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Encyclopedia > Requiem (Mozart)

The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. It was Mozart's last composition and is one of his most powerful and recognized works, not only for its music, but also for the debate over how much of the music Mozart managed to complete before his death, and how much was later composed by his colleague Franz Xaver Süssmayr. Even with the open debate about how much of the music was Mozart's, the Requiem has taken a prominent place as one of Mozart's most important works. (For a selective list organized by genre, with commentary, see List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) The Köchel-Verzeichnis is a complete, chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which was originally created by Ludwig von Köchel. ... Bologna Mozart - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Franz Xaver Süssmayr (German: Franz Xaver Süßmayr; b. ...

Contents

Structure of the work

The Requiem is in fourteen movements, with the following structure: The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in...

The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... In Latin poetry, a sequence (Latin sequentia) is a poem written in a non-classical metre, often on a sacred Christian subject. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ... Tuba Mirum is part of the Liturgy of a Requiem Mass, but frequently refers to the fourth movement of Mozarts Requiem, in which all four parts Bass, Tenor, Alto and Soprano have solo passages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Requiem (Mozart). ... The Lacrimosa is a section of Mozarts Requiem mass. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ... The Communion is the Gregorian chant sung during the Eucharist in the Roman Mass. ...

Instrumentation

The Requiem is scored for 2 basset horns in F, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets in D, 3 trombones (alto, tenor & bass), timpani (2 drums), organ, and strings. Basset horn The basset horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Copenhagen The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by admitting pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... See also string (disambiguation) Strings (as a sound (voice) in electronic musical instruments and synthesizers) is an imitation of classical string ensembles sound. ...


Composition and completion

The work is scored for soprano, alto, tenor, and bass soloists and choir, and a small classical orchestra comprising two basset horns (a type of alto (actually tenor) clarinet much favoured by Mozart throughout his career), two bassoons, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, violins, viola and basso continuo (cello, double bass and organ). At the time of Mozart's death on 5 December 1791 he had only completed the opening movement (Requiem aeternam) in all of the orchestral and vocal parts. The following Kyrie (a double fugue), and most of the Sequence (from Dies Irae to Confutatis), is complete only in the vocal parts and the continuo (the figured organ bass), though occasionally some of the prominent orchestral parts have been briefly indicated, such as the violin part of the Confutatis and the musical bridges in the Recordare. The last movement of the Sequence, the Lacrimosa, breaks off after only eight bars and was unfinished. The following two movements of the Offertorium were again partially done -- the Domine Jesu Christe in the vocal parts and continuo (up until the fugue, which contains some indications of the violin part) and the Hostias in the vocal parts only. This article is about the singing voice part. ... In music, an alto or contralto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a mezzo-soprano. ... A tenor is a singer with a voice range from approximately C3 (one octave below middle C) to A4 (above middle C) in choral music, or to tenor C (C5, one octave above middle C) or higher in operatic music (see voice type). ... A basso (or bass) is a male singer who sings in the lowest vocal range of the human voice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Basset horn The basset horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, a member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ...


In the 1960s a sketch for an Amen fugue was discovered, which some musicologists (Levin, Maunder) believe belongs to the Requiem at the conclusion of the Sequence after the Lacrimosa. H.C. Robbins Landon argues that this Amen fugue was not intended for the Requiem, rather that it "may have been for a separate unfinished Mass in D minor" of which the Kyrie K341 also belonged. There is, however, compelling evidence placing the "Amen Fugue" in the Requiem based on current Mozart scholarship. Firstly, the principal subject is comprised of the main theme of the requiem (stated at the beginning, and throughout the work) in strict inversion. Secondly, it is found on the same page as a sketch for the Rex Tremendae (together with a sketch for the overture of his last opera The Magic Flute), and thus surely dates from late 1791. The only place where the word 'Amen' occurs in anything that Mozart wrote in late 1791 is in the Sequence of the Requiem. Thirdly, as Levin points out in the forward to his completion of the Requiem, the addition of the Amen Fugue at the end of the Sequence results in an overall design that ends each large section with a fugue. Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (born March 6, 1926) is a musicologist. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


The eccentric count Franz von Walsegg commissioned the Requiem from Mozart anonymously though intermediaries acting on his behalf. The count, an amateur chamber musician who routinely commissioned works by composers and passed them off as his own, wanted a Requiem mass he could claim he composed to memorialize the recent passing of his wife. Mozart received only half of the payment in advance, so upon his death his widow Constanze was keen to have the work completed secretly by someone else, submit it to the count as having been completed by Mozart and collect the final payment. Joseph von Eybler was one of the first composers to be asked to complete the score, and had worked on the movements from the Dies irae up until the Lacrimosa. In addition, a striking similarity between the openings of the Domine Jesu Christe movements in the requiems of the two composers suggests that Eybler at least looked at later sections. Following this work, he felt unable to complete the remainder, and gave the manuscript back to Constanze Mozart. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Constanze Mozart Constanze Mozart (née Constanze Weber) (Zell im Wiesenthal, Germany 1763 – 1842 Salzburg), a first cousin of the composer Carl Maria von Weber, was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Joseph Leopold Eybler (born February 8, 1765, 1765 in Schwechat near Vienna; and died July 24, 1846 in Vienna) was an Austrian composer known today perhaps more for his friendship with Mozart than for his own music. ...


The task was then given to another composer, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, who had already helped the ailing Mozart in writing the score, since in his final days the composer's limbs had become extremely swollen. Süssmayr borrowed some of Eybler's work in making his completion, and added his own orchestration to the movements from the Dies Irae onward (the Kyrie was orchestrated before either Süssmayr or Eybler began their work) , completed the Lacrimosa, and added several new movements which a Requiem would normally comprise: Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. He then added a final section, Lux aeterna by adapting the opening two movements which Mozart had written to the different words which finish the Requiem Mass, which according to both Süssmayr and Mozart's wife was done according to Mozart's directions. Whether or not that is true, some people consider it unlikely that Mozart would have repeated the opening two sections if he had survived to finish the work completely. However, the fact that the work ends with a recapitulation of the first movement creates a work which, overall, displays characteristics of sonata form, which may help to authenticate the idea for the repetition of the first movement as the final movement. As has often been stated, Mozart was not the only composer to do this, and many requiems written before his repeat the first movement as the last. (In regular Masses a similar practice existed where the last movement, the Agnus Dei, was indicated only by the words "ut Kyrie", "as the Kyrie".) Franz Xaver Süssmayr (German: Franz Xaver Süßmayr; b. ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Other composers may have helped Süssmayr. The elder composer Maximilian Stadler is suspected of having completed the orchestration of the Domine Jesu for Süssmayr. The Agnus Dei is suspected by some scholars[citation needed] to have been based on instruction or sketches from Mozart because of its similarity to a section from the Gloria of a previous Mass (K.220) by Mozart, as was first pointed out by Richard Maunder. Many of the arguments dealing with this matter, though, center on the perception that if part of the work is high quality, it must have been written by Mozart (or from sketches), and if part of the work contains errors and faults, it must have been all Süssmayr's doing. A frequent meta-debate is whether or not this is a fair way to judge the authorship of the parts of the work.


Another controversy is the suggestion that Mozart left explicit instructions for the completion of the Requiem on "little scraps of paper." It is commonly believed this claim was made by Constanza Mozart after it was public knowledge that the Requiem was actually completed by Süssmayr as a way to increase the impression of authenticity.


The completed score, initially by Mozart but largely finished by Süssmayr, was then dispatched to Count Walsegg complete with a counterfeited signature of Mozart and dated 1792. The various complete and incomplete manuscripts eventually turned up in the 19th century, but many of the figures involved did not leave unambiguous statements on record as to how they were involved in the affair. Despite the controversy over how much of the music is actually Mozart's, the commonly performed Süssmayr version has become widely accepted by the public. This acceptance is quite strong, even when alternate completions provide logical and compelling solutions for the work. A completion dating from 1819 by Sigismund Neukomm has recently been recorded under the baton of Jean-Claude Malgoire. Salzburg-born Neukomm, a student of Joseph Haydn, provided a concluding Libera me, Domine for a performance of the Requiem on the feast of St Cecilia in Rio de Janeiro at the behest of Nunes Garcia. “Haydn” redirects here. ... José Maurício Nunes Garcia, Brazilian classical composer, was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at September 20, 1767, and died in the same city in April 18, 1830. ...


History of the Requiem (timeline)

Feb. 14, Herr Franz, Count von Walsegg's wife passed away at the age of 20. mid July, messenger (Franz Anton Leitgeb, Count's steward) arrived with note asking Mozart to write a Requiem Mass; fee and time; response by messenger bring the advance fee mid July, commission from Domenico Guardasoni, Impresario of the Prague National Theater to compose the opera, La clemenza di Tito, for the festivities surrounding the coronation on Sept. 6 of Leopold II as King of Bohemia August, works mainly on La clemenza di Tito; complete by Sept. 5 in 18 days Aug. 25, Mozart leaves for Prague; messenger reappears; in Prague already started felling ill Sept. 6, Mozart conducts premiere of La clemenza di Tito mid Sept. to Sept. 28 revision and completion of The Magic Flute Sept. 30, premiere of The Magic Flute Oct. 7, completed Concerto in A for Clarinet Oct. 8 - Nov. 20, worked on the Requiem and a Cantata Nov. 20, confined to the bed due to his illness Dec. 5, shortly after midnight Mozart died of acute rheumatic fever Dec. 7, officially the 6th, buried in St. Marx Cemetery Dec. 10, Requiem performed in St. Michael for a memorial for Mozart by Freihaus theater early Mar. 1792, probably the time Sussmayer finished the Requiem evidence: Constanze signed a contract on Mar. 4, 1792, giving King Frederick William II a copy of the Requiem Jan. 2, 1793, performance of Requiem for Constanze's benefit arranged by Gottfried van Swieten early Dec. 1793, the Requiem was delivered to the Count Dec. 14 1793, Requiem performed in the memory of his wife in the church at Wiener-Neustadt Feb. 14, 1794, Requiem performed again in the memory of his wife in Patronat Church at Maria-Schutz on Semmering 1799, Breitkopf & Hartel published the Requiem 1825, Gottfried Weber wrote an article saying the Requiem was complete forgery based on Sussmayer's 1801 letter to the newspaper 1825-present, debates about who contributed what 1833, Eybler died of a stroke while conducting a performance of Mozart's Requiem


Modern completions

Since the 1970s several musicologists, dissatisfied with the traditional "Süssmayr" completion, have attempted alternative completions of the Requiem. These include Franz Beyer, Duncan Druce, C. Richard F. Maunder, H.C. Robbins Landon, and Robert D. Levin. Each version follows a distinct methodology for completion; for example, the Beyer edition makes revisions to Süssmayr's orchestration in an attempt to create a more Mozartean style, whereas Robbins Landon has chosen to orchestrate parts of the completion using the partial work by Eybler, thinking that Eybler's work is a more reliable guide of Mozart's intentions. Maunder's edition dispenses completely with the parts known to be written by Süssmayr, but retains the Agnus Dei after discovering an extensive paraphrase from an earlier Mass (Kv.220). Levin's version retains the structure of Süssmayr while adjusting orchestration, voice leading and in some cases rewriting entire sections in an effort to make the work more Mozartean. For example, in the Levin version, the Sanctus fugue is completely rewritten and reproprortioned and the Benedictus is restructured to allow for a reprise of the Sanctus fugue in the key of D (rather than Süssmayr's use of B flat). Franz Beyer is a German musicologist who is best known for his revising and restoration of Mozarts music, in particular his unfinished Requiem (K.626), which he restored in the early 1970s. ... Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (born March 6, 1926) is a musicologist. ... Robert D. Levin (b. ... Franz Xaver Süssmayr (German: Franz Xaver Süßmayr; b. ...


Both Maunder and Levin use the sketch for the Amen fugue discovered in the 1960s to compose a longer and more substantial setting to the words "Amen" at the end of the Sequence. In the Süssmayr version, "Amen" is set to the last two chords of the Lacrimosa. Maunder and Levin recompose the ending of the Lacrimosa to lead to an entire movement with "Amen" as the text. Other authors have attempted the completion, but most have failed miserably[citation needed]. One example is Geoffrey McNeely, who in 1991 wrote his own version. His work was greatly ridiculed due to the lack of continuity between his work and Mozart's[citation needed].


Myths surrounding the Requiem

The Requiem has a complex history, riddled with deception and manipulation of public opinion. The work was commissioned by a count who wanted to pass off the work as his own, so the circumstances of the commission were kept secret. Upon Mozart's death, Constanze had the work completed by other composers, but to receive final payment, their assistance had to remain a secret. At the same time, Constanze wanted to present the work as having been written by Mozart to completion, so as to receive revenue from the work. When it became known that others beside Mozart had a hand in writing the Requiem, Constanze insisted that Mozart left explicit instructions for the work's completion.


With all of these levels of deceptions and secrets, it is inevitable that many myths would emerge with respect to the circumstances of the work's completion. One series of myths surrounding the Requiem involves the role Antonio Salieri played in the commissioning and completion of the Requiem and in Mozart's death generally. While the most recent retelling of this myth is Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus and the movie made from it, it is important to note that the source of misinformation was actually a 19th century play by Alexander Pushkin, Mozart and Salieri, which was turned into an opera by Rimsky-Korsakov and subsequently used as the framework for Amadeus. // Sir Peter Levin Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is an English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ... Playbill, 1981 For other uses, see Amadeus (disambiguation). ... Amadeus is a 1984 film directed by MiloÅ¡ Forman and based on the stage play Amadeus. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a...


While Amadeus was never intended to be historically accurate, many people have taken it as fact, reawakening the myth started in the 19th century. The following explores myths surrounding the Requirem.


Some of the most commonly held myths about Mozart's Requiem are:

  • Myth: Antonio Salieri commissioned the Requiem from Mozart so it could be played at Mozart's own funeral after Salieri poisoned the composer.
    • Reality: The Requiem was actually commissioned by Franz von Walsegg so he could pass it off as his own to memorialize the death of his wife. Count von Walsegg, an amateur musician, often commissioned works by composers and performed them with friends in musicales as his own. The count took the extra step of using a messenger to take extra precautions to maintain confidentiality, given that this event was much more public than the private musicales that he was accustomed to using for representing "his" works.
  • Myth: Antonio Salieri helped to complete the Requiem on the deathbed of Mozart.
    • Reality: At Mozart's death, Constanze took on the responsibility of the Requiem, engaging a series of composers to attempt the completion, the last of which was Süssmayer. There is nothing to suggest that Salieri had anything to do with any part of the Requiem. This myth was incorporated into Pushkin's play, and in turn, the film version of "Amadeus".
  • Myth: Mozart actively worked on the Requiem up to the moment he died.
    • Reality: In the last days of his life he had become too sick (his hands were swollen) to work on it any more. He did have the Requiem (as far as it went) sung to him on one of his last days (reportedly the Lacrimosa moved him to tears), and there is a report of him trying to voice drum parts at the very end of his life, but the notion of Mozart working through the night just before he died is not accurate.
  • Myth: It was played at Mozart's funeral.
    • Reality: Mozart died in the early hours of December 5, 1791, had a small funeral and was buried in an unmarked grave. A memorial service on December 10, 1791 was organized by Mozart's friend and librettist, Emanuel Schikaneder, at which one of the completed movements (the Introït) might have been performed; we do not know what music was in fact played.
  • Myth: Everything after the Lacrimosa was composed by Süssmayr.
    • Reality: Although the Lacrimosa breaks off incomplete after 8 bars, as noted above, the vocal and continuo of the Domine Jesu and the vocal parts of the Hostias are in Mozart's hand. The complexity of the Domine Jesu, with its frequent use of counterpoint and three fugues, would be very unlikely as the work of Süssmayr, given the nature of the Hosanna fugue which he did compose.
  • Myth: Mozart gave Süssmayr detailed instructions on how to complete the Requiem.
    • Reality: This myth was started by Constanze when the fact that Mozart left the Requiem unfinished at his death became public knowledge. To maximize the value of the Requiem, and improve Constanze's security, the public had to believe that Mozart somehow guided the entire work. Exactly what Mozart might have told Süssmayr about the Requiem is not clear. Both Constanze and Süssmayr created the myth of Mozart leaving "scraps of paper" with "detailed instructions", but it was ultimately determined that was not at all true.
  • Myth: Süssmayr was Mozart's pupil.
    • Reality: As with the "scraps of paper" claim, Constanze promoted Süssmayr as a pupil of Mozart to maximize the perceived value of the Requiem after it became known that Mozart left the Requiem unfinished at his death. Süssmayr was more of a colleague and friend to the Mozarts and even accompanied Constanze on her spa trips in 1791. Süssmayr did not study with Mozart. There is discussion in some of the sources cited in this article of the possibility that Süssmayr was actually having an affair with Constanze, and that Constanze's initial reluctance to engage Süssmayr to complete the Requiem upon Wolfgang's death was due to a "lover's quarrel".
  • Myth: The movie "Amadeus" created all of the confusion surrounding the history of the Requiem
    • Reality: The confusion between myth and reality regarding the events surrounding the commission, composition, completion and release of the Requiem stem from much earlier than the theater and movie production of Amadeus. First of all, Amadeus in both its movie and play forms, was based on Alexander Pushkin's play Mozart and Salieri, which contained many of the fallacies that were ultimately passed on in Amadeus.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emanuel Schikaneder (Straubing, September 9, 1751 – September 21, 1812, Vienna), born Johann Joseph Schikaneder, was a German impresario, dramatist, actor, and singer. ...

Early Biographers

Much of what is known today about Mozart comes either directly from correspondences about him, to him, and from him, or indirectly from biographers who gathered information from interviews with people close to him, such as his wife, Constanze, his works, and material from people who have come in contact with Mozart. The following is a brief summary of the early biographers who have tried to tell the story of Mozart's life.


1. Friedrich Schlichtegroll was a teacher and a scholar. Published Mozart's obituary in 1793. This obituary was part of a volume of obituaries referred to as Nekrolog. The two had never met. Most of the information was obtained from Nannerl, Mozart's sister, and Johann Andreas Schachtner, a friend of the family in Mozart's early years. Therefore what Schlichtegroll knew and wrote about was the period before Vienna.


2. Franz Xaver Niemetschek was a citizen of Prague, a teacher and writer. Unlike Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek did neet with Mozart and was acquainted with Mozart's friends in Prague. After the death of Mozart, Constanze sent Carl, the elder son, to live with him from 1792-97. Through these relationships with the family, Niemetschek gathered the information needed to write a biography of Mozart. His main source was Constanze and Mozart's friends in Prague. Therefore his emphasis was on Mozart's years in Vienna and his many trips to Prague.


3. Friedrich Rochlitz was the editor of Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitwig (AMZ), a journal, which was published by Breitkopf & Hartel. Constanze had sent Rochlitz some ancedotes to publish. At first she wanted him to do a biography but after meeting Nissen, she gave Nissen the opportunity instead. Most people believed that Rochlitz is an unreliable source.


4. ITFC Arnold, a novelist, wrote Mozarts Geist, published in 1803. He takes most of the biography directly from the three sources already published. He does add in some new information.


5. In 1828, Nissen published a biography of Mozart which included an appendix written by Constanze and J.H. Fewerstein after Nissen's death in 1826. Much of this biography included what had been previously written by Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek, and Rochlitz. In The Mozart's Myths, Stafford writes: "Sometimes Nissen corrects the chunks he borrows, and occasionally he tells the reader that he has done this...unfortunately, he does not always correct and revise in this way. Assembling his narrative with scissors and paste, he allows contradictions to creep in." Nissen, knowing that it was untrue, wrote that the unfinished Requiem was taken by the messenger immediately after Mozart's death.


6. Vincent and Mary Novello's diary of their interviews during 1829 with Nannerl, Constanze, and Mozart's sister in law, was discovered and published in 1955. They were collecting this information in hopes of publishing a book, which never happened. Since almost forty years had gone by since Mozart's death, then these accounts might have been based more on already published biographies than on the participants' own memories.


Constanze Mozart and the Requiem after Wolfgang's death

The confusion surrounding the circumstances of the Requiem's composition was created in a large part by Mozart's wife, Constanze. Constanze had a difficult task in front of her. She had to keep secret the fact that the Requiem was unfinished at Mozart's death, so she could collect the final payment from the commission. For a period of time, she also needed to keep secret the fact that Mozart had anything to do with the composition of the Requiem at all in order to allow Count Walsegg the impression that he wrote the work. Once she received the commission, she needed to carefully promote the work as Mozart's so she could continue to receive revenue from the work's publication and performance. During this phase of the Requiem's history, it was still important that the public accepted that Mozart wrote the whole piece, as it would fetch larger sums from publishers and the public if it were completely by Mozart.


It is Constanze's efforts that created the flurry of half-truths and myths almost instantly after Mozart's death. Source materials written soon after Mozart’s death contain serious discrepancies which leave a level of subjectivity when assembling the "facts" about Mozart’s composition of the Requiem. For example, at least three of conflicting sources, both dated within two decades following Mozart’s death, cite Constanze Mozart (Wolfgang’s wife) as their primary source of interview information. In 1798, Friedrich Rochlitz, the German biographical author and amateur composer, published a set of Mozart anecdotes which he claimed to have collected during his meeting with Constanze in 1796.[1] The Rochlitz publication makes the following statements: Constanze Mozart Constanze Mozart (née Constanze Weber) (Zell im Wiesenthal, Germany 1763 – 1842 Salzburg), a first cousin of the composer Carl Maria von Weber, was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...

  • Mozart was unaware of his commissioner’s identity at the time he accepted the project.
  • He was not bound to any date of completion of the work
  • He stated that it would take him around four weeks to complete.
  • He requested, and received, 100 ducats at the time of the first commissioning message.
  • He began the project immediately after receiving the commission.
  • His health was poor from the outset; he fainted multiple times while working
  • He took a break from writing the work to visit the Prater with his wife.
  • He shared with his wife that for certain he was writing this piece for his own funeral.
  • He spoke of "very strange thoughts" regarding the unpredicted appearance and commission of this unknown man.
  • He noted that the departure of Leopold to Prague for the coronation was approaching.

The most highly disputed of these claims is the last one, the chronology of this setting. According to Rochlitz, the messenger arrives quite some time before the departure of Leopold for the coronation, yet we have record of his departure occurring in mid-July 1791. However, Constanze was in Braden during all of June to mid-July, she would not have been present for the commission or the drive they were said to have taken together.[1] Furthermore, The Magic Flute (except for the Overture and March of the Priests) was completed by mid-July. La Clemenza Di Tito was commissioned by mid-July.[1] There was no time for Mozart to work on the Requiem on the large scale indicated by the Rochlitz publication in the time frame provided. Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, was an opera seria written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...


Also in 1798, Constanze is noted to have given another interview to Franz Xaver Niemetschek[2], another biographer looking to publish a compendium of Mozart's life. He published his biography in 1808, containing the following claims about Mozart’s receipt of the Requiem commission:

  • Mozart received the commission very shortly before the Coronation of Emperor Leopold, and before he received the commission to go to Prague.
  • He did not accept the messenger’s request immediately; he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating his fee, but urging that he could not predict the time required to complete the work.
  • The same messenger appeared later, paying Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work’s completion.
  • He started composing the work upon his return from Prague.
  • He fell ill while writing the work
  • He told Constanze "I am only too conscious," he continued, "my end will not be long in coming: for sure, someone has poisoned me! I cannot rid my mind of this thought."
  • Constanze thought that the Requiem was overstraining him; she called the doctor and took away the score.
  • On the day of his death he had the score brought to his bed.
  • The messenger took the unfinished Requiem soon after Mozart’s death.
  • Constanze never learned the commissioner’s name.

This account, too, has fallen under scrutiny and criticism for its accuracy. According to letters, Constanze most certainly knew the name of the commissioner by the time this interview was released in 1800.[2] Additionally, the Requiem was not given to the messenger until some time after Mozart’s death.[1] This interview contains the only account of the claim that Constanze took the Requiem away from Wolfgang for a significant duration during his composition of it from Constanze herself[1]. Otherwise, the timeline provided in this account is historically probable. However, the most highly accepted text attributed to Constanze is the interview to her second husband, Georg Nikolaus von Nissen.[1] After Nissen’s death in 1826, Constanze released the biography of Wolfgang (1828) that Nissen had compiled, which included this interview. Nissen states: Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640-May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, (sometimes Nicolaus or Nicolai; born January 22, 1761 in Haderslev/Denmark, died March 24, 1826 in Salzburg) was a diplomat and writer. ...

  • Mozart received the commission shortly before the coronation of Emperor Leopold and before he received the commission to go to Prague.
  • He did not accept the messenger’s request immediately; he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating his fee, but urging that he could not predict the time required to complete the work.
  • The same messenger appeared later, paying Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work’s completion.
  • He started composing the work upon his return from Prague.

The Nissen publication lacks information following Mozart’s return from Prague.[1]


From the various accounts of Constanze’s words, historians try to assemble the details of Mozart’s “Requiem” commission and completion.


The autograph at the 1958 World's Fair

The autograph of the Requiem was placed on display at the World's Fair in 1958 in Brussels. At some point during the fair, someone was able to gain access to the manuscript, tearing off the bottom right-hand corner of the second to last page (folio 99r/45r), containing the words "Quam olim d: C:" (an instruction that the "Quam olim" fugue of the Domine Jesu was to be repeated "da capo", at the end of the Hostias). To this day the perpetrator has not been identified and the fragment has not been recovered. [3] Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ...


If the most common authorship theory is true, then "Quam olim d: C:" might very well be the last words Mozart wrote before he died. It is probable that whoever stole the fragment believed that to be the case.


Discography

Selected recordings, alphabetically by conductor:

  • Claudio Abbado conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in 1999 and released in 1999 by Deutsche Grammophon.
  • Daniel Barenboim conducting the Paris Symphony Orchestra and Paris Symphony Chorus. Released in 1990 by EMI Classics. Soloists are Kathleen Battle (Soprano), Ann Murray (Mezzo Soprano), David Rendall (Tenor), Matti Salminen (Bass).
  • Frieder Bernius conducting the Stuttgart Baroque Ensemble. Recorded in 2000 and released in 2002 by Carus-verlag.
  • Leonard Bernstein conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Recorded in 1986 and released in 1989 by Deutsche Grammophon.
  • Karl Böhm conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1971 and released in 1983 by Deutsche Grammophon.
  • Sergiu Celibidache conducting the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in 1995 and released in 2004 by EMI Classics
  • John Eliot Gardiner conducting the English Baroque Soloists. Released in 1990 by Philips.
  • Carlo Maria Giulini conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus(London). Released in 1979 by Angel.
  • Nikolaus Harnoncourt conducting the Vienna Concentus Musicus. Recorded in 2003 and released in 2004 by Deutsche Harmonia Mundi.
  • Philippe Herreweghe conducting the Orchestre des Champs Elysees. Recorded live in 1994 and released in 1997 by Harmonia Mundi.
  • Christopher Hogwood conducting the Academy of Ancient Music Chorus & Orchestra, and Westminster Cathedral Boys Choir. Recorded in 1983 and released in 1984 by Editions de L'Oiseau-Lyre.
  • Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker. Recorded in 1975 on September 27 and 28 and released on Deutsche Grammophon.
  • Ton Koopman conducting the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra. Recorded live in 1989 and released in 1990 by Erato-Disques.
  • Zdenek Kosler conducting the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1985 and released in 1986 by OPUS.
  • Sir Neville Marriner conducting the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. Recorded in 1990 and released in 1991 by Philips.
  • Riccardo Muti conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1987 and released in 1987 by EMI Classics. Awarded a "Timbre de Platine".
  • Peter Schreier conducting the Dresden State Orchestra. Recorded in 1987 and released in 1990 by Philips.
  • Mikhail "Misha" Shtangrud conducted the Burbank Chorale and a twenty-two piece orchestra on a 2006 recording released by the Burbank Chorale.
  • Helmuth Rilling conducting the Bach-Collegium Stuttgart. Released in 1979/1987 by CBS Schallplatten GmbH/CBS Records. Rilling later re-recorded the Requiem with the completion by Robert D. Levin in 1991 for Hanssler Classic.
  • Robert Shaw conducting the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. Recorded in 1986 and released in 1990 by Telarc.
  • Sir Georg Solti conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1991 and released in 1992 by Decca.
  • Christian Thielemann conducting the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded and released in 2006 by Deutsche Grammophon.
  • Jos van Veldhoven conducting The Netherlands Bach Society. Recorded live in 2001 and released in 2002 by Channel Classics.
  • Bruno Walter conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1937. First 20th-century recording.
  • Bruno Walter conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in 1956 and released in 1996 by Orfeo.
  • Franz Welser-Möst conducting the London Philharmonic Choir & Orchestra. Recorded in 1989 and released in 1990 by EMI Classics.

Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 – August 14, 1981) was a prominent Austrian conductor. ... Sergiu Celibidache (June 28, 1912, Roman, Romania - August 14, 1996, Paris) was a Romanian conductor. ... Gardiner conducting Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell, Dorset, England) is an English conductor. ... Carlo Maria Giulini (May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor. ... Nikolaus Harnoncourt (born Johann Nicolaus Graf de la Fontaine und dHarnoncourt-Unverzagt December 6, 1929 in Berlin) is an Austrian conductor, particularly known for his historically informed performances of music from the classical era and earlier. ... Born: May 2, 1947 - Ghent, Belgium Philippe Herreweghe studied piano with Marvel Gazelle at the Ghent Conservatory. ... Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood CBE (born 10 September 1941) is an English conductor, harpsichordist, writer and scholar of music. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is a conductor and violinist. ... Riccardo Muti (born July 28, 1941, in Naples) is an Italian conductor best known for being the Music Director of Milans La Scala opera house, a position he held from 1986 to 2005, and of The Philadelphia Orchestra from 1980 to 1992. ... Peter Schreier (born July 29, 1935) is a German tenor and conductor. ... Helmuth Rilling (b. ... Robert D. Levin (b. ... Robert Shaw (April 30, 1916 – January 25, 1999) was an American conductor most famous for his work with his namesake Chorale, with the Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus, and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced IPA: ) (21 October 1912 – 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... Christian Thielemann (born 1959 in Berlin) is a German conductor. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Franz Welser-Möst, Photo by: Roger Mastroianni courtesy of IMG Artists Franz Welser-Möst (16 August 1960), born Franz Möst, is the seventh and current Music Director of The Cleveland Orchestra. ...

Popular culture

Mozart's Requiem is used in many popular films and music videos, usually to announce a dark or tragic event. The Dies Irae portion of the Requiem is the most often used. “Moving picture” redirects here. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ...


External links

Downloads (scores and music)

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ...

Other links

  • Mozart's Requiem text with English translation
  • Two trombonists discuss readings of the "Requiem"
  • Unattributed work at Caltech on Mozart's Requiem.
  • Main information on: www.requiemsurvey.org: a website about nearly 2000 requiem composers
  • The Mozart Project
  • Requiem Mass in D Minor Performance Video

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Landon, H. C. Robbins (1988). 1791: Mozart's Last Year. New York: Schirmer Books. 
  2. ^ a b Steve Boerner (December 16, 2000). K. 626: Requiem in D Minor. The Mozart Pronect.
  3. ^ Facsimile of the manuscript's last page, showing the missing corner

is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • C. R. F. Maunder (1988). Mozart's Requiem: On Preparing a New Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316413-2. 
  • Christoph Wolff (1994). Mozart's Requiem: Historical and Analytical Studies, Documents, Score. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07709-1. 
  • Brendan Cormican (1991). Mozart's death - Mozart's requiem : an investigation. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-951-03570-3. 
  • Heinz Gärtner (1991). Constanze Mozart : after the Requiem. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931-34039-X. 



  Results from FactBites:
 
Requiem (Mozart) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2096 words)
It was Mozart's last composition and is also perhaps one of his most powerful and recognised works, not only for its music, but also for the debate as to how much of the music Mozart managed to complete before his death, and how much was later composed by his friend and pupil Franz Xaver Süßmayr.
Mozart had been commissioned anonymously to write the Requiem (by intermediaries acting for the eccentric Count von Walsegg-Stuppach) and received half of the payment in advance, so his widow Constanze was keen for the incomplete work to be finished.
Mozart's Requiem is a popular choral work used in many works of popular culture such as films and music videos, usually to announce a dark, scary or tragic event.
Requiem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2879 words)
The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and, in a wholly different ritual form, the Eastern Rite Catholic Churches.
Among the earliest examples of this type are the German requiems composed in the 17th century by Schütz and Praetorius, whose works are Lutheran adaptations of the Catholic requiem, and which provided inspiration for the mighty German Requiem by Brahms.
Requiem is the name of an anarcho-punk/hardcore band from North Carolina featuring former members of Catharsis and current members of Ümlaut.
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