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Encyclopedia > Republics of the Soviet Union
Republics of the Soviet Union, 1989
Republics of the Soviet Union, 1989

The Republics of the Soviet Union were, according to the Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, Sovereign Soviet Socialist states that had united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR".[1] Soviet Republic may refer to one of the following states. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1887x1313, 412 KB)Soviet Union administrative divisions (republics) and sub-divisions (oblasts, autonomous republics, autonomous districs, etc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1887x1313, 412 KB)Soviet Union administrative divisions (republics) and sub-divisions (oblasts, autonomous republics, autonomous districs, etc. ... At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


According to the European Court of Human Rights,[2] , the United Nations Human Rights Council [3], the governments of the Baltic countries,[4][5] the United States,[6] and the European Union,[7] the three Soviet Baltic republics (Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR) were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The Russian government and state officials, however, maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate.[8] European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet Republics. Within the USSR they were also called union republics (Russian: союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki). All of them were considered to be socialist republics, and all of them, with the exception of the Russian SFSR, had their own Communist parties, part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. All of the former Republics are now independent countries, with twelve of them (all except the Baltic states) being very loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution, each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, Article 72 was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union. This article is about federal states. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In practice, the USSR was a highly centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate collapse. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets (Councils) of People's Deputies. These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics. State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, and appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party. General practice in the republics outside of Russia was that the head of state in a republic was a local official while the party general secretary was from outside the republic. The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, and, with the exception of the Russian SFSR, an anthem. Flags of the Soviet Socialist Republics all featured predominantly red flag with hammer and sickle that both symbolised communism, quite similar to the flag of the Soviet Union. ... Coats of arms of the Soviet Socialist Republics all featured predominantly the hammer and sickle and the red star that symbolised communism, a rising sun (although, since the Baltic Sea is west of Latvia, it could be interpreted as a setting sun), surrounded by agricultural products of the republic (e. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... The USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and its constituent republics each had a national anthem (generally referred as state anthem). ...

Contents

The republics and the collapse of the Soviet Union

A hall in Bishkek's Soviet-era Lenin Museum decked with the flags of Soviet Republics
A hall in Bishkek's Soviet-era Lenin Museum decked with the flags of Soviet Republics

The republics played an important role in the collapse of the Soviet Union. Under Mikhail Gorbachev, glasnost and perestroika were intended to revive the Soviet Union. However, they had a number of effects which caused the power of the republics to increase. First, political liberalization allowed the governments within the republics to gain legitimacy by invoking democracy, nationalism or a combination of both. In addition, liberalization led to fractures within the party hierarchy which reduced Soviet control over the republics. Finally, perestroika allowed the governments of the republics to control economic assets in their republics and withhold funds from the central government. Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Throughout the late 1980s, the Soviet government attempted to find a new structure which would reflect the increasing power of the republics. These efforts proved unsuccessful, and in 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed as the republic governments seceded. The republics then all became independent states, with the post-Soviet governments in most cases consisting largely of the government personnel of the former Soviet republics.


Soviet Union in its final state

Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union
Flag Republic Capital Republics of the Soviet Union
1 Armenian SSR Yerevan
2 Azerbaijan SSR Baku
3 Byelorussian SSR Minsk
4 Estonian SSR Tallinn
5 Georgian SSR Tbilisi
6 Kazakh SSR Alma-Ata
7 Kirghiz SSR Frunze
8 Latvian SSR Riga
9 Lithuanian SSR Vilnius
10 Moldavian SSR Chişinău
11 Russian SFSR Moscow
12 Tajik SSR Dushanbe
13 Turkmen SSR Ashgabat
14 Ukrainian SSR Kiev
15 Uzbek SSR Tashkent

Not to be confused with capitol. ... Download high resolution version (1356x928, 45 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Republics of the Soviet Union User:Aris Katsaris Categories: Historical maps ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenian_SSR.svg Flag of the Armenian SSR. Based on Image:Flag of Moldavian SSR.svg, attributed to Perconte. ... language None. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan_SSR.svg Flag of Azerbaijan SSR, based on Image:Flag-azerbaijan-ssr. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Byelorussian_SSR.svg Summary The flag of Byelorussian SSR. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Byelorussian SSR Flag of Byelorussian SSR ... language None. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonian_SSR.svg Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Estonia List of flags Estonian SSR Flag of Estonian SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgian_SSR.svg The flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakh_SSR.svg Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Kazakh SSR ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Official language None. ... Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Verny, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is a city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,168,000. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyz_SSR.svg‎ Renamed from Image:Flag of Kirghiz SSR.svg Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz SSR Flag of Kyrgyz SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvian_SSR.svg Flag of Latvian SSR. File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Latvian SSR ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuanian_SSR.svg Flag of the Lithuanian SSR, based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldavian_SSR.svg Summary Colors taken from: http://www. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russian_SFSR.svg Summary The flag of Russian during their period in the USSR. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Flag of Russian SFSR Russian SFSR Flag of Russia Flags of the Soviet Republics Wikipedia:WikiProject Flag Template Wikipedia... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajik_SSR.svg Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Tajik SSR Flag of Tadzhik SSR ... State motto: Tajik: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Dushanbe Official language None. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmen_SSR.svg Flag of the Turkmen SSR. Based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukrainian_SSR.svg Summary The flag of the Ukrainian SSR Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Ukrainian SSR Flag of Ukrainian SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics User:Elmo12456♣/Flags of the world list ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbek_SSR.svg Flag of Uzbek SSR, based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...

Independent nations

  1. Flag of Armenia Armenia
  2. Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
  3. Flag of Belarus Belarus
  4. Flag of Estonia Estonia
  5. Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
  6. Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
  7. Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
  8. Flag of Latvia Latvia
  9. Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
  10. Flag of Moldova Moldova
  11. Flag of Russia Russia
  12. Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan
  13. Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
  14. Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
  15. Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan

Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ...

Other Soviet republics

Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee (Polrevkom, (Russian: ) (July-August 1920) was a Revolutionary Committee created under the patronage of the Soviet Russia with the goal to establish Polish Soviet Socialist Republic. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Julian Marchlewski (May 17, 1866 - March 22, 1925) was a Polish and Soviet communist functionary with an education in economics. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́, Buryat: Улаан-Удэ), formerly Verkhneudinsk (Верхнеу́динск), the capital of Buryatia, Russia, is located at the foot of the mountains and is divided into two parts by the Uda river, a tributary of the Selenga river. ... Chita (Russian: Чита́) is a city in Russia, and functions as the administrative center of Chita Oblast in eastern Siberia. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Sukhumi Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until March 31, 1921 December 30, 1922 February 19, 1931 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 10th and last in the USSR 8600 km² negligible Currency rouble (ruble) Time zone UTC +3 Medals... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Sukhumi Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until March 31, 1921 December 30, 1922 February 19, 1931 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 10th and last in the USSR 8600 km² negligible Currency rouble (ruble) Time zone UTC +3 Medals... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Timeline

Republic Capital Region Population[16]  % Latest (2007 Jul) Chg % Density Area (km²)  % Constitutional Order Successor
Flag of the Russian SFSR Russian SFSR Moscow Russia 147,386,000 51.40% 141,377,752 -4% 8.6 17,075,200 76.62% 1 Flag of Russia Russian Federation
Flag of the Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian SSR Kiev West 51,706,746 18.03% 46,299,862 -10.5% 85.6 603,700 2.71% 2 Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
Flag of the Uzbek SSR Uzbek SSR Tashkent Central Asia 19,906,000 6.94% 27,780,059 +39.6% 44.5 447,400 2.01% 4 Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
Flag of the Kazakh SSR Kazakh SSR Alma-Ata Central Asia 16,711,900 5.83% 15,284,929 -8.5% 6.1 2,727,300 12.24% 5 Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Flag of the Byelorussian SSR Byelorussian SSR Smolensk West 10,151,806 3.54% 9,724,723 -4.2% 48.9 207,600 0.93% 3 Flag of Belarus Belarus
Flag of the Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan SSR Baku Caucasus 7,037,900 2.45% 8,120,247 +15.4% 81.3 86,600 0.39% 7 Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Flag of the Georgian SSR Georgian SSR Tbilisi Caucasus 5,400,841 1.88% 4,646,003 -14.0% 77.5 69,700 0.31% 6 Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
Flag of the Tajik SSR Tajik SSR Dushanbe Central Asia 5,112,000 1.78% 7,076,598 +38.4% 35.7 143,100 0.64% 12 Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan
Flag of the Moldavian SSR Moldavian SSR Chişinău West 4,337,600 1.51% 4,320,490 -0.4% 128.2 33,843 0.15% 9 Flag of Moldova Moldova
Flag of the Kirghiz SSR Kirghiz SSR Frunze Central Asia 4,257,800 1.48% 5,284,149 +24.1% 21.4 198,500 0.89% 11 Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
Flag of the Lithuanian SSR Lithuanian SSR Vilnius Baltic 3,689,779 1.29% 3,575,439 -3.1% 56.6 65,200 0.29% 8 Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
Flag of the Turkmen SSR Turkmen SSR Ashgabat Central Asia 3,522,700 1.23% 5,097,028 +44.7% 7.2 488,100 2.19% 14 Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
Flag of the Armenian SSR Armenian SSR Yerevan Caucasus 3,287,700 1.15% 2,971,650 -9.6% 110.3 29,800 0.13% 13 Flag of Armenia Armenia
Flag of the Latvian SSR Latvian SSR Riga Baltic 2,666,567 0.93% 2,259,810 -15.3% 41.3 64,589 0.29% 10 Flag of Latvia Latvia
Flag of the Estonian SSR Estonian SSR Tallinn Baltic 1,565,662 0.55% 1,315,912 -16.0% 34.6 45,226 0.20% 15 Flag of Estonia Estonia

State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... language None. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... language None. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. ... Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (April 30, 1918 – October 27, 1924) was created from the Turkestan Krai of Imperial Russia. ... State motto: Tajik: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Dushanbe Official language None. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Sukhumi Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until March 31, 1921 December 30, 1922 February 19, 1931 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 10th and last in the USSR 8600 km² negligible Currency rouble (ruble) Time zone UTC +3 Medals... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Flag of the Abkhaz ASSR introduced in 1978 and used until the collapse of the Soviet union in 1991. ... The 1936 Soviet constitution, adopted on December 5, 1936, and also known as the Stalin constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Official language None. ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... language None. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... language None. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... The Finnish Democratic Republic (Finnish: Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta) was a short-lived Communist regime in those minor parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. ... The Finnish Democratic Republic (Finnish: Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta) was a short-lived Communist regime in those minor parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. ... State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... The Lithuanian 1941 independence was the short period of Lithuanian independence in 1941, between the first Soviet occupation, and the immediately following Nazi occupation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... Not by Their Own Will. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... The Karelian ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The January Events (Lithuanian: Sausio įvykiai) were a series of events that occurred on January 11-13, 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russian_SFSR.svg Summary The flag of Russian during their period in the USSR. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Flag of Russian SFSR Russian SFSR Flag of Russia Flags of the Soviet Republics Wikipedia:WikiProject Flag Template Wikipedia... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukrainian_SSR.svg Summary The flag of the Ukrainian SSR Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Ukrainian SSR Flag of Ukrainian SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics User:Elmo12456♣/Flags of the world list ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbek_SSR.svg Flag of Uzbek SSR, based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakh_SSR.svg Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Kazakh SSR ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Official language None. ... Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Verny, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is a city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,168,000. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Byelorussian_SSR.svg Summary The flag of Byelorussian SSR. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Byelorussian SSR Flag of Byelorussian SSR ... language None. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan_SSR.svg Flag of Azerbaijan SSR, based on Image:Flag-azerbaijan-ssr. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgian_SSR.svg The flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajik_SSR.svg Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Tajik SSR Flag of Tadzhik SSR ... State motto: Tajik: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Dushanbe Official language None. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldavian_SSR.svg Summary Colors taken from: http://www. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyz_SSR.svg‎ Renamed from Image:Flag of Kirghiz SSR.svg Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz SSR Flag of Kyrgyz SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuanian_SSR.svg Flag of the Lithuanian SSR, based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmen_SSR.svg Flag of the Turkmen SSR. Based on Image:Flag of the Soviet Union. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenian_SSR.svg Flag of the Armenian SSR. Based on Image:Flag of Moldavian SSR.svg, attributed to Perconte. ... language None. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvian_SSR.svg Flag of Latvian SSR. File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Latvian SSR ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonian_SSR.svg Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Estonia List of flags Estonian SSR Flag of Estonian SSR Flags of the Soviet Republics ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ...

References

  1. ^ Federalism and the Dictatorship of Power in Russia By Mikhail Stoliarov; p. 56 ISBN 041530153X
  2. ^ European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States
  3. ^ http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G08/117/59/PDF/G0811759.pdf
  4. ^ The Occupation of Latvia at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia
  5. ^ Estonia says Soviet occupation justifies it staying away from Moscow celebrations - Pravda.Ru
  6. ^ U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship at state.gov
  7. ^ Motion for a resolution on the Situation in Estonia by EU
  8. ^ Russia denies Baltic 'occupation' by BBC News
  9. ^ Lak'oba, Stanislav: History: 1917 -1989 in The Abkhazians a handbook by Curzon Press, Richmond, Surrey, 1999.
  10. ^ ::Rrc::
  11. ^ Gunnar Alexandersson, The Baltic Straits (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982), ISBN 90-247-2595-X, p. 44.
  12. ^ (Lithuanian) Gediminas Zemlickas, Apie Birželio sukilimą ir Lietuvos laikinąją vyriausybę (Interview with Algimantas Liekis on June Uprising and Provisional Government of Lithuania), Mokslo Lietuva, Part I March 9, 2000, No. 5 (207) and Part II April 6-19, 2000, No. 7 (209).
  13. ^ Pernille Hohnen, Market Out of Place?: Remaking Economic, Social, and Symbolic Boundaries in Post-Communist Lithuania (Oxford University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-19-926762-6, p. 10.
  14. ^ David J Smith, Artis Pabriks, Aldis Purs, and Thomas Lane, The Baltic States (Routledge (UK), 2002), ISBN 0-415-28580-1, p. 61.
  15. ^ 1991: Bloodshed at Lithuanian TV station, BBC, accessed on 12 July, 2006.
  16. ^ 1989 Soviet census and World Factbook
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Soviet_Union. ...

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