founded on the principals of Secularism and Democracy. Meritocracy does not mean father has to transfer his wealth to best person ignoring his son and mother has to feed food to best child ignoring her own child. Inheritance of family owned properties is accepted practice all over the world;Denial of rights to section of population only based on birth without considering other factors was being followed in countries like South Africa in Apartheid era and being followed only in India and Malaysia currently. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Petty apartheid: sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu (1989) Apartheid (meaning separatism in Afrikaans, cognate to English apart and hood) was a system of racial segregation that was enforced in South Africa from 1948, and was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating...


Arguments offered by anti-reservationists

  • Caste Based Reservation only perpetuate the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution. Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends.
  • Affirmative Action can be provided at a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. Such a system was in place in the Jawaharlal Nehru University till 1983 [called the "Deprivation Points" system] and is used by both Universities and the industry in the USA.
Rural landholding pattern of various social groups calculated by National Sample Survey 99-00 indicate that OBC and Forward Castes are comparable in Wealthiness.Survey results also indicated that unemployment is more among Forward castes than other communities like OBC,SC/ST.)
Rural landholding pattern of various social groups calculated by National Sample Survey 99-00 indicate that OBC and Forward Castes are comparable in Wealthiness.Survey results also indicated that unemployment is more among Forward castes than other communities like OBC,SC/ST.)
  • Political parties & central government paint false picture of inequality between Forward Castes and Other Backward classes without referring its own survey results . National surveys results indicate that Other backward classes are comparable to Forward Castes in many parameters. http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_nsso_rept_pubn.htm].This was pointed out by many analysts who analysed survey results.[20] and by Oversight committee in its final report.[21].Backward classes outshine Forward Castes in important parameters like business ownership, rural employement, health indicators in many states etc. Other Backward Classes are comparable to Forward Castes in landholding pattern which is used by national surveys to understand the wealthiness of various social groups.
  • There is great confusion in the "pro-reservation camp". While they clamour for 33% reservation for women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women's quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education. This is implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at work in society.
  • The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged.
  • Providing quotas on the basis of an accident of birth and not on the basis of competitive merit will be discriminatory to talented students, and weaken the country's competitive edge.
  • Poor people from "forward castes" do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from backward caste.
  • Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the seats reserved for "backward" castes, thus making the aim a total failure[20].
  • Quoting reservations as a reason for growth of Tamil Nadu & other southern states is not logical. Growth can come only by increasing capacity and improving infrastructure whereas Reservation only divides existing available resources. Reservation in Tamil Nadu has existed for 85 years, but the progress rate has gone up only for the last 20 years).[22] This could be easily attributed to Mid-day meals (which increased primary school enrollment), liberalisation of higher education (the number of engineering colleges has gone up from 11 to 250), and IT revolution providing new job opportunities. All these happened in the last 20-25 years synonymous with its progress history. Gujarat, Haryana, Maharastra and Punjab were able to prosper even without exhorbitant reservations for decades together like Tamil Nadu. States with high percentage of reservation does not show any significant growth difference in comparison with states which does not follow high% of reservation.
  • There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for upliftment of Backward classes, due to political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%.[21]. This is a clear case of reverse discrimination.
  • Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, whle according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs)[22].
  • This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain[23] and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education.
Based on NSS 99-00. NSS calculated Rural & Urban BC's separately. Weighting for Rural and Urban applied statewise as in the 2001 census. Backward castes can also compete in Open competition apart from 27% exclusive reservation
Based on NSS 99-00. NSS calculated Rural & Urban BC's separately. Weighting for Rural and Urban applied statewise as in the 2001 census. Backward castes can also compete in Open competition apart from 27% exclusive reservation
  • India is a country with BC Population ranging from 1% in some North Eastern states to 66% in Tamilnadu with many major states below 27%. Applying 27% reservation in central educational institutions all over India will deprive chances of other sections of population greatly. Already SC/ST reservation is available in all states equivalent to their population percentage. In Many Major states like Punjab, West Bengal, Haryana, Maharastra etc Forward castes students admitted will be much less than their population in Reservation Era even if they secure 100% seats in Open competition. Ref chart given.

Image File history File links RuralLandholding. ... Image File history File links RuralLandholding. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... The mid-day meal scheme is the popular name for school meal programme in India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals (human capital) to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, or health hazards where they are living. ... Image File history File links StatewiseBC.jpg‎ I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links StatewiseBC.jpg‎ I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Other notable suggestions

The following policy changes have been suggested in order to find a solution to the problem:


Suggestions by Sachar Committee

  • Sachar Committee which has studied the backwardness of Indian Muslims have recommended following scheme for identifying real backward and needy people.[24]
Marks based on Merit  : 60
Marks based on Household Income (Irrespective of caste)  : 13
Marks based on District in which person studied(Rural/Urban & Region : 13
Marks based on Family occupation and caste  : 14
Total Marks  : 100

Sachar committee has also indicated that OBC Hindus presence in educational institutions is almost equal to/close to their population.[25]. Indian Human Resources Minister has immediately appointed committee to study about sachar committee recommendations on Indian Muslims but did not offer any comments regarding his other suggestions.


Suggestion by Centre for the Study of Developing Societies

  • It has been suggested that although caste is an important factor of exclusion at work in Indian society; other factors such as gender, economic conditions, geographical disparities and kind of schooling received cannot be altogether ignored. For example, a kid studying in a village or municipal school does not enjoy the same status in society as another who has studied in an elite public school, caste notwithstanding. Some academics have argued that a better system of Affirmative Action would be one which seeks to address all the factors of exclusion at work in society which restrict a person's competitive abilities. Notable contributions in this regard have been made by Professor Purushottam Agrawal of the Jawaharlal Nehru University in the form of the Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action [MIRAA] system (see here: http://www.sabrang.com/cc/archive/2006/june06/report3.html) and by Dr. Yogendra Yadav and Dr. Satish Deshpande of the Centre for the Study Developing Societies [CSDS].

Suggestions from others

  • Reservation decisions has to be taken based on objective basis
  • Emphasis should be given to proper primary (and secondary) education so that groups under-represented in higher education institutes and workplaces become natural competitors.
  • The number of seats should be increased in the prestigious higher education institutes (such as IITs).
  • Government should announce long term plan to phase out reservations.
  • Government should promote inter-caste marriages [23] in big way [24] for abolition of caste system as initiated by Tamil Nadu. [25]

This is because the basic defining characteristic of the Caste system is endogamy. It has been suggested that providing reservations to children born of inter-caste marriages will be a surer way of weakening the caste system in society. Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are the premier educational institutions for science and technology spread all over India . ...

  • Reservations should be based on economic status instead of caste-based-reservations (But the middle class who get salaries will suffer and all the landlords and business tycoons can enjoy the benefit)
  • People who are tax payers or children of tax payers should not be eligible for reservation. This is will ensure that benefits reach poorest of the poor and India will achieve social justice. The people opposed to this idea say that this will encourage people not to pay taxes and will be an injustice to those who pay taxes honestly.
  • Using IT the government must gather latest data on caste wise population, education attainment, occupational achievements, wealth etc. and present this information to the nation. Finally conduct a plebiscite on this issue to see what the people want. If there are significant differences what people want (as we can see in this wiki) then the government can have different castes take care of its own community by running their own educational institutions and providing employment opportunities without any government interference.

See also

Reservation in India
  Indian caste system | Scheduled Castes and Tribes | Other Backward Classes | Forward Castes   
  Mandal Commission | 2006 Anti-reservation protests | Youth for Equality | Reservation policy in IITs | Poona Pact  

The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as jātis. ... In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... The Other Backward Classes (or OBCs) in India are a group of castes officially recognized as having been traditionally subject to exclusion. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... Candles aligned to write No Quotas, street of Delhi. ... Logo of Youth for Equality The Youth for Equality (YFE) was set up in order to counter the Government of Indias move to implement 27% reservation for OBCs in institutes of higher education (twenty central universities, the IITs, IIMs and AIIMS). ... The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) offer reservation for backward sections of the society. ... Poona Pact (1932) is the popular name of a resolution taken by the Indian National Congress leaders in Pune (now in Maharashtra), India in order to reach a compromise between several factions of the leaders who were not uninamious regarding the proposed seperate electorate of different castes of Hindu populace...

References

  1. ^ 49.5% seats reserve in IITs, IIMs for SCs, STs
  2. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1543278.cms
  3. ^ a b Constitution of India
  4. ^ a b Bhattacharya, Amit. "Who are the OBCs?". Retrieved on 2006-04-19. Times of India, April 8, 2006.
  5. ^ a b Ramaiah, A (6 June, 1992). Identifying Other Backward Classes (PDF) 1203-1207. Economic and Political Weekly. Retrieved on 2006-05-27.
  6. ^ http://in.rediff.com/news/2006/may/30spec.htm
  7. ^ http://www.indeconomist.com/15thsep06p1_4.htm
  8. ^ Admission register of Madras Medical College.
  9. ^ http://www.savebrandindia.org/pil_article.html
  10. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/story/14983.html
  11. ^ Anti-quota protests spread
  12. ^ Nationwide anti-quota stir continues
  13. ^ "Doc's hunger strike enters 10th day", cnn ibn, Global Broadcast News, 23 May 2006. Retrieved on 2006-05-27. 
  14. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/2006/06/03/stories/2006060301841000.htm
  15. ^ Population. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2006-05-27.
  16. ^ 36% population is OBC, not 52%. South Asian Free Media Association (8 May, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-27.
  17. ^ http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/research/
  18. ^ http://www.mat.jhu.edu/~sormani/affirm-impact.html
  19. ^ http://www.ndtv.com/morenews/showmorestory.asp?id=88554&frmsrch=1&txtsrch=Brahmins%2Csweepers
  20. ^ Srinivas, M.N. (August 1997). "The pangs of change". Frontline 14 (16). Retrieved on 2006-05-24. 
  21. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2005/07/20/stories/2005072011970100.htm
  22. ^ http://in.rediff.com/money/2006/may/08quota.htm
  23. ^ http://www.tn.gov.in/dePTsT/Tab27_05.htm
  24. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/18/stories/2006071804540300.htm
  25. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/10/stories/2006011004840300.htm

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Madras Medical College The Madras Medical College is a prominent educational institution located in Chennai, India. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ...

External links

  • Reservations: Towards a larger perspective
  • Open Letter to The Supreme Court of India : PILs on OBC Reservations
  • Anti Reservation Protest
  • Computing Backward Index
  • Reservation as viewed by Indian industry
  • Southern record - Frontline
  • Reservation policy forum article
  • Examining reservation
  • Reservation must for a healthy society
  • Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action (An Alternative Proposal)
  • Reservation as viewed by a backward class proponent
  • Questioning Reservation
  • Reservations as viewed by one OBC faculty member
  • An Alternative Suggestion
  • Reservations have worked in Southern States

 
 

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