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Encyclopedia > Research
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Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and is aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. This article is about the suburb of Melbourne. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Literati redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historical research is embodied in the historical method. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ...


The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject. The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...

Contents

Basic research

Basic research (also called fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables (see statistics). It is exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity, interest, and intuition. It is conducted without any practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications. The terms “basic” or “fundamental” indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, sometimes applied research. As there is no guarantee of short-term practical gain, researchers may find it difficult to obtain funding for basic research. Research is a subset of invention. For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Explorer redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Examples of questions asked in basic research:

Traditionally, basic research was considered as an activity that preceded applied research, which in turn preceded development into practical applications. Recently, these distinctions have become much less clear-cut, and it is sometimes the case that all stages will intermix. This is particularly the case in fields such as biotechnology and electronics, where fundamental discoveries may be made alongside work intended to develop new products, and in areas where public and private sector partners collaborate in order to develop greater insight into key areas of interest. For this reason, some now prefer the term frontier research. Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory This box:      String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the album, see Grand Unification (album). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Goldbachs conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved problems in number theory and in all of mathematics. ... In mathematics, a prime number, or prime for short, is a natural number greater than one and whose only distinct positive divisors are 1 and itself. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ...


Research processes

Scientific research

Main article: Scientific method

Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied: Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In science, a process is any method (or event) that results in a transformation in a physical or biological object, a substance or an organism. ...

A common misunderstanding is that by this method a hypothesis can be proven. Generally a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected. However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true (or better, predictive), but this is not the same as it having been proven. A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A conceptual definition is an element of the scientific research process, in which a specific concept is defined as a measurable occurrence. ... An operational definition is a showing of something—such as a variable, term, or object—in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Historical

Main article: Historical method

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes higher criticism and textual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research: The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ...

  • Identification of origin date
  • Evidence of localization
  • Recognition of authorship
  • Analysis of data
  • Identification of integrity
  • Attribution of credibility

Research methods

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy):

Research can also fall into two distinct types: Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. ... Constructive research is perhaps the most common computer science research method. ... Empirical research is any activity that uses direct or indirect observation as its test of reality. ...

Research methods used by scholars include: Primary research (also called field research) involves the collection of data that doesnt already exist. ... Secondary research involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. ...

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model.[1] The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ... This article is about the general term. ... Statistics is the science and practice of developing knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... Content analysis (also called: textual analysis) is a standard methodology in the social sciences on the subject of communication content. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...


Publishing

Academic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The 'system', which is probably disorganised enough not to merit the title, varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


Most established academic fields have their own journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields. // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ...


Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, emerging from the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web. The term business model describes a broad range of informal and formal models that are used by enterprises to represent various aspects of business, including its purpose, offerings, strategies, infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practices and operational processes and policies. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Self archiving is the practice in which authors deposit their own work into an electronic archive, usually with reference to an Open Access Eprint Archive (or Institutional Repository. ...


Research funding

Main article: Research funding

Most funding for scientific research comes from two major sources, corporations (through research and development departments) and government (primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors). Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend more than a trivial amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research, but also as a source of merit. Some faculty positions require that the holder has received grants from certain institutions, such as the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Government-sponsored grants (e.g. from the NIH, the National Health Service in Britain or any of the European research councils) generally have a high status. Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both hard science and technology, and social science. ... A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... NHS redirects here. ...


Etymology

The word research derives from the French recherche, from rechercher, to search closely where "chercher" means "to search" (see French language); its literal meaning is 'to investigate thoroughly'. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


See also

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Research

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Medicament assisted rehabilitation conference in Oslo An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ... // Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. ... Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ... Demonstrative evidence is evidence used to help the fact-finder gain context for the facts of the case. ... Due diligence is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. ... Empirical research is any activity that uses direct or indirect observation as its test of reality. ... The European Charta for Researchers is a recommendation of good practice for researchers and employers and/or funders of researchers issued by the European Commission (DG Research). ... This article is about using the Internet for research; for the field of research about the Internet, see Internet studies. ... A lab notebook is a primary record of research. ... This is a list of the fields of doctoral studies, as used by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in its annual Survey of Earned Doctorates[1], conducted for the National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies, in the United States. ... Consumer research redirects here. ... In the spirit of free and open source software (F/OSS), open research is conducted in much the same way. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. ... // Description PAR has emerged in recent years as a significant methodology for intervention, development and change within communities and groups. ... A very wide range of research methods are used in psychology. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... Empirical research is any activity that uses direct or indirect observation as its test of reality. ... For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see The Conceptual Framework. ...

References

  1. ^ Structure of Research, Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Research - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1173 words)
Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts.
The term research is also used to describe a collection of information about a particular subject, and is usually associated with science and the scientific method.
It is not unusual for researchers to present their project in such a light as to 'slot' it into either applied or basic research, depending on the requirements of the funding sources.
Glaucoma Research Foundation (255 words)
Every day of research, each new insight shared, brings us closer to the cure for a leading cause of blindness.
The Glaucoma Research Foundation is a national non-profit organization dedicated to finding a cure for glaucoma.
The Glaucoma Research Foundation Visionary award celebrates individuals with the vision to see a future free of glaucoma and the commitment to make that vision a personal priority.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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