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Encyclopedia > Research and development

The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications"[citation needed] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

New product design and development is more than often a crucial factor in the survival of a company. In an industry that is fast changing, firms must continually revise their design and range of products. This is necessary due to continuous technology change and development as well as other competitors and the changing preference of customers. A system driven by marketing is one that puts the customer needs first, and only produces goods that are known to sell. Market research is carried out, which establishes what is needed. If the development is technology driven then it is a matter of selling what it is possible to make. The product range is developed so that production processes are as efficient as possible and the products are technically superior, hence possessing a natural advantage in the market place.

R&D has a special economic significance apart from its conventional association with scientific and technological development. R&D investment generally reflects a government's or organization's willingness to foregos current operations or profit to improve future performance or returns, and its abilities to conduct research and development.

In 2006, the world's four largest spenders of R&D were the United States (US$343 billion), the EU (US$231 billion), Japan (US$130 billion), and China (US$115 billion). In terms of percentage of GDP, the order of these spenders for 2006 was China (US$115 billion of US$2,668 billion GDP), Japan, United States, EU with approximate percentages of 4.3, 3.2, 2.6, and 1.8 respectively. The top spenders in terms of percentage of GDP were China, Sweden, Finland, Japan, Korea, Switzerland, Iceland, United States, followed by 9 other countries, and then the EU. [1] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...

In general, R&D activities are conducted by specialized units or centers belonging to companies, universities and state agencies. In the context of commerce, "research and development" normally refers to future-oriented, longer-term activities in science or technology, using similar techniques to scientific research without predetermined outcomes and with broad forecasts of commercial yield. A company in the broadest sense is an aggregation of people who stay together for a common purpose. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

Statistics on organizations devoted to "R&D" may express the state of an industry, the degree of competition or the lure of progress. Some common measures include: budgets, numbers of patents or on rates of peer-reviewed publications. This article is about the field of statistics. ... For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... Scientific progress is the idea that scientific knowledge accumulates and refines through either the application of a scientific method, or some more haphazard heuristic. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Bank ratios are one of the best measures, because they are continuously maintained, public and reflect risk.

In the U.S., a typical ratio of research and development for an industrial company is about 3.5% of revenues. A high technology company such as a computer manufacturer might spend 7%. Although Allergan (a biotech company) tops the spending table 43.4% investment, anything over 15% is remarkable and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company. Companies in this category include pharmaceutical companies such as Merck & Co. (14.1%) or Novartis (15.1%), and engineering companies like Ericsson (24.9%).[1] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Biotechnology is technology based on agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... Merck & Co. ... Novartis headquarters in Basel Suffern, New York: the sole Novartis pharmaceutical production facility in the United States. ... For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ...

Such companies are often seen as poor credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual.

Generally such firms prosper only in markets whose customers have extreme needs, such as medicine, scientific instruments, safety-critical mechanisms (aircraft) or high technology military armaments. The extreme needs justify the high risk of failure and consequently high gross margins from 60% to 90% of revenues. That is, gross profits will be as much as 90% of the sales cost, with manufacturing costing only 10% of the product price, because so many individual projects yield no exploitable product. Most industrial companies get only 40% revenues. Gross profit or sales profit or gross operating profit is the difference between revenue and the cost of making a product or providing a service, before deducting overheads, payroll, taxation, and interest payments. ...

On a technical level, high tech organisations explore ways to re-purpose and repackage advanced technologies as a way of amortizing the high overhead. They often reuse advanced manufacturing processes, expensive safety certifications, specialized embedded software, computer-aided design software, electronic designs and mechanical subsystems.


Particulars in pharmaceuticals

Research often refers to basic experimental research; development refers to the exploitation of discoveries. Research involves the identification of possible chemical compounds or theoretical mechanisms. In the United States, universities are the main provider of research level products. In the United States, corporations buy licences from universities or hire scientists directly when economically solid research level products emerge and the development phase of drug delivery is almost entirely managed by private enterprise. Development is concerned with proof of concept, safety testing, and determining ideal levels and delivery mechanisms. Development often occurs in phases that are defined by drug safety regulators in the country of interest. In the United States, the development phase can cost between $10 to $200 million and approximately one in ten compounds identified by basic research pass all development phases and reach market.

In Business

Now a days the research and development has a great importance in the field of busienss as the level of competition and production process and methods are fastly increasing. It carries an especial importance in the field of Marketing where companies always keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers as to keep pace with modern trends and analyse deeply the needs, demands and desires of customers. Now the companies have seperate research department as to be updated and keep pace with modern enviroment and be more value provider than others.

R&D alliance

An R&D alliance is a mutually beneficial formal relationship formed between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon goals while remaining independent organisations, where acquiring new knowledge is a goal by itself. The different parties agree to combine their knowledge to create new innovative products.

See also

Science policy is usually considered the art of justifying, managing or prioritizing support of scientific research and development. ... This is a list of business and finance abbreviations. ...

External links

  • USA Today May 2008 Q&A with Texas Instruments CEO about Bayh-Dole Act


  1. ^ All figures UK R&D Scoreboard as of 2006.
2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background The NIH is especially interested in increasing the number of scientists trained to conduct high-quality research that combines insights derived from, and cuts across, different scientific, technical, and biomedical areas.
Both the didactic and the research phases of an award period must be designed to develop the necessary knowledge and research skills in scientific areas relevant to the career goals of the candidate.
Research Plan Reviewers recognize that an individual with limited research experience is less likely to be able to prepare a research plan with the breadth and depth of that submitted by a more experienced investigator.
The proposed career development experience must be in a research area new to the applicant and/or one in which an additional supervised research experience will substantially add to the research capabilities of the applicant.
Research Development Support: The amount of research development support is not uniform across the NIH and is determined independently by each awarding component of the NIH.
Applicants for the Population Research K01 must be junior-level researchers with a research or health professional doctorate degree and must propose a mentored research program that will enhance their ability to conduct scientifically sophisticated studies in the field of population research.
  More results at FactBites »



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