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Encyclopedia > Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
Dharmo Rakshati Rakshitaha
Dharmo Rakshati Rakshitaha
Agency overview
Formed 21 Sept 1968
Headquarters New Delhi, India
Agency Executive Ashok Chaturvedi, Director
Parent agency Prime Minister's Office, GoI
Child Agency The Aviation Research Centre

The Radio Research Center Raw describes material that is in its natural unprocessed form, or has not had the final stages of processing. ... Image File history File links Flagofraw. ... (Redirected from 21 September) September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Ashok Chaturvedi is the present chief of Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW). ... Executive director is a title given to a person who is the head of an executive branch of an organization or company. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... // Aviation Research Centre (ARC),is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat. ... It is a agency under Research and Analysis Wing. ...


Electronics & Tech. Services The Electronics and Technical Services (ETS), is the ELNIT arm of R&AW, Indias premier external intelligence organisation. ...


National Tech. Facilities Org. KH-4B Corona satellite NTFO is a secret agency under Research and Analysis Wing in India. ...

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW or R&AW)[1] is India's external intelligence agency. After the Sino-Indian War of 1962, the need for a separate intelligence body was keenly felt. Research and Analysis Wing was therefore created as an independent unit in September 1968 from the Intelligence Bureau, which handled both internal and external intelligence. Its headquarters are on Lodhi Road in New Delhi. The current director of the organization is Ashok Chaturvedi, an IPS officer who later joined the Research and Analysis Service (RAS). An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ... The road virtually traces a fourteenth century dirt track connecting Ghiyathpur (now Nizamuddin) village with the Bagh-i Jud (from which we get the present day Jor Bagh), one of the earliest orchards mentioned in Sultanate records. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Ashok Chaturvedi is the present chief of Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW). ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ...

Contents

Evolution of R&AW

R. N. Kao (1918-2002). Founder Director of RAW
R. N. Kao (1918-2002). Founder Director of RAW

R&AW traces its origins to the post Sino-Indian war (October 20 - November 21, 1962) scenario where foreign intelligence failure led to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) instructing the setting up of a dedicated foreign intelligence agency. Prior to its inception, intelligence collection was primarily the responsibility of the Intelligence Bureau (IB) which was created by the British. In 1933, sensing the political turmoil in the world which eventually led to the Second World War, the bureau's responsibilities were increased to include the collection of intelligence along India's borders. In 1947, after independence, Sanjeevi Pillai took over as the first Indian Director of IB. Having been depleted of trained manpower by the exit of the British, Pillai tried to run the bureau along MI5 lines. Although in 1949, Pillai organized a small foreign intelligence set-up, the inefficacy of it was proved by the Indian debacle in the Indo-China War of 1962, and the cry of 'not enough intelligence available', was taken up by the Indian Chief of Army Staff, General Chaudhry, after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Image File history File links Founderdirector2. ... Image File history File links Founderdirector2. ... R. N. Kao not only made RAW the most competent agency of the time but laid a firm foundation for it. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MI5 Logo. ... The Indochina Wars refers to wars for independence that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947 until 1979, between nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army is the highest post in the Indian Army ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War...


Around the end of 1966 the concept of a separate foreign intelligence agency began to take concrete shape. In 1968, after Indira Gandhi had taken over, it was decided that a full-fledged second security service was needed. R. N. Kao[2], then a deputy director of the Intelligence Bureau, submitted a blueprint for the new agency. Kao was appointed as the chief of India's first foreign intelligence agency named as the Research and Analysis Wing or R&AW. The R&AW was given the responsibility for strategic external intelligence, human as well as technical, plus concurrent responsibility with the Directorate-General of Military Intelligence for tactical trans-border military intelligence up to a certain depth across the LOC and the international border. Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) ran a whole big country. ... R. N. Kao not only made RAW the most competent agency of the time but laid a firm foundation for it. ... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ...


As per convention, the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) under the Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for co-ordinating and analyzing intelligence activities between RAW, the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). In practice, however, the The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ...

The framework of Indian intelligence

effectiveness of the JIC has been varied. With the establishment of the National Security Council in 1999, the role of the JIC has been merged with the NSC. R&AW's legal status is unusual; it is not an "Agency" but a "Wing" of the Cabinet Secretariat. Hence R&AW is not answerable to Parliament on any issue. Because of this, R&AW has been kept out of reach of the Right to Information Act [3][4]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Right to Information Act 2005 (Act No. ...

R&AW takes shape

R&AW started as a wing of the main Intelligence Bureau with 250 employees and an annual budget of Rs 2 crore (roughly $450,000). In the early seventies, its annual budget had risen to Rs 30 crores while its personnel numbered several thousand. In 1971, Kao had persuaded the government to set up the Aviation Research Centre (ARC). The ARC's job was aerial reconnaissance.[5] It replaced the Indian Air Force's old reconnaissance aircraft and by the mid-70s, R&AW, through the ARC, had high quality aerial pictures of the installations along the Chinese and Pakistani borders. Presently the budget of R&AW hovers around $150 million. [6][7] It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... // Aviation Research Centre (ARC),is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...

The ARC operating bases at 1.Military Charbatia Air Base Cuttack, Orissa 20°33'N 85°53'E, 2.Military Dum Duma Air Station, Tinsukia, Assam 27°33'N 95°34'E , 3.Chakrata Air Station, Chakrata, Uttarakhand 30°42'N 77°51'E 4.Farkhor Air Base Farkhor/Ayni, Tajikistan 37°28'N 69°22'E.
The ARC operating bases at 1.Military Charbatia Air Base Cuttack, Orissa 20°33'N 85°53'E, 2.Military Dum Duma Air Station, Tinsukia, Assam 27°33'N 95°34'E , 3.Chakrata Air Station, Chakrata, Uttarakhand 30°42'N 77°51'E 4.Farkhor Air Base Farkhor/Ayni, Tajikistan 37°28'N 69°22'E.

There are four R&AW Aviation Research Centre operating bases:[8] at Charbatia in Cuttack; at Chakrata on the Uttarakhand-Himachal Pradesh border, also the headquarters of the elite Special Frontier Force; Dum Duma near Tinsukia in Assam; and at the Palam domestic airport in Delhi.[9] It is also alleged that Farkhor Air Base, the only Indian military base situated in a foreign country, at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan,[10] is also another base station of ARC. By 1976, Kao became responsible for security, reporting directly to the Prime Minister. His rise paralleled R&AW's rise to prominence. R&AW agents operated in virtually every major embassy and high commission. Today R&AW has close to 10000 agents in Pakistan alone and more around the world. ARC has positioned itself to be one of the foremost agencies in aerial surveillance. Its assets of fixed-wing transport and light aircraft like Russian IL-76s and Antonov An-32s and General Dynamics Gulfstream III/SRA-1s and upgraded Gulfstream IV/SRA-4 jets of the US and helicopter fleet comprising Russian MI-8s and a mix of locally built Cheetahs (locally modified French Alouette IIs)[11] and Chetak's (Alouette IIIs), many of which are used to transport Special Frontier Force (SFF) commandos from their base at Chakrata, 250 km north of New Delhi, at the behest of R&AW operatives or from the Intelligence Bureau are tasked with gathering information via airborne signal intelligence (SIGINT) operations and photo reconnaissance flights along its northern and eastern frontiers.[12] Image File history File links Special_arc. ... Image File history File links Special_arc. ... // Aviation Research Centre (ARC),is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat. ... Located 100 km from Cuttack, Orissa, Charbatia Air Base serves as the most important aerial reconnaissance post of ARC in Eastern India. ... , Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Tinsukia is a city in the north east of India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Chakrata, located at an elevation of 5,500-6,500 feet, approx. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Farkhor Air Base is the only Indian overseas military base, situated at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan. ... , Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Chakrata, located at an elevation of 5,500-6,500 feet, approx. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... The Special Frontier Force are a special forces unit of the Indian military. ... Tinsukia is a city in the north east of India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Farkhor Air Base is the only Indian overseas military base, situated at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... General aviation (abbr. ... An Il-76 serving Aeroflot The Ilyushin Il-76, NATO codename Candid, is a 4-engined heavy transport aircraft in widespread use in eastern Europe and Africa. ... The Antonov An-32 (NATO reporting name: Cline) is a twin-engined turboprop military transport aircraft. ... General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... Gulfstream may refer to: Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Aerospace See also Gulf Stream for the ocean current This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Alouette II is a light helicopter originally manufactured by Sud Aviation and later Aérospatiale of France. ... It has been suggested that IAR 316 be merged into this article or section. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ...


The Government of India has added another intelligence agency which is dedicated to collection of technical intelligence ( TECHINT ). India's new hi-tech spying agency, the National Technical Facilities Organisation (NTFO), also known as National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) is believed to be functioning under RAW, although it remains autonomous to some degree. While the exact nature of the operations conducted by NTFO are classified, it is believed that it deals with research on imagery and communications using various platforms. Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations. ... KH-4B Corona satellite NTFO is a secret agency under Research and Analysis Wing in India. ...


R&AW's objectives

     India      Key strategic, military & economic partners      Key strategic and economic partners      Economic partners      Countries which have territorial disputes      Arch-rivals
     India      Key strategic, military & economic partners      Key strategic and economic partners      Economic partners      Countries which have territorial disputes      Arch-rivals

The objectives of R&AW [13] have been: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) India  Indias key strategic, military and economic partners  Key strategic and economic partners of India*  Economic partners of India**  Countries which have border/territorial disputes with India***  Arch-rivals * - All members of the African Union are generally... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) India  Indias key strategic, military and economic partners  Key strategic and economic partners of India*  Economic partners of India**  Countries which have border/territorial disputes with India***  Arch-rivals * - All members of the African Union are generally...

  • To monitor the political and military developments in adjoining countries, which have direct bearing on India's national security and in the formulation of its foreign policy.
  • Secondly, to watch the development of international communism and the schism between the two communist giants, the Soviet Union and China. As in other countries, both the powers had direct access to the communist parties in India.
  • Thirdly, to make the control and limitation of the supply of military hardware to Pakistan, mostly from European countries, the USA and China, a high priority.
  • Fourthly, to mould international public opinion by using a strong and vibrant Indian diaspora.

Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ...

The Organization

Further information: CIA Organizational Chart

R&AW has been organized on the lines of the CIA[14]. The chief of the RAW is designated The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...

Organizational structure of R&AW.

Secretary (Research) in the Cabinet Secretariat. Understandably, there is not a lot of information available about this position. Most of the occupants have been experts on either Pakistan or China. They also have the benefit of training in either US or the UK, and more recently in Israel[15].The Secretary (R) reports on an administrative basis to the Cabinet Secretary, who reports to the Prime Minister (PM). However, on a daily basis the Secretary (R) reports to the National Security Advisor. Reporting to the Secretary (R) are:[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Two Special Secretaries and one Special Director of the ARC, the Aviation Research Centre.
  • Four Additional Secretaries, responsible for different geographical regions.
  • A large number (above 40) Joint Secretaries, who are the functional heads of various desks.

The internal structure of the RAW is a matter of speculation, but brief overviews of the same are present in the public domain. Attached to the HQ of RAW at Lodhi Road, New Delhi are different regional headquarters, which have direct links to overseas stations and are headed by a controlling officer who keeps records of different projects assigned to field officers who are posted abroad. Intelligence is usually collected from a variety of sources by field officers and deputy field officers; it is either preprocessed by a senior field officer or by a desk officer. The desk officer then passes the information to the Joint Secretary and then on to the Additional Secretary and from there it is disseminated to the concerned end user. R&AW personnel are called "Research Officers" instead of traditional "agents". There is a sizeable number of female officers in R&AW even at operational level. In recent years R&AW has shifted its primary focus from Pakistan to China and have started operating a separate desk for this purpose. [16] // Aviation Research Centre (ARC),is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat. ... The road virtually traces a fourteenth century dirt track connecting Ghiyathpur (now Nizamuddin) village with the Bagh-i Jud (from which we get the present day Jor Bagh), one of the earliest orchards mentioned in Sultanate records. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ...


Training of R&AW Agents[17]

RAW headqurters on Lodhi Road in New Delhi at 28°35'N 77°14'E.

Recruitment[18] Initially, R&AW relied primarily on trained intelligence officers who were recruited directly. These belonged to the external wing of the Intelligence Bureau. In times of great expansion, many candidates are also taken from the police and other services. Later R&AW began directly recruiting graduates from universities. Today R&AW has its own service cadre, the Research and Analysis Service (RAS) to absorb talent. The criteria for selection are fairly stringent. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The road virtually traces a fourteenth century dirt track connecting Ghiyathpur (now Nizamuddin) village with the Bagh-i Jud (from which we get the present day Jor Bagh), one of the earliest orchards mentioned in Sultanate records. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ...


Basic Training[19] Basic training commences with 'pep talks' to boost the morale of the new recruit. This is a ten-day phase in which the inductee is familiarized with the real world of intelligence and espionage, as opposed to the spies of fiction. Common usages, technical jargon and classification of information are taught. Case studies of other agencies like CIA, KGB, Chinese Secret Agency and ISI are presented for study. The inductee is also taught that intelligence organisations do not identify who is friend and who is foe, the country's foreign policy does. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Ministry of State Security (MSS) (Simplified Chinese: 国家安全部; Pinyin: Guojia Anquan Bu, or Guoanbu) is the security agency of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ...


Advanced Training[20]The recruit is now attached to a Field Intelligence Bureau (FIB). His training here lasts for six months to a year. He is given firsthand experience of what it was to be out in the figurative cold, conducting clandestine operations. During night exercises under realistic conditions, he is taught infiltration and exfiltration. He is instructed to avoid capture and, if caught, how to face interrogation. He learns the art of reconnoiter, making contacts, and, the numerous skills of operating an intelligence mission. At the end of the field training, the new recruit is brought back to the school for final polishing. Before his deployment in the field, he is given exhaustive training in the art of self-defense, an introduction to martial arts and the use of technical espionage devices. He is also drilled in various administrative disciplines so that he could take his place in the foreign missions without arousing suspicion. He is now ready to operate under the cover of an Embassy to gather information, set up his own network of informers, moles or operatives as the task may require. See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... A military jargon for exiting an area (usually behind enemy lines or in enemy territory). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... A mole is a spy who works for an enemy nation and works within his nations government. ...


Functions of R&AW

Collection of information: R&AW obtains information critical to Indian strategic interests. Both overt and covert means are adopted. Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathering disciplines that encompasses all gathering of intelligence by means of interpersonal contact. ... IMINT, short for IMagery INTelligence, is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... MASINT, short for Measurement and Signature Intelligence, refers to intelligence gathering activities that bring together disparate elements that do not fit within the definitions of Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT), or Human Intelligence (HUMINT). ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... FISINT stands for Foreign Instrumentation Signals INTelligence, and refers to a subset of SIGINT restricted to monitoring primarily non-human communication. ... GEOINT stands for GEOspatial INTelligence, which is an intelligence discipline comprising the exploitation and analysis of satellite information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. ... Financial Intelligence (or FININT) is the gathering of information about the financial affairs of entities of interest, to understand their nature and capabilities, and predict their intentions. ... Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations. ... Telemetry intelligence (TELINT) is a subdiscipline of FISINT which is concerned with missiles and other remotely-monitored devices sending back continuous streams of data about their location, speed, engine status and other metrics. ... ACOUSTINT (sometimes ACINT) stands for Acoustical Intelligence and is an intelligence gathering discipline that collects and processes acoustic phenomena. ... Infrared intelligence is the gathering and processing of intelligence in the infrared spectrum. ... Radiation intelligence, or RINT (sometimes also referred to as RADINT), is military intelligence gathered and produced from unintentional radiation created as induction from electrical wiring, usually of computers, data connections and electricity networks. ...


Classification of information: Data is sifted through, classified as appropriate, and filed with the assistance of the computer network in the 13-story bombproof building situated at Lodhi Road, New Delhi.


Aggressive intelligence: The primary mission of R&AW includes aggressive intelligence which is comprised of espionage, psychological warfare, subversion, sabotage, and promoting insurgency in enemy locations. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Look up subversion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... The US government and media was using the term insurgent as early as 1899 to describe rebels during the Philippine-American War, here Filipinos described as insurgents at the time lie in a trench after being executed by US forces. ...


Counter intelligence: R&AW has a dedicated section which spies against enemy's intelligence collection oganizations. With unscrupulous enemy agencies abounding in Indian neighbourhood, this is the second most important function of R&AW.


Modus operandi

Diplomatic missions:[21] Diplomatic missions provide an ideal cover and R&AW centers in a target country are generally located on the embassy premises. - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ...


Multinationals: R&AW operatives find good covers in multinational organizations. Non-governmental organizations and cultural programmes are also popular screens to shield R&AW activities. A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... “NGO” redirects here. ...


Media:International media centers can easily absorb R&AW operatives and provide freedom of movement.

Collaboration with other agencies: R&AW maintains active collaboration with other secret services in various countries. Its contacts with FSB of Russia, KHAD, the Afghan agency, Israel's Mossad, the CIA and MI6 have been well-known, a common interest being Pakistan's nuclear programme. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Agent handler is a generic term common to many intelligence organizations which can be applied to Case Officers, those who aspire to be Case officers, controllers, contacts, couriers and other assorted trainees. ... Black Bag Operations were conducted by FBI agents wherein they illegally entered offices of targeted individuals and/or organizations, and photographed information found in their records. ... American dollar coin used for concealment Concealment devices, as the term suggests, are used to hide things for the purpose of secrecy. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... A dead drop or dead letter box, is a location used to secretly pass items between two people, without requiring them to meet. ... To eavesdrop is to surreptitiously overhear a private conversation. ... “False colors” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Honeypot. ... Nonofficial cover is a term used in espionage (particularly by the CIA) for an agent or operative who assumes a covert role in an organization without ties to the government he or she is working for. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. ... A one-way voice link (OWVL) is a shortwave radio broadcast used by spy networks to communicate with agents in the field. ... Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... í For other uses, see Tempest. ... Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ... KHAD or KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Eteleaat-e Dawlati, the Afghanistan Marxist regimes secret police, also known as the State Information Agency. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Pakistan started focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ...


Third Country Technique: R&AW has been active in obtaining information and operating through third countries like Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Myanmar and Singapore.


Spotting and Recruitment: R&AW operatives actively search for local recruits and operatives. Separatist tendencies and ethnic or sectarian sensitivities are also allegedly used as grounds for manipulation (such as the alleged involvement of R&AW with the Balochistan Liberation Army). Armed forces and Paramilitary personnels remain a primary target for enrolment. Main article: History of Balochistan The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is an organisation dedicated to fighting for the independence of Balochistan. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...


Directors of R&AW

No. Took office Left office Career Highlights
01 R. N. Kao 1968 1977 Founder Director of RAW, ARC • Bangladesh Liberation WarOperation Smiling Buddha
02 N. Santook 1977 1983 Founder Director of RRC, ETS
03 Girish Chandra Saxena 1983 1986 Collaborated with the Intelligence Agencies of US, the erstwhile USSR, China, Iran, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, etc • Kanishka bombing case
04 A.K. Verma 1986 1989 Operation CactusIndian Peace Keeping Force
05 G.S. Bajpai 1989 1991 Counter Insurgency operations
06 N. Narasimhan 1991 1993 Operation Chanakya
07 J.S. Bedi 1993 1994 Chief during 1993 Mumbai bombings • Specialist in China,Pakistan and counter terrorism.
08 A.S. Syali 1994 1996 Increased economic surveillance • Emphasis on advanced training and more recruitment
09 Ranjan Roy 1996 1997 Negotiation on Farkhor Air Base
10 Arvind Dave 1997 1999 Kargil WarOperation Shakti
11 Vikram Sood 1999 2003 Negotiated with IC 814 hijackers • Founder of National Technical Facilities Organisation
12 C D Sahay 2003 2005 Operation Leech • Revamped ARC • Inauguration of RAW headquarter at Lodhi Road, New Delhi
13 P K H Tharakan 2005 2007 Was instrumental in setting up of Nuclear Command Authority (India)
14 Ashok Chaturvedi 2007 Present Investigation of Samjhauta bombings

R. N. Kao not only made RAW the most competent agency of the time but laid a firm foundation for it. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States Commanders • Col. ... The so-called Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ... Gary Saxena Girish Chandra Gary Saxena is a former governor of Jammu and Kashmir state in India. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... An Indian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft that was used to paradrop Indian troops in Male. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 15 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai (Bombay), India on March 12, 1993. ... Farkhor Air Base is the only Indian overseas military base, situated at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Indian Airlines Flight 814 was a flight that flew from Kathmandu, Nepal to Delhi, Indias Indira Gandhi International Airport // The hijack The Indian Airlines flight 814 was hijacked on Christmas Eve,December 24, 1999, shortly after takeoff by from Kathmandu airport in Nepal and entered Indian airspace. ... KH-4B Corona satellite NTFO is a secret agency under Research and Analysis Wing in India. ... C D Sahay was chief of Research and Analysis Wing, Indias agency for external intelligence. ... Template:Category During the BJP’s tenure in power, the military-to-military relations between India and Burma improved dramatically. ... Keralas Director General of Police P K Hormis Tharakan, who belongs to the 1968 batch of the Indian Police Service, took over as the new chief of the Research & Analysis Wing (R&AW), the external intelligence agency on February 1. ... The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the nodal agency for all command, control and operational decisions regarding Indias nuclear weapon stockpile. ... Ashok Chaturvedi is the present chief of Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW). ... The Samjhauta Express bombings were terrorist attacks that occurred just before midnight and into the early hours of February 19, 2007, on the Samjhauta Express, a twice-weekly train service connecting Delhi, India, and Lahore, Pakistan. ...

Major successes of R&AW

Pakistan's Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi signs the instrument of surrender on December 16, surrendering his forces to India's Lt. Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora.
Pakistan's Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi signs the instrument of surrender on December 16, surrendering his forces to India's Lt. Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora.
  • Amalgamation of Sikkim: Bodered by Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan and West Bengal in the Eastern Himalayas Sikkim was ruled by a Maharaja. The Indian Government had recognized the title of Chogyal (Dharma Raja) for the Mahraja of Sikkim. In 1972 R&AW was authorized to install a pro-Indian democratic government there. In less than three years Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union, on April 26, 1975.
  • Special Operations:In the mid 1980s RAW set up two covert groups, Counterintelligence Team-X(CIT-X) and Counterintelligence Team-J(CIT-J), the first directed at Pakistan and the second at Khalistani groups. Rabinder Singh, the R&AW double agent who defected to the United States in 2004, helped run CIT-J in its early years. Both these covert groups used the services of cross-border traffickers to ferry weapons and funds across the border, much as their ISI counterparts were doing. According to former R&AW official and security analyst B. Raman, the Indian counter-campaign yielded results. "The role of our cover action capability in putting an end to the ISI's interference in Punjab", he wrote in 2002, "by making such interference prohibitively costly is little known and understood." These covert operations were discontinued during the tenure of IK Gujral.[27]
  • Operation Chanakya:[29]
    A Pakistan magazine Herald published a cover story on the terrorist training camps in Pakistan, which was training Kashmiri and Afghan militants. A follow up story by Dawn newspaper confirmed its existence.[30]
    This was the R&AW operation in the disputed Kashmir region to infiltrate various ISI-backed Kashmiri terrorist groups and restore peace in the Kashmir valley. R&AW operatives infiltrated the area, collected military intelligence, and provided evidence about ISI's involvement in training and funding Kashmiri terrorist groups [31][32]. R&AW was successful not only in unearthing the links between the ISI and the terrorist groups, and also in infiltrating and neutralizing the militancy in the Kashmir valley.[33][34][35] Operation Chanakya also marked the creation of pro-Indian groups in Kashmir like the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen, Musleem Mujahideen etc. These counter-insurgencies consist of ex-militants and relatives of those slain in the conflict. Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen leader Kokka Parrey was himself assassinated by terrorists.[36]
  • Disturbances in Pakistan:[37] The Pakistani government claims that dissent among the Balochis, tribals in the North-West Frontier Province, Waziristan, Northern Areas and rural sindhi population is due to R&AW's interventions[38]. Pakistan also claims that R&AW has established its training camps in Afghanistan in collaboration with the Northern Alliance in a bid to destabilise the region, as a retaliation for Pakistan's involvement in Kashmir.[39] It is also claimed by Pakistani authorities that approximately 600 ferraris (Baloch tribal dissidents) and members of Islamic Emirate of Waziristan were trained to handle explosives and use sophisticated weapons in these camps.[40] While Pakistan has long complained of India-engineered terrorism on its soil, there is so far no reputable open-source account of either its scale or its course and the Indian government has steadfastly denied any involvement in the Baloch-NWFP problem.
  • Operation Leech: Surrounded by Arakans and dense forest Myanmar had always been a worrisome point for Indian intelligence. As the major player in the area India always sought to promote democracy and install friendly governments in the region. To these ends, R&AW cultivated Burmese rebel groups and pro-democracy coalitions, especially the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) [41]. India allowed KIA to carry a limited trade in jade and precious stones using Indian territory and even supplied them weapons. It is further alleged that KIA chief Maran Brangsein met the R&AW chief in Delhi twice. However when KIA became the main source of training and weapons for all northeastern rebel groups, R&AW initiated an operation, code named Operation Leech, to assassinate the leaders of the Burmese rebels as an example to other groups.[42]
  • War on Terror:Although R&AW's contribution to the war on terror is highly classified, the organization gained some attention in the western media after claims that it was assisting the United States by providing intelligence on Osama Bin Laden and the Taliban's whereabouts. Maps and photographs of terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and Pakistan along with other evidence implicating Osama bin Laden in terrorist attacks, were given to US intelligence officials. R&AW's role in the war on terror may increase as US intelligence has indicated that it sees R&AW as a more reliable ally than Pakistani intelligence. It has further come to light that a timely tip-off by RAW helped foil a third assassination plot against Pakistan's President General Pervez Musharraf[43].

Image File history File links 1971_surrender. ... Image File history File links 1971_surrender. ... Lt. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lt-Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora (February 13, 1916 - May 3, 2005) was the Indian commander whose comprehensive defeat of Pakistan in 1971 led to the creation of Bangladesh. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States Commanders • Col. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bengali: ) (Liberation Army), also termed as the Freedom Fighters or FFs was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... The so-called Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ... The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the nodal agency for all command, control and operational decisions regarding Indias nuclear weapon stockpile. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Pokhran (also spelt Pokaran) is a city and a municipality in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... , Sikkim (also Sikhim) (DevanāgarÄ«: सिक्किम  ) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ĩ:This is about the proposed nation-state, see Khalistan movement for a detailed article on the attempted creation of this state A proposed flag for Khalistan Khālistān (East Punjabi: , West Punjabi: ), meaning The Land of the Pure, was the name given to a proposed nation-state by Jagjit... Photo of ex-RAW operative Rabinder Singh Rabinder Singh is a former RAW official who was suspected of being a CIA mole in New Delhi. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Inder Kumar Gujral (Hindi: ) (born 4 December 1919) was the 13th Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... An Indian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft that was used to paradrop Indian troops in Male. ... PLOTE stands for Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (Dhivehi: Þ‰Þ¦Þ‡ÞªÞ‰Þ«Þ‚Þª އަބްދުލް ÞŽÞ¦Þ‡Þ°Þ”Þ«Þ‰Þ°) (born December 29, 1937) has been the president of the Republic of Maldives since November 11, 1978, having succeeded Ibrahim Nasir. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... The Parachute Regiment is the main airborne formation of the Indian Army. ... , stop erasing thisAgra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Hulhule (ހުޅުލެ) is an island in the North Malé Atoll of the Maldives. ... Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The US government and media was using the term insurgent as early as 1899 to describe rebels during the Philippine-American War, here Filipinos described as insurgents at the time lie in a trench after being executed by US forces. ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dawn is Pakistans oldest and most widely-read English-language newspaper. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Counter-insurgency, commonly abbreviated COIN, is a type of military campaign used in an occupation or a civil war to quell rebellion. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Area controlled by the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan shown in dark green The Islamic Emirate of Waziristan (Urdu: اسلامی امارات وزیرستان ) is a rebel organization in Waziristan, Pakistan that some commentators claim gained de facto recognition from the Government of Pakistan when it was named as party to the Waziristan Accord, the agreement... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... The Rakhine people (Burmese: ; formerly Arakanese) are a sub-ethnic group of the Bamar. ... KIA may refer to: An ethnic Arm group, in Myanmar known as Kachin Independence Army The KIA is sometimes referred as KIO Categories: | ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 11, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and had become the leader of the country in wake of a coup. ...

R&AW's failures

  • ELINT operations in Himalayas:[44]After China tested its first nuclear weapons on October 16, 1964, at Lop Nur, Xinjiang, India and USA shared a common fear about the nuclear capabilities of China.[45] Owing to extreme remoteness of Chinese testing grounds and strict secrecy surrounding the Chinese nuclear programme, it was almost impossible to carry out any HUMINT operation. So CIA in late 60s decided to launch an ELINT operation along with R&AW and ARC to track China's nuclear tests and monitor its missile launches. The operation, in the garb of a mountaineering expedition to Nanda Devi involved celebrated Indian climber M S Kohli who along with operatives of Special Frontier Force and CIA most notably Jim Rhyne, a veteran STOL pilot, was to place a permanent ELINT device, a transceiver powered by a plutonium battery, that could detect and report data on future nuclear tests carried out by China[46]. The monitoring device was near successfully implanted on Nanda Devi, however an avalanche forced a hasty withdrawal[47], later a subsequent mountain operation to retrieve or replant the device was aborted when it was found that the device was lost. Recent reports indicate that radiation traces from this device have been discovered in sediment below the mountain[48]. However the actual data is not conclusive.
  • Kahuta's Blueprint:[49] [50]
    Ordinance Blueprint,Khan Research Laboratories, A.Q. Khan Laboratories, Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), Kahuta, Pakistan 33°39'11"N 73°15'33"E.
    Kahuta is the site of the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL), Pakistan's main nuclear weapons laboratory as well as an emerging center for long-range missile development. The primary Pakistani fissile-material production facility is located at Kahuta, employing gas centrifuge enrichment technology to produce Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). R&AW agents claim that in early 1978[51], they were on the verge of obtaining the plans and blueprint for Kahuta Research Laboratories that was built to counter the Pokhran atomic blast, but the then Indian Prime Minister Morarji Desai not only refused to sanction the $ 10,000 demanded by the R&AW agent, but informed Pakistan of the offer[52]. According to conflicting reports, Pakistanis caught and eliminated the R&AW mole.
  • Mujibur Rahman's Assassination: R&AW operatives claim that they had advance information about Mujib-ur-Rahman's assassination but tragically Sheikh Mujib ignored[53] R&AW's inputs and was killed along with 40 members of his family. R&AW thus failed to prevent the assassination which led to the loss of a charismatic leader who had a soft corner for India after all they had done for his countries' independence. However recently R&AW has successfully thwarted plans of assasinating Sheikh Hasina Wazed, daughter of Mujibur Rahman, by Islamist extremist, LTTE and ISI[54].
  • SriLanka:[55] [56]. R&AW started training the LTTE to keep a check on Sri Lanka, which had helped Pakistan in the Indo-Pak War by allowing Pakistani ships to refuel at Sri Lankan ports, but LTTE created lot of problems and complications and then Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi was forced to send Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to restore normalcy in the region. The disastrous mission of Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) was blamed by many on the lack of coordination between the IPKF and R&AW. Its most disastrous manifestation was the Heliborne assault on LTTE HQ in the Jaffna University campus in the opening stages of Operation Pawan. The site was chosen without any consultation with the R&AW. The dropping paratroopers became easy targets for the LTTE. A number of soldiers were killed. The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi is also blamed as a fallout of the failed R&AW operation in Sri Lanka. [57].
  • Kanishka Bombing case:[58][59][60] On 23 June 1985 Air India's Flight 182 was blown up near Ireland and 329 innocent lives were lost. On the same day another explosion took place at Tokyo's Narita airport's transit baggage building where baggage was being transferred from Cathay Pacific Flight No CP 003 to Air India Flight 301 which was scheduled for Bangkok. Both aircraft were loaded with explosives from Canadian airports. Flight 301 got saved because of a delay in its departure. This was considered as a major set back to R&AW for failing to gather enough intelligence about the khalistani terrorists[61].[62]
  • Kargil War: R&AW was heavily criticized in 1999, following the Pakistani incursions at Kargil. Critics accused R&AW of failing to provide intelligence that could have prevented the ensuing ten-week conflict that brought India and Pakistan to the brink of full-scale war. While the army has been critical of the lack of information they received,[63] R&AW has pointed the finger at the politicians, claiming they had provided all the necessary information. Most Indian officials believe that in order to prevent another such occurrence, communication needs to be increased between the intelligence agencies, which would require structural reform.
  • 2004 CIA Spy scandal: [64]Rabinder Singh Joint secretary and heading R&AW's South East Asia department had defected to America on June 5, 2004. R&AW had already become suspicious about his movements and he was under surveillance and his telephones were also tapped. He was also confronted by Counter Intelligence officials on 19 April 2004. Despite all precautions Rabinder Singh managed to defect with 'sensitive files' he had allegedly removed from R&AW's headquarters in south New Delhi. This embarrassing fiasco and national security failure are attributed to weak surveillance, shoddy investigation and lack of coordination between the Counter-Intelligence and Security (CIS), IB and R&AW[65]. According to unconfirmed reports Singh has surfaced in Virginia, USA.[66] Recently in an affidavit submitted to the court R&AW deposed that Singh has been traced to New Jersey[67].
  • 2007 Bangladeshi Spy Scandal:[68] The man in question here was a Bangladeshi national who concealed his nationality and was known by the name of Diwan Chand Mallik. He was known to have some important documents which are dangerous for national security. He joined in 1999 and used to live in East Delhi. A case of cheating and forgery was filed at the Lodhi Colony police station on the basis of a complaint by a senior R&AW official.[69]

ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. ... HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathering disciplines that encompasses all gathering of intelligence by means of interpersonal contact. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... // Aviation Research Centre (ARC),is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat. ... Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest entirely within the country. ... Captain Mohan Singh Kohli (b. ... The Special Frontier Force are a special forces unit of the Indian military. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A Zenair CH701 STOL light aircraft Polish STOL light aircraft PZL-104M Wilga of Polish Border Guard at Radom Air Show in 2005. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest entirely within the country. ... A Himalayan avalanche near Mount Everest. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Kahutablueprint. ... Image File history File links Kahutablueprint. ... Abdul Qadeer Khan (born 1935, Bhopal, India) is a Pakistani engineer widely regarded as the father of Pakistans nuclear weapons programme. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Kahuta Research Laboratories is located at Kahuta, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: ) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, was assassinated on August 15, 1975. ... Sheikh Hasina Wajed (born September 28, 1947) is the President of the Bangladesh Awami League and daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Since India achieved independence in August 1947 and Pakistan was created as a separate Muslim nation, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... University of Jaffna // [edit] Overview Jaffna University has two campuses. ... Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Air India Flight 182 was a Boeing 747 that exploded on June 23, 1985 while at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland; all 329 on board were killed, of whom eighty two were children and 280 were Canadian citizens. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... At 07:13 on Sunday June 23, 1985 an explosion in the New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport) baggage terminal killed two baggage handlers, and injured four. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Babbar Khalsa International logo Babbar Khalsa International logo variation The Babbar Khalsa (Punjabi: , ) is a group considered to be among the oldest and most prominent of Sikh organisations calling for the formation of an independent Sikh state. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Photo of ex-RAW operative Rabinder Singh Rabinder Singh is a former RAW official who was suspected of being a CIA mole in New Delhi. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

Controversies

From its inception R&AW has been criticised for being an agency not answerable to the people of India (R&AW reports to Prime Minister only). Fears arose that it could turn into the KGB of India. Such fears were kept at bay by the R&AW's able leadership (although detractors of R&AW and especially the Janata Party has accused the agency of letting itself being used for terrorising and intimidating opposition during emergency). The main controversy which has plagued R&AW in recent year is over bureaucratisation of the system with allegation about favouratism in promotions etc.[70]R&AW also suffers from ethnic imbalances in the officer level. In 2006, Indian magazine Outlook reported that although India has a Muslim minority numbering 140 million, there was not one single high level Muslim officer in R&AW. Reuters quoted anonymous sources as saying there were some Muslims in RAW, but they were mostly field officers.[71]. Noted security analyst and one time R&AW chief B.Raman has criticised the agency for its asymmetric growth; while being strong in its capability for covert action it is weak in its capability for intelligence collection, analysis and assessment. Strong in low and medium-grade intelligence, weak in high-grade intelligence. Strong in technical intelligence, weak in human intelligence. Strong in collation, weak in analysis. Strong in investigation, weak in prevention. Strong in crisis management, weak in crisis prevention.[72][73] Recently R&AW was in controversy due to the high profile CBI raid at the residence of Maj Gen (retired) V K Singh, a retired employee of R&AW who has recently written a book on R&AW where it was alleged that political interference and corruption in the intelligence agency has made it vulnerable to defections. A case under Official Secrets Act has also been filed.[74] This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ... 1 July 2002 Cover Page Outlook is an Indian weekly English newsmagazine in publication since October 1995. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations. ... HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathering disciplines that encompasses all gathering of intelligence by means of interpersonal contact. ... The CBI emblem. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... Official Secrets Act warning sign, Foulness. ...


Media portrayal

Unlike Hollywood, which has portrayed FBI, CIA, MI6 etc in various films,Bollywood has been shy to explore the area of espionage, especially R&AW on the silver screen. Excessive secrecy surrounding activities and rare declassification of information are blamed as the main reason behind this. However there are films from Bollywood which refers to agents, espionage, terrorism etc. but till recently none of them openly mentioned R&AW. One of the earliest Indian films portraying espionage was Prem Pujari starring Dev Anand in 1970, in 1973 just after the war with Pakistan came Hindustan Ki Kasam (Starring Raaj Kumar, Priya Rajvansh). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Dharam Dev Ä€nand (Hindi: , Urdu: ) (born September 26, 1923), better known simply as Dev Anand, is a legendary Indian Bollywood actor and film producer. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... poster of Hindustan ki kasam Hindustan Ki Kasam is a 1973 war movie based on the 1971 Indo Pak war directed by Chetan Anand. ... Raaj Kumar (October 8, 1926 - July 3, 1996) was an actor in Hindi films. ... Priya Rajvansh was born Vera Singh. ...

The film Ek revolves around a R&AW agent, an ISI agent, and a CIA agent who don’t trust each other. The film is about how they learn to work together towards to stop a disaster from happening.

However films like The Hero: Love Story of a Spy (Starring Sunny Deol and Priti Zinta)[75], Aankhen (1968, Ramanand Sagar Production, Starring Dharmendra, Mala Sinha)[76], Such a Long Journey (1998, UK Canada Co-production, Directed by Sturla Gunnarsson, starring Naseeruddin Shah)[77], 16th December (Starring Milind Soman, Sushant Singh, Dipanita Sharma),[78] Hindustan Ki Kasam (1999, Starring Ajay Devgan in double role, Amitabh Bachchan) etc. have openly mentioned R&AW and its allied units. Rumors have it that the notable Bollywood director Ram Gopal Varma’s next enterprise titled Ek, starring Amitabh Bachchan, Sanjay Dutt, Suniel Shetty and Akshay Kumar with guest appearance of Keanu Reeves[79], is about military intelligence with elements of war, terrorism and the workings of R&AW[80]. Apart from Bollywood the regional film industries of India has also cashed on the patriotic appeal of espionage, telugu movie star Arjun's film titled Goodachari No. 1 explores the life of an undercover agent working to thwart ISI activities in India. Cine star Bala Krishna's latest, film in the direction of Swarna Subba Rao, titled Vijayendra Varma - The power of an Indian is based on a real life story of a R&AW agent. Bala Krishna is doing the role of the R&AW officer in the film[81]. The Tamil movie Ottran casts cinestar Arjun again as a R&AW officer. Popular Hindi movie Veer-Zaara has mentioned the intelligence agency R&AW, when the lead character Veer (portrayed by Shah Rukh Khan) was accused by Pakistani police of being an undercover spy for R&AW . Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x664, 49 KB) source http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x664, 49 KB) source http://www. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Delawar Khan (formerly Dharmendra or Dharaminder (Dharam) Singh Deol) (Punjabi:ਧਰਿਮਨਦਰ (ਧਰਮ ਸਿੰਘ ਦਿਓਲ), Hindi: धर्मॆन्द्र (धर्म सिंह देयोल)), born 8 December 1935 in Sahnewal, Punjab) is an Indian filmstar. ... Mala Sinha (born 11 November 1936) is an Indian actress. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Naseeruddin Shah in the role of Mirza Ghalib Naseeruddin Shah aka Nasiruddin Shah (b. ... Milind Soman is an Indian supermodel and actor. ... This article is about the year. ... Vishal Devgan, born (April 2, 1967 in Delhi, India), popularly known as Ajay Devgan is a two-time National Film Award-winning actor who appears in Bollywood films. ... “Bachchan” redirects here. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Ram Gopal Varma born April 7, 1962) is an Indian film director, writer and film producer from Andhra Pradesh. ... “Bachchan” redirects here. ... Sanjay Dutt (born 29 July 1959) is an Indian Bollywood actor. ... Sunil Shetty (Tulu-Kannada:ಸುನಿಲ್ ಶೆಟ್ಟಿ ) (born 11 August 1961) is an Indian actor. ... Akshay Kumar (Hindi: अक्षय कुमार, born Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia, on September 9, 1967) is a popular Bollywood film actor. ... Keanu Charles Reeves (pronounced in IPA: ) is a Canadian actor, born September 2, 1964 in Beirut, Lebanon, and raised in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... Arjun Sarja (Tamil:அர்ஜுன்) is a famous south Indian Actor and director. ... Arjun Sarja (Tamil:அர்ஜுன்) is a famous south Indian Actor and director. ... Veer Zaara is a romantic movie set in the background of Indo-Pak Relations. ... Shah Rukh Moorakh Khan (born November 2, 2007) (Devanagari: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Naskh: شاہ رخ خان) is a prominent Bollywood actor, producer, and was recently the host of the game show, Kaun Banega Crorepati. ...

References

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  2. ^ http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE4-5/sainis.html
  3. ^ http://www.helplinelaw.com/docs/main.php3?id=RTON1 Dept. which are excluded
  4. ^ However notwithstanding that they are exempt from the Right to Information Act, Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) has conveyed, in response to a RTI petition filed by Anuj Dhar, that they aren't holding any information on Subhas Chandra Bose http://www.missionnetaji.org/page/raw_rti.html.
  5. ^ http://vayu-sena.tripod.com/other-cia-tibet-conboy.html
  6. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,501020506-234000,00.html last accessed on 11.04.2007
  7. ^ http://www.tamilnation.org/forum/sachisrikantha/raworchestra.htm as accessed on 11.04.2007
  8. ^ Spy Planes damaged, Chandan Nandy The Telegraph New Delhi, November 4, 1999
  9. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/charbatia.htm
  10. ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/HH12Df01.html
  11. ^ http://www.southasiamonitor.org/2006/aug/defence-index.shtml as accessed on 9.04.07
  12. ^ http://www.southasiamonitor.org/2006/mar/news/20news1.shtml
  13. ^ Raina, Asoka. (1981). Inside R&AW. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi
  14. ^ "Fulcrum of Evil:ISI, CIA and Alqaeda Nexus"-M K Dhar
  15. ^ http://www.saag.org/papers11/paper1005.html
  16. ^ a b http://www.fas.org/irp/world/india/raw/index.html as accessed on 9.4.07
  17. ^ source: Inside R&AW by Asoka Raina
  18. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020618/edu.htm
  19. ^ http://www.defencejournal.com/feb-mar99/raw-at-war.htm
  20. ^ "Open Secrets: India's Intelligence Unveiled"- Maloy Krishna Dhar. He was the joint director of IB.
  21. ^ "Intelligence:Past, Present, Future"- B.R.Raman
  22. ^ http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/M_0380.htm
  23. ^ "Mission Pakistan"-Maloy Krishna Dhar
  24. ^ http://www.bangladeshmariners.com/HmdrRprt/violat.html
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  29. ^ http://www.chowk.com/show_article.cgi?aid=00000701&channel=civic%20center&threshold=1&layout=0&order=0&start=230&end=239&page=1
  30. ^ Back to Camp-Dawn July 2005
  31. ^ Joint Intelligence North(JIN) is a department in ISI which is exclusively responsible for the Jammu and Kashmir region and in particular the Indian troop movement along the LOC (Line of Control). However, due to recent peace overtures between India and Pakistan, the size of this department is being reduced.
  32. ^ Defense, Pakistan. Overview Of Intelligence Services. Retrieved on 2006-05-05.
  33. ^ McCarthy, Rory. Dangerous game of state-sponsored terror that threatens nuclear conflict. Retrieved on 2006-05-05.
  34. ^ "Directorate for ISI" article on FAS, Intelligence Resource Program.
  35. ^ Dangerous game of state-sponsored terror.... - The Guardian
  36. ^ http://www.indiandefenceforum.com/index.php/topic,4888.0.html
  37. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/22/stories/2006092209170100.htm
  38. ^ http://www.defencejournal.com/jan99/rawfacts.htm Last accessed on 24/9/2007
  39. ^ "India has established Terrorist Training Camp in Qadian" by Farooq Adil, Special Weekly Takbeer Report December 25, 1997
  40. ^ Outlook India
  41. ^ Larry Jagan, BBC Online, 4 July 2000
  42. ^ Guns, drugs and rebels. B.B. Nandi, former RAW additional secretary, interview to author, 6 March 2002.
  43. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/517744.cms
  44. ^ http://vayu-sena.tripod.com/other-spies-in-the-himalayas.html last visited on August 22, 2007
  45. ^ 'An Eye at the Top of the World', by Pete Takeda, Thunder’s Mouth Press; 1st edition (September 4, 2006), ISBN 1560258454
  46. ^ Spies in the Himalayas, by Kenneth Conboy and M.S. Kohli, University Press of Kansas (March 2003), ISBN-10: 0700612238
  47. ^ Harish Kapadia, "Nanda Devi", in World Mountaineering, Audrey Salkeld, editor, Bulfinch Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8212-2502-2, pp. 254-257.
  48. ^ Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  49. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/kahuta.htm
  50. ^ According to the September 18-24, 1988 issue of the weekly Indian Magazine Sunday
  51. ^ In a stunning intelligence coup, India apparently first learned of Pakistan's programmes by analysing the hair samples snatched from the floor of barber shops near the Pakistani nuclear research facility at Kahuta. India's external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing, sent the samples to New Delhi's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, which discovered clear indications from analysis of the hair, that Pakistan had developed the ability to enrich uranium to weapons-grade quality. Robert Hutchinson, Weapons of Mass Destruction, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/mentor/2003/06/16/stories/2003061600271000.htm last accessed on 9.4.07
  52. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/sep/08spec.htm
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  55. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/india/raw.htm
  56. ^ nesohr.org R&AW created a terrorist organisation to stop Sri Lanka from developing quickly economically and forging ties with other nations in the West or China. R&AW funded and armed the terrorists to wreak havoc in the country. Breaking with the Past By Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli, p54
  57. ^ http://www.sangam.org/articles/view/?id=287 last visited on 9.4.07
  58. ^ As per conspiracy theorists Zuhair Kashmiri and Brian Mac Andrew in their book Soft Target the bombings were R&AW's operations to malign the Canadian Sikhs who were actively participating in the Khalistani movement and make them suspect in the eyes of the Canadian authorities.
  59. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/airindia
  60. ^ http://www.flight182.com/ Death of Flight 182 website
  61. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/airindia/documents/tab1.pdf Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) had obtained permission to tape Parmar’s phone on the basis that he was the leader of the Babbar Khalsa.
  62. ^ http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20060925/airindia_inquiry_060925/20060925?hub=TopStories last visited on 12/9/2007
  63. ^ More recently, Army officials said that RAW was unable to assess the relevance of Pakistan acquiring large quantities of high-altitude equipment including boots, tents and snow scooters from European suppliers just months before the Kargil war http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1801/18010240.htm
  64. ^ http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jid/jid040701_1_n.shtml
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  67. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/story/15865.html
  68. ^ Bangladeshi worked for R&AW for 6 years- Hindustan Times
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  71. ^ Denyer, S. (2006). raw is a big dog in 1985 "Muslims excluded from India's spy agency". Reuters. Retrieved November 6, 2006.
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  78. ^ www.imdb.com/title/tt0313844/plotsummary
  79. ^ http://www.cse.iitd.ac.in/~csd00375/reviews/ek.html
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  81. ^ http://www.idlebrain.com/news/gossip/index.html
  82. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Mission-Pakistan-Intelligence-Agent/dp/8170491487
  83. ^ http://www.dukandar.com/raw.html
  84. ^ E-buyer in soup for Pak writer's book on RAW. Last accessed on July 27, 2007
  85. ^ http://intellit.muskingum.edu/othercountries_folder/india.html last visited on 9.04.07
  86. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Indian-intervention-Sri-Lanka-intelligence/dp/9559519905 as accessed on 13.04.2007

This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Inside RAW - Ashok Raina, Vikas Publishing House New Delhi, 1981
  • Open Secrets: India's Intelligence Unveiled - Maloy Krishna Dhar, New Delhi, Manas Publication, 2005 ISBN 81-7049-240-8
  • Mission to Pakistan: An Intelligence Agent in Pakistan Maloy Kri. Dhar, Manas Publication, January 1, 2002, ISBN 978-8170491484 [82]
  • Mission: Pakistan, Maloy Krishna Dhar, iUniverse (January 2004), ISBN 978-0595304820
  • Fulcrum of Evil: ISI, CIA and Al qaeda Nexus - Maloy K Dhar, New Delhi, Manas Publication, 2006, ISBN 81-7049-278-5.
  • Sin of National conscience - R.N.Kulkarni, Mysore: Kritagnya Publication, 2004.
  • Intelligence: Past, Present, Future - B.R.Raman
  • Indians Hand Evidence on bin Laden to US, Herald Sun, September 17, 2001.
  • The KaoBoys of R&AW: Down Memory Lane, B. Raman, Lancer Publishers (2007), ISBN 097961743X
  • The Game Of Foxes: J-K Intelligence War, Manoj Joshi, Times Of India, July 16, 1994
  • Indian Spy Agency's Machinations,Islamabad,THE MUSLIM, 18 December 1996 p6
  • RAW: Research and Analysis Wing - Tariq Ismail Sagar, Sagar Publication [83][84]
  • Soft Target: How the Indian Intelligence Service Penetrated Canada - Zuhair Kashmeri and Brian McAndrew, Toronto: James Lorimer, 1989.
  • Spies in the Himalayas: Secret Missions and Perilous Climbs. - MS Kohli and Kenneth Conboy, Ed. KS Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 2003.
  • Intelligence: A Security Weapon,DC Pathak, New Delhi: Manas Publication, 2003.[85]
  • Indian intervention in Sri Lanka: The role of India's intelligence agencies, Rohan Gunaratna, South Asian Network on Conflict Research, 1993, ISBN 9559519905 [86]
  • India's External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Maj. Gen. V.K Singh, Manas Publications, ISBN 8170493323

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Research and Analysis Wing
Espionage Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Research and Analysis Wing (1347 words)
RAW is understood to have infiltered many fanatical British Moslem groups – hopefully greater cogniscance of their reports will be observed by the UK authorities.
Thought to be particularly active in Pakistan, the RAW is known to have gathered massive amounts of data on the Pakistani establishment and its military.
In 1999, RAW came under heavy censure in India for its failure to detect the infiltration of a large number of foreign guerrillas into the mountains of Kargil, Kashmir.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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