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Encyclopedia > Requiem

The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian "High" Church and certain Lutheran Churches in the United States. There is also a requiem, with a wholly different ritual form and texts, that is observed in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches. The common theme of requiems is prayer for the salvation of the soul(s) of the departed, and it is used both at services immediately preceding a burial, and on occasions of more general remembrance. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Bulgarian... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


"Requiem" is also the title of various musical compositions used in such liturgical services or as concert pieces as settings of the portions of that Mass which have been traditionally sung in the Roman Catholic liturgy.


While the prayers in the regular Mass as the Introit and Gradual change according to the Calendar of Saints, the text for the requiem Mass is particularly fixed. Originally such funeral musical compositions were meant to be performed in liturgical service, with monophonic chant. Eventually the dramatic character began to appeal to composers to an extent that made the requiem a genre of its own. The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ...

Contents

The Roman Catholic Liturgy

This use of the word requiem comes from the opening words of the Introit: Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis. (Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.) The requiem Mass differs from the ordinary Mass in omitting certain joyful passages such as the Gloria, Credo, and Alleluia, and by the addition of the sequence Dies Iræ. The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ...


The regular texts of the musical portions to be found in the Roman Catholic liturgy are the following:

  • Introit:
Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis. Te decet hymnus Deus, in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Ierusalem. Exaudi orationem meam; ad te omnis caro veniet. Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
(“Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them. A hymn becometh thee, O God, in Zion, and unto thee a vow shall be repaid in Jerusalem. Hear my prayer; unto thee all flesh shall come. Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.”)
  • Kyrie eleison, as the Kyrie the Ordinary of the Mass:
Kyrie eleison; Christe eleison; Kyrie eleison (Κυριε ελεησον; Χριστε ελεησον; Κυριε ελεησον).
This is Greek for “Lord have mercy; Christ, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.” Traditionally, each utterance is sung three times.
  • Gradual:
Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine; In memoria æterna erit justus, ab auditione mala non timebit.
(“Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord. He shall be justified in everlasting memory, and shall not fear evil reports.”)
  • Tract:
Absolve, Domine, animas omnium fidelium defunctorum ab omno vinculo delictorum et gratia tua illis succurente mereantur evadere iudicium ultionis, et lucis æterne beatitudine perfrui.
(“Forgive, O Lord, the souls of all the faithful departed from all the chains of their sins and may they deserve to avoid the judgment of revenge by your fostering grace, and enjoy the everlasting blessedness of light.”)
  • Sequence:
Dies iræ, dies illa
Solvet sæclum in favilla,
teste David cum Sibylla.
(“Day of wrath, a day that the world will dissolve in ashes, as foretold by David and the Sibyl.”) (See Dies Iræ for full text)
  • Offertory:
Domine, Jesu Christe, Rex gloriæ, libera animas omnium fidelium defunctorum de pœnis inferni et de profundo lacu. Libera eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum; sed signifer sanctus Michæl repræsentet eas in lucem sanctam, quam olim Abrahæ promisisti et semini ejus.
(“Lord Jesus Christ, King of glory, free the souls of all the faithful departed from infernal punishment and the deep pit. Free them from the mouth of the lion; do not let Tartarus swallow them, nor let them fall into darkness; but may the sign-bearer, Saint Michael, lead them into the holy light which you promised to Abraham and his seed.”)
Hostias et preces tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus; tu suscipe pro animabus illis, quarum hodie memoriam facimus. Fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam. Quam olim Abrahæ promisisti et semini ejus.
(“O Lord, we offer you sacrifices and prayers in praise; accept them on behalf of the souls whom we remember today. Make them pass over from death to life, as you promised Abraham and his seed.”)
  • Sanctus, as the Sanctus prayer in the Ordinary of the Mass:
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth; pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
(“Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory”).
Hosanna in excelsis.
(“Hosanna in the highest”).
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
(“Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord”).
Hosanna in excelsis. (reprise)
  • Agnus Dei, text as the Agnus Dei in the Ordinary of the Mass, but with the petitions miserere nobis changed to dona eis requiem, and dona nobis pacem to dona eis requiem sempiternam:
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem,
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem,
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempiternam.
(“Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, grant them rest, … grant them rest eternal.”).
  • Communion:
Lux æterna luceat eis, Domine, cum sanctis tuis in æternum, quia pius es. Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine; et lux perpetua luceat eis.
(“May everlasting light shine upon them, O Lord, with thy saints in eternity, for thou art merciful. Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and may everlasting light shine upon them.”)

As with penitential seasons for the regular Mass, the Gloria (from the Ordinary) and Alleluia (from the Proper) are omitted in the Requiem as well, as these are viewed as being overly joyful texts (the Alleluia being replaced by the Tract). Likewise, the Credo (sometimes omitted from the Ordinary of the Mass) is not used in the Requiem. The Dies iræ was rendered optional in the Requiem in 1967 and was omitted from the revised Mass altogether in 1969; at the same time, the Alleluia was added to funerals outside Lent. Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ... Many sets of religious beliefs have a particular spirit, deity, demon or angel whose responsibility is to escort newly-deceased souls to the afterlife, such as Heaven or Hell. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... The Lamb of God or Agnus Dei is the popular name for the litany spoken or sung during the Rite of Fraction and Commingling. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (&#1497...


Musical compositions

For many centuries the texts of the requiem were sung to Gregorian melodies. The Requiem by Johannes Ockeghem, written sometime in the latter half of the 15th century, is the earliest surviving polyphonic setting. There was a setting by the elder composer Dufay, possibly earlier, which is now lost: Ockeghem's may have been modelled on it.[1] Many early requiems employ different texts that were in use in different liturgies around Europe before the Council of Trent set down the texts given above. The requiem of Brumel, circa 1500, is the first to include the Dies Iræ. In the early polyphonic settings of the Requiem, there is considerable textural contrast within the compositions themselves: simple chordal or fauxbourdon-like passages are contrasted with other sections of contrapuntal complexity, such as in the Offertory of Ockeghem's Requiem.[1] Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Requiem, by Johannes Ockeghem (c. ... Ockeghem (with glasses) and his singers Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Du Fay (left), with Gilles Binchois Guillaume Dufay (Du Fay, Du Fayt) (?August 5, 1397 – November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist of the late Middle Ages/early Renaissance. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Antoine Brumel (around 1460 – 1512 or 1513) was a French composer. ... For the Polish death metal band Dies Irae, see Dies Irae (band). ... Faux bourdon (also commonly fauxbourdon) - French for wrong buzz - is a technique of musical harmonisation used in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. ...


In the 16th century, more and more composers set the Requiem mass. In contrast to practice in setting the Mass Ordinary, many of these settings used a cantus-firmus technique, something which had become quite archaic by mid-century. In addition, these settings used less textural contrast than the early settings by Ockeghem and Brumel, although the vocal scoring was often richer, for example in the six-voice Requiem by Jean Richafort which he wrote for the death of Josquin des Prez.[1] Other composers who wrote Requiems before 1550 include Pedro de Escobar, Antoine de Févin, Cristóbal Morales, and Pierre de La Rue; that by La Rue is probably the second oldest, after Ockeghem's. Jean Richafort (c. ... Josquin des Prez Josquin Des Prez (French rendering of Dutch Josken, diminutive of Joseph; latinized Josquinus Pratensis, alternatively Jodocus Pratensis) (c. ... Pedro de Escobar (c. ... Antoine de Févin (c. ... Cristóbal de Morales (c. ... Pierre de La Rue (c. ...


Over 2,000 requiems have been composed to the present day. Typically the Renaissance settings, especially those not written on the Iberian Peninsula, may be performed a cappella (i.e. without necessary accompanying instrumental parts), whereas beginning around 1600 composers more often preferred to use instruments to accompany a choir, and also include vocal soloists. There is great variation between compositions in how much of liturgical text is set to music. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ...


Most composers omit sections of the liturgical prescription, most frequently the Gradual and the Tract. Fauré and Duruflé omit the Dies iræ, while the very same text had often been set by French composers in previous centuries as a stand-alone work. Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... Maurice Duruflé (January 11, 1902 – June 16, 1986) was a French composer, organist, and pedagogue. ...


Sometimes composers divide an item of the liturgical text into two or more movements; because of the length of its text, the Dies iræ is the most frequently divided section of the text (as with Mozart, for instance). The Introit and Kyrie, being immediately adjacent in the actual Roman Catholic liturgy, are often composed as one movement.


Musico-thematic relationships among movements of Requiems can be found as well.


Added movements

Some settings contain additional texts, such as the devotional motet Pie Jesu (in the settings of Dvořák, Fauré, Duruflé, and Lloyd Webber—Fauré set it as a soprano solo in the center). Libera me (from the Absolution) and In paradisum (from the burial service, which in the case of a funeral follows after the Mass) conclude some compositions. Other added movements have been composed as well, such as the English Psalms Out of the Deep and The Lord is My Shepherd included in John Rutter's setting. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemiaand Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of Julian Lloyd Webber. ... For the musician, see Burial (musician). ... John Rutter (born September 24, 1945) is an English composer, choral conductor, editor, arranger and record producer. ...


Libera me

Libera me, Domine, de morte æterna, in die illa tremenda, quando coeli movendi sunt et terra, dum veneris iudicare sæculum per ignem. Tremens factus sum ego et timeo, dum discussio venerit atque ventura ira. Dies illa, dies iræ, calamitatis, et miseriæ, dies magna et amara valde. Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
("Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death on that fearful day, when the heavens and the earth are moved, when you will come to judge the world with fire. I am made to tremble and I fear, because of the judgment that will come, and also the coming wrath. That day, day of wrath, calamity, and misery, day of great and exceeding bitterness. Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.")

In paradisum

In paradisum deducant te Angeli; in tuo adventu suscipiant te martyres, et perducant te in civitatem sanctam Ierusalem. Chorus angelorum te suscipiat, et cum Lazaro quondam paupere æternam habeas requiem.
("May angels lead you into Paradise; may the martyrs receive you at your coming and lead you to the holy city of Jerusalem. May a choir of angels receive you, and with Lazarus, who once was poor, may you have eternal rest.")

Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ...

Pie Jesu

The Pie Jesu combines and paraphrases of the final verse of the Dies irae and the Agnus Dei.

Pie Jesu Domine, dona eis requiem. Dona eis requiem sempiternam.
("O sweet Lord Jesus, grant them rest; grant them everlasting rest.")

Concert requiems

Beginning in the 18th century and continuing through the 19th, many composers wrote what are effectively concert requiems, which by virtue of employing forces too large, or lasting such a considerable duration, prevent them being readily used in an ordinary funeral service; the requiems of Gossec, Berlioz, Verdi, and Dvořák are essentially dramatic concert oratorios. A counter-reaction to this tendency came from the Cecilian movement, which recommended restrained accompaniment for liturgical music, and frowned upon the use of operatic vocal soloists. François-Joseph Gossec (1734 — February 16, 1829) was a Belgian composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works who worked in France. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (either October 9 or 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. ... Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemiaand Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ...


Non-Roman Catholic requiems

Requiem is also used to describe any sacred composition that sets to music religious texts which would be appropriate at a funeral, or to describe such compositions for liturgies other than the Roman Catholic Mass.


Among the earliest examples of this type are the German requiems composed in the 17th century by Heinrich Schütz and Michael Praetorius, whose works are Lutheran adaptations of the Catholic requiem, and which provided inspiration for the mighty German Requiem by Brahms. A rather exhaustive list of requiem composers can be found on this site. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Michael Praetorius. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ein deutsches Requiem For the short story by Jorge Luis Borges, see Ein deutsches Requiem (short story). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Such requiems would include:

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... A memorial service (Greek: μνημόσυνο, mnemósyno, memorial, or παραστάς, parastás, wake; Church Slavonic: панахіда, panahída, панихїда, panikhída) is a liturgical observance in honor of the departed which is served in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...

Jewish Mourners' Kaddish

Main article: Kaddish

The Mourners' Kaddish is said as part of the mourning rituals in Judaism in all prayer services as well as at funerals and memorials. When mention is made of "saying Kaddish", this unambiguously denotes the rituals of mourning. Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ...


The opening words of this prayer are inspired by Ezekiel 38:23, a vision of God becoming great in the eyes of all the nations. The central line of the kaddish in Jewish tradition is the congregation's response "May His great name be blessed forever and to all eternity", a public declaration of God's greatness and eternality. A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ...


The first mention of mourners saying Kaddish at the end of the service is in a thirteenth century halakhic writing called the Or Zarua. The Kaddish at the end of the service became designated as Kaddish Yatom or Mourners' Kaddish (literally, "Orphan's Kaddish").[2] (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Halakha (הלכה or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ... Isaac ben Moses of Vienna (also called Isaac Or Zarua; Hebrew: Yitzchak ben Moshe) was one of the greatest rabbis of the Middle Ages. ...


Eastern Orthodox Requiem

In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, the requiem is the fullest form of memorial service (Greek: Parastas, Slavonic: Panikhida). The normal memorial service is a greatly abbreviated form of Matins, but the Requiem contains all of the psalms, readings, and hymns normally found the All-Night Vigil (which combines the Canonical Hours of Vespers, Matins and First Hour), providing a complete set of propers for the departed. The full requiem will last around three and a half hours. In this format it more clearly represents the original concept of parastas, which means literally, "standing throughout (the night)." Often, there will be a Divine Liturgy celebrated the next morning with further propers for the departed. A memorial service (Greek: μνημόσυνο, mnemósyno, memorial, or παραστάς, parastás, wake; Church Slavonic: панахіда, panahída, панихїда, panikhída) is a liturgical observance in honor of the departed which is served in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Bulgarian... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... A memorial service (Greek: μνημόσυνο, mnemósyno, memorial, or παραστάς, parastás, wake; Church Slavonic: панахіда, panahída, панихїда, panikhída) is a liturgical observance in honor of the departed which is served in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... The All-Night Vigil (Russian: ), Opus 37, is an a cappella choral composition by Sergei Rachmaninoff, written and premiered in 1915. ... Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time, developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between the prescribed prayers of the daily round. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Prime is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office, said at 6 a. ... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


Because of their great length, full requiems are rarely served. However, at least in the Russian liturgical tradition, a Requiem will often be served on the eve before the Glorification (canonization) of a saint, in a special service known as the "Last Panikhida." Icon of St. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


Anglican burial service

The Anglican Book of Common Prayer contains seven texts which are collectively known as "funeral sentences"; several composers have written settings of these seven texts, which are generally known collectively as a "burial service." Composers who have set the Anglican burial service to music include Thomas Morley, Orlando Gibbons, and Henry Purcell. The text of these seven sentences, from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, is: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, editor and organist of the Renaissance, and the foremost member of the English Madrigal School. ... Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons (baptised December 25, 1583 – June 5, 1625) was an English composer and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: [1]; September 10 (?) [2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ...

  • I am the resurrection and the life, saith the Lord: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.
  • I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shalt stand at the latter day upon the earth. And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.
  • We brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the Name of the Lord.
  • Man that is born of a woman hath but a short time to live, and is full of misery. He cometh up, and is cut down, like a flower; he fleeth as it were a shadow, and never continueth in one stay.
  • In the midst of life we are in death: of whom may we seek for succour, but of thee, O Lord, who for our sins art justly displeased? Yet, O Lord God most holy, O Lord most mighty, O holy and most merciful Saviour, deliver us not into the bitter pains of eternal death.
  • Thou knowest, Lord, the secrets of our hearts; shut not thy merciful ears to our prayer; but spare us, Lord most holy, O God most mighty, O holy and merciful Saviour, thou most worthy judge eternal, suffer us not, at our last hour, for any pains of death, to fall from thee.
  • I heard a voice from heaven, saying unto me, Write, From henceforth blessed are the dead which die in the Lord: even so saith the Spirit: for they rest from their labours.

20th century developments

In the 20th century the requiem evolved in several new directions. The genre of war requiems is perhaps the most notable, which comprise of compositions dedicated to the memory of people killed in wartime. These often include extra-liturgical poems of a pacifist or non-liturgical nature; for example, the War Requiem of Benjamin Britten juxtaposes the Latin text with the poetry of Wilfred Owen, and Robert Steadman's Mass in Black intersperses environmental poetry and prophecies of Nostradamus. The several Holocaust requiems may be regarded as a specific subset of this type. The War Requiem is a requiem composed by Benjamin Britten for the reconsecration of Coventry Cathedral on May 30, 1962 following its destruction during World War II. A mourning song for the victims of war, Britten’s War Requiem is considered one of the great heartrending choral-orchestral works of... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Robert Steadman (born April 1, 1965) is a British composer of classical music who mostly works in a post-minimalist style but also writes lighter music, including musicals, and compositions for educational purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... This article refers to the topic of prophecy as the purported telling of future events or supernatural revelations. ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Lastly, the 20th century saw the development of secular requiems, written for public performance without specific religious observance (e.g., Kabalevsky's War Requiem, to poems by Robert Rozhdestvensky). Herbert Howells's unaccompanied Requiem uses Psalm 23 ("The Lord is my shepherd"), Psalm 121 ("I will lift up mine eyes"), "Salvator mundi" ("O Saviour of the world," in English), "Requiem aeternam" (two different settings), and "I heard a voice from heaven." Some composers have written purely instrumental works bearing the title of requiem, as exemplified by the most famous of these, Britten's Sinfonia da Requiem. Igor Stravinsky's Requiem canticles mixes instrumental movements with segments of the "Introit," "Dies irae," "Pie Jesu," and "Libera me." Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... The theme of this poem casts God in the role of protector and provider, and is routinely read and recited by Jews and Christians alike. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th-century music. ...


Famous Requiems

See also: Requiems

Many composers have written Requiems. Some of the most famous include:

Ockeghem (with glasses) and his singers Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. ... The Requiem, by Johannes Ockeghem (c. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... Contemporary printing of the sheet music for Victorias Officium Defunctorum is a musical setting of the Office of the Dead composed by the Spanish Renaissance composer, Tomás Luis de Victoria in 1603. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... The Requiem (Op. ... Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (either October 9 or 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. ... The Requiem by Giuseppe Verdi is a musical setting of the Roman Catholic funeral Mass (called the Requiem for the first word of the text, which begins Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, meaning, Grant them eternal rest, O Lord — see the entry at Dies Irae) that was completed to mark... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ein deutsches Requiem For the short story by Jorge Luis Borges, see Ein deutsches Requiem (short story). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... Cover of the vocal score to the Requiem, published by Oxford University Press Gabriel Fauré composed his Requiem in D minor, Op. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák (IPA: , ) (September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music. ... Antonín Dvořák´s Requiem b minor - funeral mass for soloists, choir and orchestra, author´s opus no. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... The War Requiem is a requiem composed by Benjamin Britten for the reconsecration of Coventry Cathedral on May 30, 1962 following its destruction during World War II. A mourning song for the victims of war, Britten’s War Requiem is considered one of the great heartrending choral-orchestral works of... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Maurice Duruflé (January 11, 1902 – June 16, 1986) was a French composer, organist, and pedagogue. ... The Requiem, op. ...

Other Requiem composers

Renaissance

Giovanni Francesco Anerio (c. ... Gianmatteo Asola (Giammatteo, Giovanni Matteo; Asula, Asulae) (1532 or earlier – October 1, 1609) was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. ... Giulio Belli (c. ... Antoine Brumel (around 1460 – 1512 or 1513) was a French composer. ... Manuel Cardoso (baptized December 11, 1566 – November 24, 1650) was a Portuguese composer and organist. ... Joan Cererols (Martorell Sept 9th 1618 - Monastery of Montserrat Aug 27th 1680). ... Pierre Certon (c1510-1520 – February 23, 1572) was a French composer of the Renaissance. ... Jacques Cl ment or Jacob Clemens non Papa (c. ... Du Fay (left), with Gilles Binchois Guillaume Dufay (Du Fay, Du Fayt) (?August 5, 1397 – November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist of the late Middle Ages/early Renaissance. ... Pedro de Escobar (c. ... Antoine de Févin (c. ... Francisco Guerrero (October 4 (?), 1528 – November 8, 1599) was a Spanish composer of the Renaissance. ... Jacobus de Kerle (1531/32 - 1591-01-07) was a Flemish composer and organist of the late Renaissance. ... Composer Orlande de Lassus Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre (1532 (possibly 1530) – June 14, 1594) was a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music. ... Duarte Lobo (c. ... Jean Maillard (c. ... Jacques Mauduit (September 16, 1557 – August 21, 1627) was a French composer of the late Renaissance. ... Manuel Mendes (c. ... Cristóbal de Morales (c. ... Ockeghem (with glasses) and his singers Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (4 March 1525 - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of Renaissance music. ... Constanzo Porta (1528 or 1529 – May 19, 1601) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance, and a representative of what is known today as the Venetian School. ... Johannes Prioris (c. ... Jean Richafort (c. ... Pierre de La Rue (c. ... Claudin de Sermisy (c. ... Jacobus Vaet (c. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ...

Baroque

Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (August 12, 1644 – May 3, 1704) was a Bohemian composer and violinist. ... Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24, 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Michael Praetorius. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Jan Dismas Zelenka, also known as Johann Dismas Zelenka, (October 16, 1679 - December 23, 1745) was a Czech Baroque composer whose music was notably adventurous with great harmonic invention and mastery of counterpoint. ...

Classical period

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Portrait of Luigi Cherubini. ... Florian Leopold Gassmann (3 May 1729 – 20 January 1774) was an Bohemian opera composer. ... François-Joseph Gossec (1734 — February 16, 1829) was a Belgian composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works who worked in France. ... Michael Haydn Johann Michael Haydn (September 14, 1737 – August 10, 1806) was an Austrian composer, the younger brother of (Franz) Joseph Haydn. ... Andrea Luca Luchesi (May 23, 1741, Motta di Livenza - March 21, 1801, Bonn), was an Italian composer. ... José Maurício Nunes Garcia, Brazilian classical composer, was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at September 20, 1767, and died in the same city in April 18, 1830. ...

Romantic era

Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... João Domingos Bomtempo (1775-1842) was a Portuguese pianist, composer and pedagogue. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... Carl Czerny, lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, 1833 Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemiaand Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... Charles Gounod. ... Portrait by Henri Lehmann, 1839 Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc; pronounced , in English: list) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian [1] virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, and Symphony No. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Franz von Suppé Franz von Suppé (April 18, 1819 – May 21, 1895) was a composer and conductor of the Romantic period notable for his four dozen operettas. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (either October 9 or 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. ... Richard Wetz (February 26, 1875 — 16 January 1935) was a German late Romantic composer best known for his three symphonies. ... The Messa per Rossini is a Requiem mass, which resulted from a joint effort of thirteen composers. ...

Post-romantic/20th century

Malcolm Archer is currently the Organist and choirmaster of St Pauls Cathedral in London, England [1]. He has previously been the choirmaster of Bristol and Wells Cathedrals. ... Vyacheslav Artyomov Vyacheslav Petrovich Artyomov also Artemov (Russian: Вячесла́в Петро́вич Артё́мов, born: June 29, 1940) is a Russian composer. ... Alfred Desenclos (born 7 February 1912, died 31 March 1971), was a French composer of classical (modern) music. ... Dr Ralph Dunstan, Mus. ... Maurice Duruflé (January 11, 1902 – June 16, 1986) was a French composer, organist, and pedagogue. ... Hans Werner Henze (born July 1, 1926 in Gütersloh, Westphalia, Germany) is a composer well known for his left-wing political beliefs. ... Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... Karl Jenkins (born February 17, 1944) is a Welsh musician and composer. ... György Sándor Ligeti (May 28, 1923 – June 12, 2006) was a Jewish Hungarian composer born in Romania who later became an Austrian citizen. ... Frigyes Hidas (Hidas Frigyes in Hungarian order; May 25, 1928, Budapest) is a Hungarian composer. ... CD cover of recordings of Martins cello and violin concertos. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Ildebrando Pizzetti (1880–1968) was an Italian composer of classical music. ... Jocelyn Pook is an English viola player. ... Zbigniew Preisner (born May 20 in Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a, 1955) is one of Polands leading film score composers, best known for his work with director Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski. ... John Rutter (born September 24, 1945) is an English composer, choral conductor, editor, arranger and record producer. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Photo of Valentin Silvestrov Valentin Silvestrov (born September 30, 1937 in Kiev) is a contemporary composer of classical music. ... Robert Steadman (born April 1, 1965) is a British composer of classical music who mostly works in a post-minimalist style but also writes lighter music, including musicals, and compositions for educational purposes. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th-century music. ... Tōru Takemitsu (武満 徹 Takemitsu Tōru, October 8, 1930 - February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer of music, who explored the compositional principles of Western classical music and his native Japanese tradition both in isolation and in combination. ... John Tavener should not be confused with the sixteenth-century composer John Taverner. ... Erkki-Sven Tüür (born October 16, 1959) is an Estonian composer. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of Julian Lloyd Webber. ...

New Era/21st century

Kentaro Sato 2005 Kentaro Sato (佐藤賢太郎; born May 12, 1981) is a Los Angeles-based composer of media music (Film/TV/Game) and concert music (Symphonic and Choral). ... Karl Jenkins (born February 17, 1944) is a Welsh musician and composer. ...

Requiems by language (other than purely Latin)

English with Latin

German Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Evgeni Kostitsyn (b. ... Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... John Rutter (born September 24, 1945) is an English composer, choral conductor, editor, arranger and record producer. ...

French, English, German with Latin Michael Praetorius. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Polish with Latin Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ...

Russian Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Zbigniew Preisner (born May 20 in Bielsko-Biała, 1955) is one of Polands leading film score composers, best known for his work with director Krzysztof Kieślowski. ...

Sergey I. Taneev. ... Dmitri Kabalevsky Dmitri Borisovich Kabalevsky (Russian Дмитрий Борисович Кабалевский) (December 30, 1904 Saint Petersburg - February 18, 1987 Moscow) was a Russian Soviet composer. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources, so as to avoid it being considered...

Requiem in other arts, popular culture, and miscellaneous musical manifestations

  • The Swedish progressive death metal band Opeth has a song named "Requiem" on their 1995 album "Orchid".
  • Jethro Tull has a song named Requiem on their album Minstrel in the Gallery.
  • Alexander Borodin composed a "Requiem" piece for the collaborative piano work Paraphrases, which is a set of pieces based on the theme commonly known as Chopsticks.
  • In a parody of a medieval geisslerlied, the monks in the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail chant the Pie Jesu while striking themselves with punch card sized wooden boards.
  • "Requiem of Spirit" was a song in the popular Nintendo 64 video game The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time.
  • Requiem for a Dream was a novel written by Hubert Selby, Jr. and was later adapted into a critically acclaimed film (2000).
  • Jesper Kyd is a popular composer who has composed Requiem songs for many videogames. The Hitman (computer game series) series being among the most popular.
  • Requiem is the name of the last mission in the videogame "Hitman: Blood Money"
  • In 1983 Pink Floyd released an album called The Final Cut. The album's secondary title was "A Requiem for the Post-War dream".
  • At Your Funeral was a song by Saves the Day on their album Stay What You Are, in the song they use the lyrics "At your funeral I will sing the requiem"
  • "Requiem" is one of the most popular tracks by the British Hard Dance act, Lab 4
  • "Requiem for the Masses" performed by The Association, composed by Terry Kirkman. Originally written as a tribute to boxer Davey Moore, it became an anti-war song. Includes choir chants of "Requiem aeternam", "Rex tremendae maiestatis" and "Kyrie eleison".
  • "Requiem for a Sinner" is the opening track on the 1977 album World Anthem by Canadian hard rock band Frank Marino & Mahogany Rush, and most fans consider it to be one of their best songs.
  • 'Requiem' is a superweapon in the anime series Gundam SEED Destiny
  • In 2006 the Emanuel Gat Dance company from Israel began performing K626, a modern dance work set to Mozart's requiem, and named after the composition's Köchel catalogue number.
  • "Requiem" is used as an overdrive for the character Seymour Guado in the roleplaying game Final Fantasy X
  • "Requiem" is a short musical verse in the videogame Ace Combat 04. It is normally played after the player has been shot down, crashed, or has failed a mission
  • "Requiem" is the title of the upcoming, debut album from Hip-Hop artist One-Way.
  • Doom metal band Silentium has a song named "Requiem" on their 1999 album Infinita Plango Vulnera.
  • Requiem is a Pokemon; Duskull, in the Pokemon game series.
  • The German Power Metal band Blind Guardian has made a song called "Script For My Requiem".
  • Requiem is the name of a zweihander belonging to the character Siegfried in Soul Calibur 3.
  • In the introduction of the song "Phantom Stranger" by Rob Zombie, the Latin Requiem can be heard.
  • Requiem is the name of an anarcho-punk/hardcore band from North Carolina featuring former members of Catharsis and current members of Ümlaut. Their first record, Storm Heaven, was released in 2005 on CrimethInc.
  • Requiem is a Death Metal Band from Switzerland
  • Metal band Trivium had a song titled "Requiem" on their debut album, Ember to Inferno
  • "The Sound of Reqiem" is the first track of an album of the same name by British Folk group Tiny Tin Lady.
  • Ao no Requiem (Blue Requiem) is the opening song to the anime series, Samurai Deeper Kyo
  • The soundtrack to anime series, Trinity Blood, has a track called Requiem~Inori (Requiem~Prayer) which was played near the end of the series.
  • Ambient Drone band Stars of the Lid have a two part song called "Requiem for Dying Mothers" on their album, 'Tired Sounds of Stars of the Lid'
  • There is a family of sharks commonly named as the Requiem sharks, or scientifically known as Carcharhinidae.
  • Requiem is a song by the metal band "Lamb of God" on their Sacrament album.
  • "Closed Casket Requiem" is a song by the hardcore metal band "The Black Dahlia Murder".
  • Requiem is the closing section in Arthur Miller's famous play, Death of a Salesman.
  • "Requiem for a city", by Mike Oldfield, is the second track of the soundtrack to the movie The Killing Fields.
  • Post-Hardcore band I AM GHOST have an album titled Lover's Requiem.
  • In the AFI song 'Story at Three' Davey Havok can be heard screaming the word 'Requiem'
  • "Electric Requiem" is a song on Queensryche's 1989 Operation: Mindcrime CD.
  • Post-hardcore band Boysetsfire has a song titled "Requiem" on their Album 'The Misery Index: Notes from the Plague Years'.
  • Black Metal band Sigh based their album "Hangman's Hymn" on the Catholic Requiem. The album contains sampled sections of the Requiem.
  • German Symphonic metal band Haggard had a composition entitled "Requiem In D-Minor" in hteir album And Thou Shalt Trust... The Seer
  • Requiem is also the title of the last episode in season 7 of The X-Files.
  • On their latest record New Maps Of Hell, legendary punk band Bad Religion has a song entitled 'Requiem for Dissent'.

Opeth is a Progressive death metal band from Sweden. ... Jethro Tull are a Grammy Award winning English rock band that formed in 1967-1968[1]. Their music is marked by the distinctive vocal style and lead flute work of front man Ian Anderson. ... Minstrel in the Gallery (1975) is an album by British band Jethro Tull. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... Chopsticks (original name The Celebrated Chop Waltz) is an extremely well known, simple waltz for the piano. ... In medieval music, the Geisslerlieder were the songs of the wandering bands of flagellants, who overspread Europe during two periods of mass hysteria: the first during the middle of the 13th century, and the second during the Black Death in 1349. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time was a video game released in 1998, and the first Zelda game for the Nintendo 64. ... Requiem for a Dream is a 2000 film adaptation of a 1978 novel of the same name. ... Hubert Selby, Jr. ... now. ... For other uses, see Hitman (disambiguation). ... 47 disguised. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde progressive rock music. ... The Final Cut is a rock album by Pink Floyd recorded at several studios in the UK from July to December 1982. ... Saves the Day is a pop-punk indie rock band that was formed in 1997 in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Stay What You Are (2001) is the third release of Princeton based band Saves the Day. ... Lab 4 is a United Kingdom based hard trance act that was formed in 1994 by Adam Newman and Lez Elston. ... Cover from 1966s And Then. ... David S. Davey Moore (1933-1963) was an American world champion boxer who boxed professionally from 1953-1963. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Frank Marino(Francesco Antonio Marino), born November 20, 1954 in Montreal, is the guitarist and leader of Canadian Hard rock band Mahogany Rush. ... Mahogany Rush is a Canadian rock band led by guitarist Frank Marino. ... Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny is the second TV series set in the Cosmic Era universe of Gundam. ... ... Seymour Guado , formal titles: Maester Seymour Guado or Lord Seymour) is a fictional character and one of the main antagonists in the Square Enix role-playing video game Final Fantasy X of the Final Fantasy series. ... Final Fantasy X ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix), and the tenth installment in the Final Fantasy video game series; it was released in 2001, and is the first numbered Final Fantasy game for the Sony PlayStation 2 video game console. ... Ace Combat 04: Shattered Skies is a game for the PlayStation 2 developed by Namco. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Come Sweet Death (ger. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Catharsis is the Greek Katharsis word meaning purification or cleansing derived from the ancient Greek gerund καθαίρειν transliterated as kathairein to purify, purge, and adjective katharos pure or clean (ancient and modern Greek: καθαρός). // The term in drama refers to a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great... Ãœmlaut is essentially the anarcho-punk band Catharsis posing as a crust/hardcore band from Finland. ... CrimethInc. ... Trivium is a metalcore band from Orlando, Florida. ... Ember to Inferno is the first album from Floridian metalcore/thrash metal band Trivium. ... Samurai Deeper Kyo (written in English, even in Japan) is Akimine Kamijyos first published manga. ... Serialized in Asuka Original run March 17, 2004 – No. ... Stars of the Lid is a band specializing in drone-based ambient music. ... The Tired Sounds Of Stars Of The Lid is the sixth studio album by ambient drone music group Stars of the Lid. ... Genera Carcharhinus Galeocerdo Glyphis Isogomphodon Lamiopsis Loxodon Nasolamia Negaprion Prionace Rhizoprionodon Scoliodon Sphyrna Triaenodon The requiem sharks are members of the Carcharhinidae family that includes some of the best-known and most common types of sharks, such as the tiger shark, blue shark, bull shark, and milk shark. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... Cover to the Penguin Group edition. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... The Killing Fields (1984) is an award-winning dramatic British film based on the experiences of the journalists Dith Pran, who survived the Khmer Rouge regime, Sydney Schanberg, and Jon Swain. ... boysetsfire was a post-hardcore band from Delaware that formed in October 1994. ... Black metal is an extreme heavy metal subgenre. ... Sigh Sigh is an avant-garde black metal band from Tokyo, Japan that was formed in 1989. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up haggard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... And Thou Shall Trust. ... ‹ The template below (Current album) is being considered for deletion. ... Bad Religion is an American punk rock band that was originally formed in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass), Greg Graffin (vocals), Brett Gurewitz (guitars), and Jay Ziskrout (drums). ...

References and further reading

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Fabrice Fitch: "Requiem (2)", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed January 21, 2007)
  2. ^ Jewish Virtual Library, "Mourner's Kaddish" by Shira Schoenberg, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/kaddish.html. Accessed on 3-27-2007.

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... Vocal music is music performed by one or more singers, with or without non-vocal instrumental accompaniment, in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Requiem
  • Alphabetical Requiems Survey
  • Online Guide to Requiem
  • Writing - The Requiem Mass : A Literal Translation

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Requiem - definition of Requiem in Encyclopedia (1831 words)
A requiem is a Roman Catholic mass performed in commemoration of the dead, also known in Latin as the Missa pro Defunctis.
Beginning in the 18th century and continuing through the 19th, many composers wrote what are effectively concert requiems, which by virtue of employing forces too large, or lasting such a considerable duration, prevent them being readily used in an ordinary funeral service; the requiems of Gossec, Berlioz, Verdi, and Dvořák are essentially dramatic concert oratorios.
Among the earliest examples of this type are the German requiems composed in the 17th century by Schütz and Praetorius, whose works are Lutheran adaptations of the Catholic requiem, and which provided inspiration for the mighty German Requiem by Brahms.
Requiem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2415 words)
The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite.
"Requiem" is also the title of various musical compositions used in such liturgical services or as concert pieces as settings of the portions of that mass which have been traditionally sung in the Roman Catholic liturgy.
The several Holocaust requiems may be regarded as a specific subset of this type.
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