FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Republican Party (United States)
Republican Party
"Republican Party Elephant" logo
Party Chairman Mike Duncan
Senate Leader Mitch McConnell
House Leader John Boehner
Founded 1854
Headquarters 310 First Street SE
Washington, D.C.
20003
Political ideology Conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Neoconservatism
Social conservatism
Political position Fiscal: Right-wing
Social: Right-wing[citation needed]
International affiliation International Democrat Union
Color(s) Red (unofficial)
Website www.gop.com

The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. It is often referred to as the Grand Old Party or the GOP. It is the younger of the two major US Political Parties, and the second oldest active political party in the United States. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... GOP may refer to: Grand Old Party, the Republican Party of the United States Group of Pictures, a term used in video coding standards such as MPEG-2 Government of Pakistan Government of Panama Gross operating profit Ground observer post Good Operating Practice General Operating Procedure Generator oil pressure Category... Image File history File links Republicanlogo. ... Mike Duncan is the current chairman of the Republican National Committee. ... Addison Mitchell Mitch McConnell, Jr. ... John Andrew Boehner (pronounced Bay-Ner), born November 17, 1949, is an American politician of the Republican Party who served as House Majority Leader in the 109th Congress, and a U.S. Representative from Ohios 8th congressional district, which includes parts of the city of Dayton as well as... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Conservatism in the United States comprises a constellation of political ideologies including fiscal conservatism, free market or economic liberalism, social conservatism,[1] bioconservatism and religious conservatism,[2][3] as well as support for a strong military,[4] small government and promotion of states rights. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... This article is about neoconservatism in the United States, for neoconservatism in other regions, see Neoconservatism (disambiguation). ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, nationalist, classical liberal, anti-Communist and some Christian democratic political parties. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ...


The current U.S. President, George W. Bush, is the 18th Republican to hold that office. After losses in the 2006 Congressional elections, Republicans fill a minority of seats in both the United States Senate and the House of Representatives, hold a minority of state governorships, and control a minority of state legislatures. It is currently the second largest party with 55 million registered members, roughly one third of the electorate.[1] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ...


Founded in 1854 by anti-slavery expansion activists and modernizers, the Republican Party rose to prominence with the election of Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican president. The party presided over the American Civil War and Reconstruction and was harried by internal factions and scandals towards the end of the 19th century. Today, the Republican Party supports a pro-business platform, with further foundations in economic libertarianism and a brand of social conservatism increasingly based on the viewpoints of the Religious Right.[2] For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Economic libertarianism is the doctrine that government should not engage in economic interventionism, but only prohibit force and fraud. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Current structure and composition

United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States
Image File history File links US-GreatSeal-Obverse. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential...


Federal government
Constitution
Taxation
President

Vice President
Cabinet This article describes the government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ...


Congress
Senate
President pro tem
Party Leaders
House
Speaker
Party Leaders
Congressional districts

Federal courts

Supreme Court
Circuit Courts of Appeal
District Courts Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ...

Elections
Presidential elections
Midterm elections
Political Parties
Democratic
Republican
Third parties
State & Local government
Governors
Legislatures (List)
State Courts
Local Government

Other countries · Atlas
 US Government Portal
view  talk  edit
Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Its current chairman is Mike Duncan. The chairman of the RNC is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the Party's state committees. The RNC, under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, supervises the Republican National Convention, raises funds, and coordinates campaign strategy. On the local level there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities, counties and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      United States presidential elections determine who serves as president and vice president of the United... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... A state government (provincial government in Canada) is the government of a subnational entity in states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. ... Mike Duncan is the current chairman of the Republican National Committee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fund raising and strategy committees. The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) assists in House races, and the National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) in Senate races. They each raise over $100 million per election cycle, and play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates. The Republican Governors Association (RGA) is a discussion group that seldom funds state races. Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) is the Republican Hill committee for the United States House of Representatives, working to elect Republicans to that body. ... The National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) is the Republican Hill committee for the United States Senate, working to elect Republicans to that body. ... The Republican Governors Association is an association for governors in the United States who belong to the United States Republican Party. ...


Current ideology

Further information: Factions in the Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party includes large numbers of fiscal conservatives, social conservatives, and libertarians. This article or section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ...


The Republican Party is the more socially conservative and economically libertarian of the two major parties. The party generally supports lower taxes and limited government in some economic areas, while preferring government intervention in others. In the 1980s, the Republican Party was more strongly conservative than before. In his 1981 inaugural address, Republican President Ronald Reagan summed up his belief in limited government when he said, "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem."[3] Since 1980, the GOP has contained what George Will calls "unresolved tensions between, two flavors of conservatism -- Western and Southern." The Western brand, wrote Will, "is largely libertarian, holding that pruning big government will allow civil society -- and virtues nourished by it and by the responsibilities of freedom -- to flourish." The Southern variety, however, reflects a religiosity based in evangelical and fundamentalist churches that is less concerned with economics and more with moralistic issues, such as opposition to abortion and same-sex marriage. Noting the waning influence of libertarian philosophy on contemporary Republican ideology, Will describes the current Republican Party as "increasingly defined by the ascendancy of the religious right."[4] American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning, conservative American newspaper columnist, journalist, and author. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Separation of powers and balance of powers

The Republican Party believes that making law is the province of the legislature and that judges, especially the Supreme Court, should not "legislate from the bench." Most Republicans point to Roe v. Wade as a case of judicial activism, where the court overturned most laws restricting abortion on the basis of a right to privacy derived from the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Some Republicans have actively sought to block judges who they see as being activist judges and they have sought the appointment of judges who will practice judicial restraint. Other Republicans, though, argue that it is the right of judges to extend the interpretation of the constitution and judge actions by the legislative or executive branches as legal or unconstitutional on previously unarticulated grounds. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Judicial activism is a term used by political commentators to describe a tendency by judges to consider outcomes, attitudinal preferences, and other public policy issues in interpreting applicable existing law. ... The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into constitutionality. ...


The Republican party has supported various bills within the last decade to strip some or all federal courts of the ability to hear certain types of cases, in an attempt to limit judicial review. These jurisdiction stripping laws have included removing federal review of the recognition of same-sex marriage with the Marriage Protection Act[5], the constitutionality of the Pledge of Allegiance with the Pledge Protection Act, and the rights of detainees in Guantanamo Bay in the Detainee Treatment Act. These limitations were overruled by the Supreme Court in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. Jurisdiction stripping refers to the practice of defining the jurisdiction of the United States federal judiciary as to eliminate its ability to hear certain classes of claims, thereby making certain legislative or executive actions unreviewable by the judiciary. ... The Marriage Protection Act was an attempt by the then Republican controlled Congress to amend the Federal judicial code to deny Federal courts jurisdiction to hear or decide any question pertaining to the interpretation of: the provision of the Defense of Marriage Act that provides that no State shall be... The McCain Detainee Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Senate Department of Defense Authorization bill, commonly referred to as the Amendment on (1) the Army Field Manual and (2) Cruel, Inhumane, Degrading Treatment, amendment #1977 and also known as the McCain Amendment 1977. ... For the case involving a United States citizen, see Hamdi v. ...


Compared with Democrats, many Republicans believe in a more robust version of federalism with greater limitations placed upon federal power and a larger role reserved for the States. Following this view on federalism, Republicans often take a less expansive reading of congressional power under the commerce clause, such as in the opinion of William Rehnquist in United States v. Lopez. Many Republicans on the more libertarian wing wish for a more dramatic narrowing of commerce clause power by revisiting, among other cases, Wickard v. Filburn, a case which held that growing wheat on a farm for consumption on the same farm fell under congressional power to "regulate commerce ... among the several States...". For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Holding Possession of a gun near a school is not an economic activity that has a substantial effect on interstate commerce. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... Holding Production quotas under the Agricultural Adjustment Act were constitutionally applied to agricultural production that was consumed purely intrastate, because its effect upon interstate commerce placed it within the power of Congress to regulate under the Commerce Clause. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ...


President George W. Bush is a proponent of the unitary executive theory and has cited it within his signing statements about legislation passed by Congress.[6] The administration's interpretation of the unitary executive theory was called seriously into question by Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, where the Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that the President does not have sweeping powers to override or ignore laws through his power as commander in chief[7], stating "the Executive is bound to comply with the Rule of Law that prevails."[8]. Following the ruling, the Bush administration has sought Congressional authorization for programs started only on executive mandate, as was the case with the Military Commissions Act, or abandoned illegal programs it had previously asserted executive authority to enact, in the case of the National Security Agency domestic wiretapping program. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In American political and legal discourse, the unitary executive theory is a theory of Constitutional interpretation that is based on aspects of the separation of powers. ... Proponents of strong constitutional signing statements; Ronald Reagan, left, and George H.W. Bush, right. ... For the case involving a United States citizen, see Hamdi v. ... The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. ... “NSA” redirects here. ... Teh NSA warrantless surveillance controversy concerns surveillance of persons within the United States incident to the collection of foreign intelligence by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the war on terror. ...


Economic policies

Republicans emphasize the role of corporate and personal decision making in fostering economic prosperity. They favor free-market policies supporting business, economic liberalism, and limited regulation. A leading economic theory advocated by modern Republicans is supply-side economics. Some fiscal policies influenced by this theory were popularly known as "Reaganomics," a term popularized during the Presidential administrations of Ronald Reagan. This theory holds that reduced income tax rates increase GDP growth and thereby generate the same or more revenue for the government from the smaller tax on the extra growth. This belief is reflected, in part, by the party's long-term advocacy of tax cuts, a major Republican theme since the 1920s. Republicans believe that a series of income tax cuts since 2001 have bolstered the economy.[9] Many Republicans consider the income tax system to be inherently inefficient and oppose graduated tax rates, which they believe are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. They believe private spending is usually more efficient than government spending. A free market is a market where prices of goods and services are arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates. ... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... Reagan redirects here. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ...


Most Republicans agree there should be a "safety net" to assist the less fortunate; however, they tend to believe the private sector is more effective in helping the poor than government is; as a result, Republicans support giving government grants to faith-based and other private charitable organizations to supplant welfare spending. Members of the GOP also believe that limits on eligibility and benefits must be in place to ensure the safety net is not abused. Republicans strongly supported the welfare reform of 1996, which limited eligibility for welfare and successfully led to many former welfare recipients finding jobs.[10] The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, Pub. ...


The party opposes a single-payer universal health care system, such as that found in Canada or in most of Europe, sometimes referring to it as "socialized medicine" and is in favor of the current personal or employer-based system of insurance, supplemented by Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor. The GOP has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs, all of which Republicans initially opposed. On the one hand, congressional Republicans and the Bush administration supported a reduction in Medicaid's growth rate.[11] On the other hand, congressional Republicans expanded Medicare, supporting a new drug plan for seniors starting 2006. Universal health care refers to government mandated programs intended to ensure that all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region have access to most types of health care. ... Socialized medicine or state medicine or Universal Health Care is a term used in the United States to describe health care systems which operate by means of government regulation and subsidies derived from taxation. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


Republicans are generally opposed by labor unions and have supported various legislation on the state and federal levels, including right to work legislation and the Taft-Hartley Act which gives workers the right not to participate in unions, as opposed to a closed shop which prohibits workers from choosing not to join unions in workplaces. Republicans generally oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that the minimum wage increases unemployment and discourages business. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... ... The Taft-Hartley Act severely restricted the activities and power of labor unions in the United States. ... A closed shop is a business or industrial establishment whose employees are required to be union members or to agree to join the union within a specified time after being hired. ...


Environmental Policies

Most Republicans believe that strict environmental standards hurt businesses and therefore support reductions in environmental regulations based on the principle of laissez-faire economics. Many Republicans are skeptical of global warming and doubt scientific studies that seem to demonstrate the impact human activity has on climate change, instead asserting that global warming is part of natural cyclical phenomenon. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Historically however the Republican Party has made several notable contributions to the protection of the environment. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the modern U.S. National Park Service.[12] Also, President Richard Nixon was responsible for establishing the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970.[13] More recently, President George W. Bush opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols on the grounds that they unfairly targeted Western industralized nations such as the United States while giving developing Third World pollutors such as China and India a pass.[14] Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Nixon redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Earth as seen by Apollo 17 The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty on global warming. ...


In 2000, the Republican Party adopted as part of its platform support for the development of market-based solutions to environmental problems. According to the platform, "economic prosperity and environmental protection must advance together, environmental regulations should be based on science, the government’s role should be to provide market-based incentives to develop the technologies to meet environmental standards, we should ensure that environmental policy meets the needs of localities, and environmental policy should focus on achieving results processes." [15] Although this platform was created for the Republican National Convention, emphasis on these issues within the Republican Party has diminished in the past few years. [16] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Currently the Bush Administration,[17] along with several of the candidates seeking the Republican Presidential nomination in 2008,[18][19][20] supports increased Federal investment into the development of clean alternative fuels such as ethanol as a way of helping the U.S. achieve energy independence. Senator John McCain, while his record on supporting ethanol is inconsistent,[21] is also a strong proponent of protecting the environment.[22] However, most Republicans also support increased oil drilling in currently protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position which has drawn sharp criticism from many environmental activists. The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... This article lists both declared and potential Republican candidates for the President of the United States in the 2008 election. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... An oil well is a laymans term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ...


Social policies

A majority of the GOP's national and state candidates oppose abortion on religious or moral grounds, oppose the legal recognition of same sex marriage,[citation needed] and favor faith-based initiatives. There are some exceptions, though, especially in the Northeast and Pacific Coast states. They support welfare benefit reductions and oppose racial quotas, and are generally dubious of the desirability of affirmative action for women and minorities.[23] Most of the GOP's membership favors capital punishment and stricter punishments as a means to prevent crime. Republicans generally strongly support constitutionally protected gun ownership rights. Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ... The White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (FBCI) is an department under the Office of the President of the United States established during the presidential administration of George W. Bush. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ...


Most Republicans support school choice through charter schools and education vouchers for private schools; and many have denounced the performance of the public school system and the teachers' unions. The party has insisted on a system of greater accountability for public schools, most prominently in recent years with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. School choice, sometimes called public choice, describes any one of several forms of publicly-funded alternative education program that allows students to choose to attend any of various participating private and public schools, usually based on a system of vouchers, tax credits, or scholarships. ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States which have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools, in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each charter school... An education voucher, commonly called a school voucher, is a certificate by which parents are given the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice, rather than the public school to which they were assigned. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


The religious wing of the party tends to support organized prayer in public schools and the inclusion of teaching creationism or intelligent design alongside evolution. Some even advocate the teaching of Creationism exclusively. Although the GOP has voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, many members actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research because it involves the harvesting and destruction of human embryos (which many consider ethically equivalent to abortion), while arguing for applying research money into adult stem cell or amniotic stem cell research. The stem cell issue has garnered two once-rare vetoes on research funding bills from President Bush, who said the research "crossed a moral boundary." School prayer in its most common usage refers to state sanctioned prayer by students in state schools. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... Categories: Biology stubs | Developmental biology ... Stem cell division and differentiation. ...


National defense and security

The Republican Party has always advocated a strong national defense; however, up until recently they tended to disapprove of interventionist foreign policy actions. Republicans opposed Woodrow Wilson's intervention in World War I and his subsequent attempt to create the League of Nations. Many Republicans opposed the creation of NATO. Even in the 1990s, although George H.W. Bush orchestrated the Gulf War, Republicans opposed the intervention of the United States in Somalia and the Balkans. In 2000, somewhat ironically, George W. Bush ran on a platform that opposed these types of involvement in foreign conflicts. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Today, the Republican Party supports unilateralism in issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external or international support in its own self-interest. In general, Republican defense and international thinking is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing the conflicts between nations as great struggles between faceless forces of international structure, as opposed to the result of individual leaders, their ideas, and their actions. The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's Evil Empire stance on the Soviet Union and George W. Bush's Axis of Evil. Look up Unilateralism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... The term evil empire was applied to the former Soviet Union (USSR) by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, American conservatives, and other Americans, particularly hawks. ... For the movie Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. For cosmic anisotropy, see Anisotropy#Physics. ...


Republicans secured gains in the 2002 and 2004 elections with the War on Terror being one of the top issues favoring them. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the party supports neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The 2002 midterm Congressional elections occurred in 2002. ... The Congress of the United States is the United Statess federal legislature and consists of two houses, the United States House of Representatives with 435 Representatives apportioned by population and United States Senate with two Senators from each state. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about neoconservatism in the United States, for neoconservatism in other regions, see Neoconservatism (disambiguation). ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


The doctrine of pre-emptive war, wars to disarm and destroy military foes before they can act, has been advocated by prominent members of the Bush administration, but the civil war within Iraq has undercut the influence of this doctrine within the Republican Party. Rudy Giuliani, a prominent Republican presidential candidate, has stated that Republicans must keep America "on the offensive" against terrorists, stating his support of that policy. A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ...


The Bush administration supports the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, using the premise that they apply to soldiers serving in the armies of nation-states and not terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaeda. The Supreme Court overruled this position in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, which held that the Geneva Conventions were legally binding and must be followed in regards to all enemy combatants. Original document. ... Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without meeting the requirements for a lawful combatant according to the laws of war as specified in the Third Geneva Convention. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... A terrorist organisation is an organisation that engages in terrorist tactics, they are also (perhaps more neutrally) referred to as militant organisations. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... For the case involving a United States citizen, see Hamdi v. ...


Other international policies

Republicans support attempts for the democratization of Middle-Eastern countries currently under the rule of dictatorships. However, as the Republican Party favors an international policy based on realism, President Bush has taken seemingly contradictory steps in forging strong alliances with dictatorships such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan in an effort to further the United States' foreign policy goals.


The party, through former U.N. Ambassador John Bolton, has advocated reforms in the U.N. to halt corruption such as that which afflicted the Oil-for-Food Program. As previously stated, some Republicans including Bush oppose the Kyoto Protocol (although there is a section which supports it within the party). The party strongly promotes free trade agreements, most notably NAFTA, CAFTA and now an effort to go further south to Brazil, Peru and Colombia. John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... Presidents Francisco Flores Pérez (former), Ricardo Maduro, George W. Bush, Abel Pacheco (former), Enrique Bolaños and Alfonso Portillo (former) The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement, commonly called DR-CAFTA (pronounced Doctor Cafta), is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under...


Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a moderate business-friendly platform that allows for migrant workers and easing citizenship guidelines, and a harsher enforcement-only nationalist approach. The Bush administration has made appeals to immigrants a high priority long-term political goal, but that goal is not a high priority in most local GOP entities. In general, pro-growth advocates within the Republican Party support more immigration, and traditional or populist conservatives oppose it. In 2006, the White House supported and Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House, taking an enforcement-only approach, refused to go along.[24] Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... For the 2007 act, see Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. ...


Voter base

Registered Democrats, Republicans and Independents in millions[1]

Business community. The GOP garners major support from traditional "smokestack industries." Image File history File links U.S._party_affiliation. ... Image File history File links U.S._party_affiliation. ...


Gender. Since 1980 a "gender gap" has seen slightly stronger support for the GOP among men than among women. In the 2006 House races, women voted 43% GOP while men voted 47%.[25]


Race. Since 1964, the GOP has been weakly represented among African Americans, winning under 15% of the Black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2004). The party has nominated African American candidates for senator or governor in Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland, but they all lost. More recently, President Bush has pushed for Hispanic votes, winning 35% in 2000 and 44% in 2004. In 2004, 44% of Asian Americans voted for George W. Bush.[26] Its fervent anti-communism has made it the dominant party for some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban-Americans, Vietnamese-Americans, and Armenian-Americans. In the 2006 House races, The GOP won 51% of white votes, 37% Asian votes, and 30% Hispanic votes, while winning only 10% of African American votes.[25] The Republican Party became the party of abolition under Abraham Lincoln and from the Civil War until the Great Depression, blacks voted for Republican candidates by an overwhelming margin; in the Southern states, they were often not allowed to vote, but received Federal patronage appointments from the Republicans. Blacks switched to the Democrats in the 1930s when the New Deal offered them governmental support for civil rights. In the South they began voting again after 1965, when a bipartisan coalition passed the Voting Rights Act, and ever since have formed 20% to 50% of the Democratic vote in the South.[27] An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Vietnamese American is a resident of the United States who is of ethnic Vietnamese descent. ... An Armenian-American is an American of Armenian ancestry. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...


Family status. In recent elections, Republicans have found their greatest support among whites from married couples with children living at home.[28] Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for Kerry in 2004.[29]


Income. The differences in voting among income groups are small, though the poorest voters favor the Democratic Party. Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent, and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican, while those under were 38%.[25]


Military. Republicans hold a large majority in the armed services, with 57% of active military personnel and 66% of officers identified as Republican in 2003.[30]


Education. In 1988, the elder Bush got 52% of the total vote, but won 62% of voters with a bachelor's degree (but no higher degree). In 2004, the younger Bush got 51% and the college graduate vote was split in the 2006 mid-term elections. Among voters with a Masters' degree or higher, in 1988 the elder Bush won 50% while in 2004 the younger Bush received 42%. Compensating for this drop were the gains George W. Bush made among voters with 12 to 15 years of school.[31][26] Bush had a slim advantage with college graduates at 52%, those with some college (54%) and high school graduates (52%). Democrats have majorities among those with post-graduate study (44% for Bush). In 2006 the best Republican showing was 49% among voters with a bachelor degree.[25] Republicans remain a small minority in academia, with 15% of full-time faculty identifying as conservative.[32]


Age. The Republicans and Democrats are about equally strong in different age groups, with Democrats doing slightly better among younger Americans and Republicans among older Americans. In 2006, the GOP won only 38% of the voters aged 18-29.[25]


Sexual Orientation. Exit polls conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2006 indicate that 23-25% of gay and lesbian Americans voted for the GOP. In recent years, the party has opposed same-sex marriage, adoption by same-sex couples, inclusion of sexual orientation in hate crimes laws, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, and allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military.[33] The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees on the basis of sexual orientation. ... This article is about the US military policy. ...


Religion. Religion has always played a major role for both parties but, in the course of a century, the parties' religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews, and the Protestant white South heavily Democratic, and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the late 1960s that undercut the New Deal coalition. Voters who attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004; those who attend occasionally gave him only 47%, while those who never attend gave him 36%. 59% of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though Kerry was Catholic). Since 1980, large majorities of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70-80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004, and 70% for GOP House candidates in 2006. Jews continue to vote 70-80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 50-50. The main line traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968). Their church membership have dropped in that time as well, and the conservative evangelical rivals have grown.[34] The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during the Fifth Party System. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ...


Region. Since 1980, geographically the Republican "base" ("red states") is strongest in the South and West, and weakest in the Northeast and the Pacific Coast. The Northeast actually does well for the GOP in state contests (with GOP governors like (formerly) Mitt Romney in states like Massachusetts) but not in presidential ones (except New Hampshire). The Midwest has been roughly balanced since 1854, with Illinois becoming more Democratic due to the City of Chicago and Minnesota & Wisconsin more Republican since 1990. Since the 1930s the Democrats have dominated most central cities, the Republicans now dominate rural areas, and the majority of suburbs.[citation needed] Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the GOP as red. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The South has become solidly Republican in national elections since 1980, and has been trending Republican at the state level since then at a slower pace.[35] In 2004 Bush led Kerry by 70%-30% among Southern whites, who comprised 71% of the Southern electorate. Kerry had a 70-30 lead among the 29% of the voters who were black or Hispanic. One-third of these Southern voters said they were white evangelicals; they voted for Bush by 80-20; but were only 72% Republican in 2006.[26][25]


The Republican Party's strongest focus of political influence lies in the Great Plains states, particularly Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and in the western states of Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah (Utah gave George W. Bush more than 70% of the popular vote in 2004). These states are sparsely populated, have very few urban centers, and have overwhelmingly White populations, making it extremely difficult for Democrats to create a sustainable voter base there. Unlike the South, these areas have been strongly Republican since before the party realignments of the 1960s. The Great Plains states were one of the few areas of the country where Republicans had any significant support during the Great Depression. However, these areas also have very few electoral votes or House seats, making them of limited political utility relative to more populous states. For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Conservatives and Moderates. The Republican coalition is quite diverse, and numerous factions compete to frame platforms and select candidates. The "conservatives" are strongest in the South, where they draw support from religious conservatives. The "moderates" tend to dominate the party in New England, and used to be well represented in all states. From the 1940s to the 1970s under such leaders as Thomas Dewey, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller, and Richard Nixon, they usually dominated the presidential wing of the party. Since the 1970s they have been less powerful, though they are always represented in the cabinets of Republican presidents. In the 2006 elections, Rhode Island Senator Lincoln Chafee, arguably the last moderate-to-liberal Northeastern Republican of major prominence, lost his re-election bid. New Hampshire's two Republican congressmen lost to their Democratic opponents. In Vermont, Jim Jeffords, a Republican Senator who became an Independent in 2001 due to growing disagreement with President Bush and the party leadership. As of 2007, the most recent national opinion polls of voters evaluating 2008 candidates show that three candidates are dominant: Rudy Giuliani, John McCain and Mitt Romney. More conservative Republicans like Mike Huckabee, Newt Gingrich, and Sam Brownback trail far behind. This article or section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. ... “Moderates” redirects here. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (b. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Lincoln Davenport Chafee (IPA pronunciation: , [CHAY-fee]) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other persons named Jim Jeffords, see Jim Jeffords (disambiguation). ... Main article: United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the U.S. presidential election, 2008. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Huckabee redirects here. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... Samuel Dale Brownback (b. ...


Since the 1980s, talk radio audiences and successful hosts have tended to be conservative, and typically favor the Republicans. Some well known radio hosts include Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Laura Ingraham, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr, and Michael Savage. For other uses, see Talk Radio. ... For other uses, see Limbaugh. ... Sean Patrick Hannity (born December 30, 1961, in New York City, New York) is an Irish American, conservative broadcaster and political pundit. ... Laura Anne Ingraham (born June 19, 1964 in Glastonbury, Connecticut) is an American conservative talk radio host and author. ... Michael Edward Reagan (born March 18, 1945 as John L. Flaugher), adopted son of the late United States President Ronald Reagan and his first wife, the late Jane Wyman, is the host of a conservative talk radio show, the Michael Reagan Show, which is syndicated to radio stations in the... Howard Louis[1] Howie Carr (born January 17, 1952) is an American broadcaster, award-winning journalist, New York Times best-selling author, and a highly rated talk-radio host in the greater Boston and New England area. ... Michael Savage may refer to: Michael Savage (actor) (former star of General Hospital) professional name of Ron Jacobson [1] Michael Savage (commentator), professional name of Michael Weiner, a United States broadcaster from San Francisco, CA and a published natural health writer. ...


Future trends

Republicans have controlled the White House for 26 of the previous 38 years. The party maintained majorities in both houses of Congress from 1995 through 2006, except for 18 months in the Senate while it was controlled by the Democrats from January 3-20, 2001 and June 6, 2001 – November 12, 2002. However, as a result of the 2006 midterm elections, the Democratic Party became the majority party in the House of Representatives as well as the United States Senate in the 110th Congress. Karl Rove and other commentators have speculated about a permanent political realignment along the lines of the presidential election of 1896, in which Mark Hanna helped William McKinley construct a Republican majority that lasted for the next 36 years. While the American political sphere is relatively evenly divided in terms of ideology,[36] the Republican party trails the Democrats by 17 million registered members.[1] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... The 110th United States Congress will be in session from noon on January 3, 2007 until noon on January 3, 2009. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ...


Two approaches to projecting future trends give opposite results. Emphasizing geography, some commentators point to the growth of suburbs, particularly in the Sun Belt where the Republicans dominate politics, and the population decline of the historically liberal Rust Belt cities of the Northeast. (Population shifts gave Bush six more electoral votes between 2000 and 2004.) President Bush's victory in 2004 in ninety-seven of the hundred fastest-growing counties in the country was solid evidence of Republican strength in quickly growing exurbs and in the booming metropolitan areas of the South. By 2010, the Census projections show that states that voted for President Bush in 2004 will gain six Congressional seats and electoral votes, while states that voted for John Kerry will lose six.[37] The Sun Belt, highlighted in red This article is about the region of the United States. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, a term coined from Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute out of the community to earn their livelihood. ...


Democratic commentators Ruy Teixeira and John Judis,[38] on the other hand, say non-geographic social indicators show a trend toward Democrats. They point to the rapid increase in college graduates (who are trending Democratic), and the possible decrease in white and rural Republican bases. They also point to an increasing Democratic presence in formerly Republican strongholds such as Montana, which as of the November 2006 elections has two Democratic senators, a Democratic governor, and Democratic control of the state senate. Ruy Teixeira is a political consultant and commentator. ... John Judis is an American author and journalist. ...


Despite the 2004 election results, the 2006 midterm elections signaled a shift toward favoring the Democratic Party as they won the House for the first time since 1994 and gained a one-seat majority in the Democratic caucus in the Senate. Some factors leading to this shift were opposition to the Iraq War and Republican corruption and scandals involving Tom DeLay, Mark Foley, and Jack Abramoff. The split inside the GOP on immigration policy further hurt the party, and modest economic conditions were unable to save the Republicans from losing their majority. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives from Sugar Land, Texas. ... Mark Adam Foley (born September 8, 1954) is an American politician who served as a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 until 2006, representing the 16th District of Florida. ... Jack Abramoff (born February 28, 1958) is an American political lobbyist, a Republican political activist and businessman who is a central figure in a series of high-profile political scandals. ...


Skeptics ask whether the Republican Party can simultaneously contain both libertarians and social conservatives, or whether it can contain both elements that want to remove illegal immigrants, a business community that uses them as necessary employees, and Hispanic voters which typically have more liberal views on immigration. Republican optimists also point to the success of Roosevelt's Democratic coalition, which held together even more disparate elements. For the most part until 2007, the Republican Party has remained fairly cohesive, as both strong economic libertarians and strong social conservatives are opposed to the Democrats, who they see as both the party of bigger and more secular, progressive government.[39] Yet, libertarians are increasingly dissatisfied with the party's social policy, which some believe has grown increasingly restrictive of personal liberties.[40] This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Economic libertarianism is the doctrine that government should not engage in economic interventionism, but only prohibit force and fraud. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ...


Historical trends

For more detailed history & bibliography until 1980, see History of the United States Republican Party.

The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...

Third party system: 1854–1896

Establishment

The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854
The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854

The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a vision for modernizing the United States.[36] Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ... Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ... Ripon is a city located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

John C. Fremont was the Republican Party's first presidential candidate.

The new party was created as an act of defiance against what activists denounced as the Slave Power—the powerful class of slaveholders who were conspiring to control the federal government and to spread slavery nationwide. The new party emphasized a vision of modernizing higher education, banking, railroads, industry, and cities, while promising free homesteads to farmers. The party initially had its base in the Northeast and Midwest. The party enjoyed its first national convention in Pittsburgh in February of 1856, with its first nominating convention coming that summer in Philadelphia.[41] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813-July 13, 1890), birth name John Charles Fremon [Harvey, p. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


John C. Frémont ran as the first Republican nominee for President, using the slogan: "Free soil, free labor, free speech, free men, Frémont." Although Frémont lost, his party showed a strong base. It dominated in New England, New York, and the northern Midwest, and had a strong presence in the rest of the North. It had almost no support in the South, where it was roundly denounced in 1856-1860 as a divisive force that threatened civil war.[36] John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The Civil War and an era of Republican dominance: 1860–1896

See also: American election campaigns in the 19th century
Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican President (1861-1865).
Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican President (1861-1865).

The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 began a new era of Republican dominance based in the industrial Northeast and agricultural Midwest. Republicans still often refer to their party as the "party of Lincoln." Lincoln proved brilliantly successful in uniting all the factions of his party to fight for the Union. However, he often disagreed with the Radical Republicans who demanded harsher measures toward the South. In Congress, the party passed major legislation to promote rapid modernization, including a national banking system, high tariffs, the first temporary income tax, many excise taxes, paper money issued without backing ("greenbacks"), a huge national debt, homestead laws, and land grants to aid higher education, railroads and agriculture. In the 19th century, the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x1028, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Powers of the President of the United States ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x1028, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Powers of the President of the United States ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protective tariff bill passed by the U.S. Congress in early 1861. ...


The Republicans denounced the northern anti-war Democrats as disloyal Copperheads and won enough War Democrats to maintain their majority in 1862, and reelect Lincoln by a landslide in 1864. During Reconstruction, 1865-1877, how to deal with the ex-Confederates and the freed slaves or Freedmen were the major issues. President Andrew Johnson, a Democrat that had been nominated as Lincoln's running-mate by the National Union (Republican) convention, broke with the Radicals in 1866. The showdown came in the Congressional elections of 1866, in which the Radicals won a sweeping victory and took full control of Reconstruction, passing key laws over Johnson's vetoes. The Radicals imposed Republican rule on the South—a coalition of Freedmen, Scalawags, and Carpetbaggers, who were deeply resented by the conservative ex-Confederates.[36] The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... The U.S. House election, 1866 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1866 which occurred during President Andrew Johnsons term. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ...

Ulysses S. Grant was the first Republican president to serve for two full terms. (1869-1877)
Ulysses S. Grant was the first Republican president to serve for two full terms. (1869-1877)

Elected in 1868, Ulysses S. Grant supported radical reconstruction programs in the South, the Fourteenth Amendment, equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen; most of all, Grant was the hero of the war veterans, who marched to his tune. Reconstruction came to an end when the contested election of 1876 was awarded to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes who promised, through the unofficial Compromise of 1877, to withdraw federal troops from control of the last three Southern states. The region then became the Solid South, giving overwhelming majorities of its electoral votes and Congressional seats to the Democrats until 1964. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 657 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ulysses S. Grant Grant Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 657 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ulysses S. Grant Grant Categories: U.S. history images ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ...


As the Northern post-war economy boomed with industry, railroads, mines, and fast-growing cities, as well as prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to keep the fast growth going. The Democratic Party was largely controlled by pro-business Bourbon Democrats until 1896. The GOP supported big business generally, hard money (i.e., the gold standard), high tariffs, and generous pensions for Union veterans. By 1890, the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. Civil service reform was a bipartisan program that eliminated most patronage by 1900. Foreign affairs seldom became partisan issues (except for the annexation of Hawaii, which Republicans favored and Democrats opposed). Much more salient were cultural issues. The GOP supported the pietistic Protestants (especially the Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and Scandinavian Lutherans) who demanded Prohibition. That angered wet Republicans, especially German Americans, who broke ranks in 1890-1892, handing power to the Democrats.[42] Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Tariff in American history be merged into this article or section. ... John Sherman The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act[1], July 2, 1890, ch. ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ... George H. Pendleton The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ...


From 1860 to 1912, the Republicans took advantage of the association of the Democrats with "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion." Rum stood for the liquor interests and the tavern keepers, in contrast to the GOP, which had a strong dry element. "Romanism" meant Roman Catholicism, especially the Irish, who staffed the Democratic Party in the large cities, and whom the Republicans denounced for political corruption. "Rebellion" stood for the Confederates who tried to break the Union in 1861, and the Copperheads in the North who sympathized with them. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


Demographic trends aided the Democrats, as the German and Irish Catholic immigrants were mostly Democrats, and outnumbered the British and Scandinavian Republicans. During the 1880s, elections were remarkably close. The Democrats usually lost, but won in 1884 and 1892. In the 1894 Congressional elections, the GOP scored the biggest landslide in its history, as Democrats were blamed for the severe economic depression 1893-1897 and the violent coal and railroad strikes of 1894.[42] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The U.S. House election, 1894 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1894 which occurred in the middle of President Grover Clevelands second term. ... The Panic of 1893 was a serious decline in the economy of the United States that began in 1893 and was precipitated in part by a run on the gold supply. ...


Fourth party system: 1896–1932

The Progressive Era

The election of William McKinley in 1896 marked a new era of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. He relied heavily on finance, railroads, industry and the middle classes for his support and cemented the Republicans as the party of business. His campaign manager, Ohio's Marcus Hanna, developed a detailed plan for getting contributions from the business world, and McKinley outspent his rival William Jennings Bryan by a large margin. McKinley was the first president to promote pluralism, arguing that prosperity would be shared by all ethnic and religious groups.[42] This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Realigning election or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... Marcus Alonzo Hanna (September 24, 1837 - February 15, 1904) was an American industrialist and politician from Cleveland, Ohio. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ...

1900 Campaign poster
1900 Campaign poster

Theodore Roosevelt was the most dynamic personality of the era. He became the President after McKinley was assassinated in 1901. After promising to continue McKinley's policies, he won reelection in 1904. He then veered left, attacking big business and busting the trusts. Roosevelt anointed William Howard Taft in 1908, but Taft worked more with the conservatives led by Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, although more trusts were broken up under Taft than Roosevelt. The Payne-Aldrich tariff angered Midwestern insurgents. The widening division between progressive and conservative forces in the party resulted in a third-party candidacy for Roosevelt on the Progressive, or "Bull Moose" ticket in the election of 1912. He finished ahead of Taft, but the split in the Republican vote resulted in a decisive victory for Democrat Woodrow Wilson, temporarily interrupting the Republican era.[36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x787, 224 KB) Summary 1900 US campaign poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x787, 224 KB) Summary 1900 US campaign poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (November 6, 1841 - April 16, 1915) was an American politician. ... The Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 reduced the United States tariff rate to 37%. It was very effective. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


The party controlled the presidency throughout the 1920s, running on a platform of opposition to the League of Nations, high tariffs, and promotion of business interests. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924, and 1928 respectively. Although the party did very well in large cities and among ethnic Catholics in presidential elections of 1920-24, it was unable to hold those gains in 1928.[42] The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... The campaign The Republican Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri from 12 June to 15 June, where Hoover became the partys candidate on the first ballot. ...


In October 1929, the stock market crashed, giving rise to the Great Depression. Hoover, by nature an activist, attempted to do what he could to alleviate the widespread suffering caused by the Depression, but his strict adherence to what he believed were Republican principles precluded him from establishing relief directly from the federal government. The Democrats made major gains in the 1930 midterm elections, giving them congressional parity (though not control) for the first time since Woodrow Wilson's presidency.[36] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Fifth party system: 1933–1980

Opposing the New Deal Coalition: 1933–1953

In 1932, Hoover was swamped in a landslide defeat to Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal Coalition, which became a dominant element of American political life for the middle third of the century. Democrats also gained large majorities in both houses of Congress.[36] FDR redirects here. ... The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during the Fifth Party System. ...


After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress at lightning speed. In the 1934 midterm elections, ten Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving them with only 25 against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives was also split in a similar ratio. The "Second New Deal" was heavily criticized by the Republicans in Congress, who likened it to class warfare and socialism. The volume of legislation, as well as the inability of the Republicans to block it, soon made the opposition to Roosevelt develop into bitterness and sometimes hatred for "that man in the White House." Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


Little known Governor Alfred Landon of Kansas ran an ineffective moderate campaign as the Roosevelt landslide of 1936 swept 46 states. The GOP was left with only 16 senators and 88 representatives to oppose the New Deal. Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 - October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ...


Roosevelt alienated many conservative Democrats, in 1937, by his unexpected plan to “pack” the Supreme Court via the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937. Following a sharp recession that hit early in 1938, major strikes all over the country, and Roosevelt's failed efforts to radically reorganize the Supreme Court and federal courts, the GOP gained 75 House seats in 1938. Conservative Democrats, mostly from the South, joined with Republicans led by Senator Robert A. Taft to create the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues in Congress until 1964. The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the Court-packing Bill, was a law proposed by United States President Franklin Roosevelt. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


From 1939 through 1941, there was a sharp debate within the GOP about support for Britain in World War II. Internationalists, such as Henry Stimson and Frank Knox, wanted to support Britain and isolationists, such as Robert Taft and Arthur Vandenberg, strongly opposed these moves as unwise, if not unconstitutional. The America First movement was a bipartisan coalition of isolationists. In 1940, a total unknown, Wendell Willkie, at the last minute, won over the party, the delegates and was nominated. He crusaded against the inefficiencies of the New Deal and Roosevelt's break with the strong tradition against a third term. Pearl Harbor ended the isolationist-internationalist debate. The Republicans further cut the Democratic majority in the 1942 midterm elections. With wartime production creating prosperity, the Conservative coalition terminated most New Deal relief programs. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ... Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884–April 18, 1951) was a Republican Senator from the state of Michigan who participated in the creation of the United Nations. ... America First was a series of 20th Century isolation movements that opposed United States involvement in international affairs. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


As a minority party, the GOP had two wings: The "left wing" supported most of the New Deal while promising to run it more efficiently. The "right wing" opposed the New Deal from the beginning and managed to repeal large parts during the 1940s in cooperation with conservative southern Democrats in the conservative coalition. Liberals, led by Dewey, dominated the Northeast. Conservatives, led by Taft, dominated the Midwest. The West was split, and the South was still solidly Democratic. Dewey did not reject the New Deal programs, but demanded more efficiency, more support for economic growth, and less corruption. He was more willing than Taft to support Britain in the early years of the war.


In 1944, a clearly frail Roosevelt defeated Dewey, who was now governor of New York, for his fourth term, but Dewey made a good showing that would lead to his selection as the candidate in 1948. Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Roosevelt died in office in 1945, and Harry S. Truman became president. With the end of the war, unrest among organized labor led to many strikes in 1946, and the resulting disruptions helped the GOP. With the blunders of the Truman administration in 1945 and 1946, the slogans "Had Enough?" and "To Err is Truman" became Republican rallying cries, and the GOP won control of Congress for the first time since 1928, with Joseph William Martin, Jr. as Speaker of the House. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 was designed to balance the rights of management and labor. It was the central issue of many elections in industrial states in the 1940s and 1950s, but the unions were never able to repeal it. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Joseph William Martin, Jr (November 3, 1884 - March 6, 1968) was an American politician from North Attleborough, Massachusetts. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ...


In 1948, with Republicans split left and right, Truman boldly called Congress into a special session, and sent it a load of liberal legislation consistent with the Dewey platform, and dared them to act on it, knowing that the conservative Republicans would block action. Truman then attacked the Republican "Do-Nothing Congress" as a whipping boy for all of the nation's problems. Truman stunned Dewey and the Republicans with a plurality of just over two million popular votes (out of nearly 49 million cast), but a decisive 303-189 victory in the Electoral College.


Eisenhower and Nixon: 1953–1974

Ike and Dick brought the GOP back to the White House after 20 years
Ike and Dick brought the GOP back to the White House after 20 years

After the war the isolationists in the conservative wing opposed the United Nations, and were half-hearted in exercising opposition to the expansion of Communism around the world. Dwight Eisenhower, a NATO commander, defeated Taft in 1952 on foreign policy issues. The two men were not far apart on domestic issues. Eisenhower was an exception to most presidents in that he usually let Nixon handle party affairs (controlling the national committee and taking the roles of chief spokesman and chief fundraiser). Richard Nixon was defeated in 1960 in a close election, dooming his liberal wing of the party. The conservatives made a comeback in 1964 as Barry Goldwater defeated Nelson Rockefeller in the primary. Goldwater was strongly opposed to the New Deal and the United Nations, but he rejected isolationism and containment, calling for an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy. He was defeated by Lyndon Johnson in a landslide that brought down many senior Republican Congressmen across the country. Goldwater blamed the magnitude of his defeat on the assassination of John F. Kennedy a year before the election, and on Johnson running a campaign of smears. Image File history File links Inaug. ... Image File history File links Inaug. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


The New Deal Coalition collapsed in the mid 1960s in the face of urban riots, the Vietnam War, the opposition of many Southern conservatives to desegregation and the Civil Rights movement and disillusionment that the New Deal could be revived by Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. Nixon defeated both Hubert Humphrey and George C. Wallace in 1968. When the Democratic left took over their party in 1972, Nixon won reelection by carrying 49 states. His involvement in Watergate brought disgrace and a forced resignation in 1974. The Democrats made major gains in Congress, and in 1976 defeated Gerald Ford in a close race. The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during the Fifth Party System. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... Watergate redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


1980–present

The Reagan era

Ronald Reagan launched the "Reagan Revolution" with his election to the Presidency in 1980, providing conservative influence that continues to the present day.
Ronald Reagan launched the "Reagan Revolution" with his election to the Presidency in 1980, providing conservative influence that continues to the present day.

Ronald Reagan produced a major realignment with his 1980 and 1984 landslides. In 1980, the Reagan coalition was possible because of Democratic losses in most social-economic groups. In 1984, Reagan won nearly 60% of the popular vote and carried every state except his Democratic opponent Walter Mondale's home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia, creating a record 525 electoral vote total (of 538 possible). Even in Minnesota, Mondale won by a mere 3,761 votes, meaning Reagan came within less than 3,800 votes of winning in all fifty states.[43] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Realignment occurs in sports when a league decides to change which teams are in which divisions, usually by creating new divisions. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Category: ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ...


Political commentators, trying to explain how Reagan had won by such a large margin, coined the term "Reagan Democrat" to describe a Democratic voter who had voted for Reagan in 1980 and 1984 (and for George H.W. Bush in 1988), producing their landslide victories. They were mostly white, blue-collar, and were attracted to Reagan's social conservatism on issues such as abortion, and to his hawkish foreign policy. Stan Greenberg, a Democratic pollster, concluded that Reagan Democrats no longer saw Democrats as champions of their middle class aspirations, but instead saw it as being a party working primarily for the benefit of others, especially African Americans and social liberals. The term Reagan Democrat is used (with caution) by psephologists and (more freely) by political commentators to describe traditionally Democratic voters, especially white working-class ones, who defected their party to support Ronald Reagan, either in the 1980 election, or, more commonly, the 1984 one. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ... Stanley Bernard Greenberg (born May 10, 1945) is a leading Democratic pollster and political strategist who has advised the campaigns of the Bill Clinton, Al Gore, and John Kerry, as well as hundreds of other candidates and organizations in the United States and around the world, including British Prime Minister... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


Reagan reoriented American politics. He claimed credit in 1984 for an economic renewal—“It's morning in America again!” was the successful campaign slogan. Income taxes were slashed 25% and the punitive rates abolished. The frustrations of stagflation were resolved, as no longer did soaring inflation and recession pull the country down. Deregulation, handled in bipartisan fashion, removed the last traces of the New Deal, with the exception of Social Security. Working again in bipartisan fashion, the Social Security financial crises were resolved for the next 25 years. Stagflation, a portmanteau of the words stagnation and inflation, is a term in general use within modern macroeconomics used to describe a period of out-of-control price inflation combined with slow-to-no output growth, rising unemployment, and eventually recession. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ...


In foreign affairs, bipartisanship was not in evidence. Most Democrats doggedly opposed Reagan's efforts to support the Contra guerrillas against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua, and to support the dictatorial governments of Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador against Communist guerrilla movements. He took a hard line against the Soviet Union, alarming Democrats who wanted a nuclear freeze, but he succeeded in increasing the military budget and launching the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)—labeled "Star Wars" by its opponents—that the Soviets could not match. When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in Moscow, many conservative Republicans were dubious of the growing friendship between him and Reagan. Gorbachev tried to save communism in Russia first by ending the expensive arms race with America, then (1989) by shedding the East European empire. Communism finally collapsed in Russia in 1991. President George H. W. Bush, Reagan's successor, tried to temper feelings of triumphalism lest there be a backlash in Russia, but the palpable sense of victory in the Cold War was a success that Republicans felt validated the aggressive foreign policies Reagan had espoused. As Haynes Johnson, one of his harshest critics admitted, "His greatest service was in restoring the respect of Americans for themselves and their own government after the traumas of Vietnam and Watergate, the frustration of the Iran hostage crisis and a succession of seemingly failed presidencies."[44] Yet the restoration of faith in the government was an ironic twist for the man who was strongly against government. The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Watergate redirects here. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ...


Capture of the House and Senate in 1994

After the election of Democratic President Bill Clinton in 1992, the Republican Party, led by House Republican Minority Whip Newt Gingrich campaigning on a Contract With America, elected majorities to both houses of Congress in the Republican Revolution of 1994. It was the first time since 1952 that the Republicans secured control of both houses of U.S. Congress, which, with the exception of the Senate during 2001-2002, was retained through 2006. This capture and subsequent holding of Congress represented a major legislative turnaround, as Democrats controlled both houses of Congress for the forty years preceding 1995, with the exception of the 1981-1987 Congress in which Republicans controlled the Senate. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... The Contract with America was a document released by the Republican Party of the United States during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. ... The Republican Revolution refers to the success of Republican Party in the 1994 U.S. midterm elections, which resulted in a net gain of 54 seats in the House of Representatives, and a pickup of eight seats in the Senate. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


In 1994, Republican Congressional candidates ran on a platform of major reforms of government with measures such as a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform. These measures and others formed the famous Contract with America, which represented the first effort to have a party platform in an off-year election. The Republicans passed some of their proposals, but failed on others such as term limits. Democratic President Bill Clinton opposed some of the social agenda initiatives but he co-opted the proposals for welfare reform and a balanced federal budget. The result was a major change in the welfare system, which conservatives hailed and liberals bemoaned. The Republican-controlled House of Representatives failed to muster the two-thirds majority required to pass a Constitutional amendment to impose term limits on members of Congress. In 1995, a budget battle with Clinton led to the brief shutdown of the federal government, an event which contributed to Clinton's victory in the 1996 election. That year, the Republicans nominated Bob Dole, who was unable to transfer his success in Senate leadership to a viable presidential campaign. Ross Perot ran again (this time on the Reform Party ticket), once again draining away a large percentage of the Republicans' support. Balanced Budget Amendment is any one of various proposed amendments to the United States Constitution which would require a balance in the projected revenues and expenditures of the United States government. ... Welfare reform is the name for a policy change in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to reduce dependence on welfare, as demanded by political conservatives. ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Welfare reform is the name for a policy change in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to reduce dependence on welfare, as demanded by political conservatives. ... This article is about constitutional law; for the book by Vince Flynn see Term Limits (book). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA, generally known simply as the Reform Party) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics—as being corrupt and...


Since 2000

George W. Bush is the current Republican President of the United States.
George W. Bush is the current Republican President of the United States.

With the victory of George W. Bush in the close 2000 election against the Democratic candidate, Vice President Al Gore (270-267 Electoral votes; 1 Gore voter abstaining), the Republican Party gained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time since 1952, only to lose control of the Senate by one vote when Vermont Senator James Jeffords left the Republican party to become an independent in 2001 and chose to vote with the Democratic caucus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) Description Official photograph portrait of U.S. President George W. Bush. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) Description Official photograph portrait of U.S. President George W. Bush. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... James Merrill Jim Jeffords (born May 11, 1934) is currently the junior U.S. Senator from Vermont and the only Independent in the United States Senate. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ...


In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, Bush gained widespread political support as he pursued the War on Terrorism that included the invasion of Afghanistan, USA PATRIOT Act, and the invasion of Iraq. In March 2003, Bush ordered the invasion of Iraq alleging the possession of weapons of mass destruction. Bush had near-unanimous Republican support in Congress plus support from many Democratic leaders; however, in the absence of the alleged weapons that Iraq was said to possess, many members of Congress have since retracted their support for the invasion. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


The Republican Party fared well in the 2002 midterm elections, solidifying its hold on the House and regaining control of the Senate, in the run-up to the war in Iraq. This marked the first time since 1934, 1902, and the civil war that the party in control of the White House gained seats in a midterm election in both houses of Congress. Bush was renominated without opposition as the Republican candidate in the 2004 election, and titled his political platform "A Safer World and a More Hopeful America" (PDF). It expressed Bush's optimism towards winning the War on Terrorism, ushering in an Ownership Era, and building an innovative economy to compete in the world. The United States hold elections to federal offices every two years; midterm elections is the name given to elections when the United States House of Representatives and one third of the US Senate are being elected, but not the President. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Presidential election results map. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by United States President George W. Bush. ...


On November 2, 2004, Bush was re-elected, while Republicans gained seats in both houses of Congress. Bush won the election with 286 electoral votes, with Senator John Kerry receiving 251 (the final electoral vote, intended for Kerry, going instead to Kerry's running mate John Edwards). is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college which chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ...

Dennis Hastert of Illinois was the longest-serving Republican Speaker of the House (1999–2007)
Dennis Hastert of Illinois was the longest-serving Republican Speaker of the House (1999–2007)

Bush told reporters "I earned capital in the campaign, political capital, and now I intend to spend it. It is my style." He announced his agenda in January 2005, but his popularity in the polls waned and his troubles mounted. His campaign to add personal savings accounts to the Social Security system and make major revisions in the tax code were postponed. He succeeded in selecting conservatives to head four of the most important agencies, Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State, Alberto Gonzales as Attorney General, John Roberts as Chief Justice of the United States and Ben Bernanke as Chairman of the Federal Reserve. He failed to win conservative approval for Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court, replacing her with Samuel Alito, whom the Senate confirmed in January 2006. He secured additional tax cuts and blocked moves to raise taxes. Through 2006, Bush strongly defended his policy in Iraq, saying the Coalition was winning. He secured the renewal of the USA PATRIOT Act. Dennis Hastert; from house. ... Dennis Hastert; from house. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Social Security Trust Fund is the United States federal governments means of accounting for workers paid-in contributions that are in excess of current payments. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... This article is about the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Ben Shalom Bernanke[1] (born December 13, 1953) (pronounced ber-NAN-kee, bÉ™r-nan-kÄ“ or ), is an American economist and current Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve. ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ... Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is an American lawyer, and former White House Counsel. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...


In the November 2005 off-year elections, New York City, Republican mayoral candidate Michael Bloomberg won a landslide re-election, the fourth straight Republican victory in what is otherwise a Democratic stronghold. In California, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger failed in his effort to use the ballot initiative to enact laws the Democrats blocked in the state legislature. Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the current Mayor of New York City. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ...


Scandals prompted the resignations of Congressional Republicans House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Duke Cunningham, Mark Foley, and Bob Ney. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Republicans lost control of both the House of Representatives and Senate for the 110th Congress to the Democrats. Exit polling suggested that corruption was a key issue for many voters.[45] The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives from Sugar Land, Texas. ... Randall Harold Cunningham (born December 8, 1941), usually known as Randy or Duke, was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Californias 50th Congressional District from 1991 to 2005. ... Mark Adam Foley (born September 8, 1954) is an American politician who served as a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 until 2006, representing the 16th District of Florida. ... Robert William Bob Ney (born July 5, 1954) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... The 110th United States Congress will be in session from noon on January 3, 2007 until noon on January 3, 2009. ...


In the Republican leadership elections that followed the general election, Speaker Hastert did not run and Republicans chose John Boehner of Ohio for House Minority Leader. Senators chose whip Mitch McConnell of Kentucky for Senate Minority Leader, and chose their former leader Trent Lott as Senate Minority Whip by one vote over Lamar Alexander, who assumed their roles in January, 2007. In the October and November gubernatorial elections of 2007, Republican Bobby Jindal won election for governor of Louisiana, Republican incumbent Governor Ernie Fletcher of Kentucky lost, and Republican incumbent Governor Haley Barbour of Mississippi won re-election. John Andrew Boehner (pronounced Bay-Ner), born November 17, 1949, is an American politician of the Republican Party who served as House Majority Leader in the 109th Congress, and a U.S. Representative from Ohios 8th congressional district, which includes parts of the city of Dayton as well as... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... Addison Mitchell Mitch McConnell, Jr. ... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... Chester Trent Lott Sr. ... Traditionally the second ranking position in the minority party in the United States Senate. ... Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Bobby Jindal (born Piyush Jindal June 10, 1971, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is a Louisiana politician. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Ernest Lee Fletcher (born November 12, 1952) has served as governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky since December 9, 2003. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Haley Reeves Barbour (born October 22, 1947) is the current Republican governor of Mississippi. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Presidential tickets

[1] Assassinated.
[2] Lincoln was succeeded by Democrat Andrew Johnson who ran on a Union ticket with him in 1864.
[3] Died while in office and was not replaced.
[4] Died of natural causes.
[5] Resigned.
Election year Result Nominees and office-holders President
President Vice President # Term
1856 Lost John Charles Frémont William Lewis Dayton
1860 Won Abraham Lincoln[1] Hannibal Hamlin 16th 1861-1865
1864 Won Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson[2] none 17th 1865-1869
1868 Won Ulysses Simpson Grant Schuyler Colfax 18th 1869-1877
1872 Won Henry Wilson[3]
1876 Won Rutherford Birchard Hayes William Almon Wheeler 19th 1877-1881
1880 Won James Abram Garfield[1] Chester Alan Arthur 20th 1881
Chester Alan Arthur none 21st 1881-1885
1884 Lost James Gillespie Blaine John Alexander Logan
1888 Won Benjamin Harrison Levi Parsons Morton 23rd 1889-1893
1892 Lost Whitelaw Reid
1896 Won William McKinley[1] Garret Augustus Hobart[3] 25th 1897-1901
1900 Won Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt none 26th 1901-1909
1904 Won Charles Warren Fairbanks
1908 Won William Howard Taft James Schoolcraft Sherman[3] 27th 1909-1913
1912 Lost Nicholas Murray Butler
1916 Lost Charles Evans Hughes Charles Warren Fairbanks
1920 Won Warren Gamaliel Harding[4] John Calvin Coolidge 29th 1921-1923
John Calvin Coolidge none 30th 1923-1929
1924 Won Charles Gates Dawes
1928 Won Herbert Clark Hoover Charles Curtis 31st 1929-1933
1932 Lost
1936 Lost Alfred Mossman Landon William Franklin Knox
1940 Lost Wendell Lewis Willkie Charles Linza McNary
1944 Lost Thomas Edmund Dewey John William Bricker
1948 Lost Earl Warren
1952 Won Dwight David Eisenhower Richard Milhous Nixon 34th 1953-1961
1956 Won
1960 Lost Richard Milhous Nixon Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
1964 Lost Barry Morris Goldwater William Edward Miller
1968 Won Richard Milhous Nixon[5] Spiro Theodore Agnew[5] 37th 1969-1974
1972 Won
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller 38th 1974-1977
1976 Lost Robert Joseph Dole
1980 Won Ronald Wilson Reagan George Herbert Walker Bush 40th 1981-1989
1984 Won
1988 Won George Herbert Walker Bush James Danforth Quayle 41st 1989-1993
1992 Lost
1996 Lost Robert Joseph Dole Jack French Kemp, Jr.
2000 Won George Walker Bush Richard Bruce Cheney 43rd 2001-present
2004 Won

For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... William Lewis Dayton (February 17, 1807 – December 1, 1864) was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Whitelaw Reid Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary (June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (b. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the thirty-sixth (1953–1961) Vice President, and the thirty-seventh (1969–1974) President of the United States. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the forty-fourth Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989–1993). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Presidential election results map. ...

2008 nomination

Current President George W. Bush will be constitutionally ineligible to seek another term and current Vice President Dick Cheney has announced that he will not seek the Republican presidential nomination. This leaves the field wide open for the nomination. Main article: United States presidential election, 2008 This article lists official and potential Republican candidates for the President of the United States in the election of 2008. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


The following names have all announced their candidacies for the Republican presidential nomination:

Candidates who have withdrawn from the race include: For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... Huckabee redirects here. ... Duncan Lee Hunter (born May 31, 1948) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the House of Representatives since 1981 from Californias 52nd congressional district in northern and eastern San Diego. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Ronald Ernest Ron Paul (b. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Thomas Gerard Tancredo (born December 20, 1945) is an American politician and member of the Republican Party. ... This article is about the actor/politician. ...

Giuliani usually leads most national opinion polls for the 2008 Republican nomination. However, the nomination is less clear when looking at state-by-state polls for the 2008 Republican nomination. Samuel Dale Brownback (b. ... Tim Kaine, the current Governor The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. ... James Stuart Jim Gilmore III (born October 6, 1949) is a Republican politician who was Governor of Virginia from 1998 to 2002. ... Governors of Wisconsin: Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of Wisconsin ... For other people with similar names, see Thomas Thompson. ... Main article: Opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Republican presidential candidates. ... This article is a collection of scientific, state-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the Republican presidential primaries, 2008 by State. ...


Name and symbols

1874 Nast cartoon depicted GOP as an elephant demolishing the flimsy planks of the Democrats
1874 Nast cartoon depicted GOP as an elephant demolishing the flimsy planks of the Democrats

The party's founding members chose the name "Republican Party" in the mid-1850s in part as an homage to Thomas Jefferson (it was the name initially used by his party).[46][47] The name echoed the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption.[48] The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party, and the acronym "G.O.P." is a commonly used designation. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first known reference to the Republican Party as the "grand old party" came in 1876. The first use of the abbreviation G.O.P. is dated 1884. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x852, 288 KB) Summary The Third-Term Panic, by Thomas Nast, originally published in Harpers Magazine 7 November 1874. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x852, 288 KB) Summary The Third-Term Panic, by Thomas Nast, originally published in Harpers Magazine 7 November 1874. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


The mascot symbol, historically, is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol.[49] In the early 20th century, the usual symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster. This symbol still appears on Indiana ballots. Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... Harpers redirects here. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Genera Several, see below. ... For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ...


After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with the GOP although it has not been officially adopted by the party. On election night 2000, for the first time ever, all major broadcast networks utilized the same color scheme for the electoral map: red states for George W. Bush (Republican nominee) and blue states for Al Gore (Democratic nominee). Although the color red is unofficial and informal, it is widely recognized by the media and the public to represent the GOP. Partisan supporters now often use the color red for promotional materials and campaign merchandise. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Lincoln Day, Reagan Day, or Lincoln-Reagan Day, is the primary annual fundraising celebration held by many state and county organizations of the Republican Party. The events are named after Republican Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Ronald Reagan. The Lincoln Day celebration is the primary annual celebration and fundraising event of many state and county organizations of the Republican Party in the United States. ... The Reagan Day celebration is a name sometimes given to the primary annual fundraising event of the U.S. Republican Party on local and state levels. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


State Parties

The Alabama Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Alabama. ... The Republican Party of Alaska is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Alaska. ... The Arizona Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Arizona. ... The Republican Party of Arkansas is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Arkansas. ... The California Republican Party is the California affiliate of the national Republican Party. ... The Colorado Republican Party is the state affiliate of the United States Republican Party in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... The Connecticut Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Connecticut. ... The Republican State Committee of Delaware is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Delaware. ... The Republican Party of Florida is the official organization for Republicans in the state of Florida. ... The Georgia Republican Party is a state affiliate of the United States Republican Party. ... In 1998, Linda Lingle was appointed party chairwoman. ... The Idaho Republican Party, the Idaho state affiliate of the United States Republican Party, is the dominant political party in the state of Idaho. ... The Illinois Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Illinois. ... The Indiana Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Indiana. ... The Republican Party of Iowa is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Iowa. ... The Kansas Republican Party is the Kansas organization of the national Republican Party. ... The Republican Party of Kentucky is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Kentucky. ... The Republican Party of Louisiana is the Louisiana organization of the national Republican Party. ... The Maine Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Maine. ... The Maryland Republican Party of today is compassionate, true to its roots and acting in the vein of Abraham Lincoln and Ronald Reagan. ... Logo of the Massachusetts Republican Party The Massachusetts Republican Party, as its name implies, is the Massachusetts branch of the United States Republican Party. ... The Michigan Republican Party is the state affiliate of the national Republican Party. ... The Republican Party of Minnesota is the Minnesota branch of the United States Republican Party. ... The Mississippi Republican Party is the state affiliate of the national Republican Party. ... The Missouri Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Missouri. ... The Montana Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Montana. ... The Nebraska Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Nebraska. ... The Nevada Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Nevada. ... The New Hampshire Republican State Committee is the affiliate of the Republican Party in New Hampshire. ... The New Jersey Republican State Committee is the affiliate of the Republican Party in New Jersey. ... The Republican Party of New Mexico is the affiliate of the Republican Party in New Mexico. ... The New York Republican State Committee is the affiliate of the Republican Party in New York. ... The North Carolina Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in North Carolina. ... The North Dakota Republican Party is the North Dakota affiliate of the United States Republican Party. ... The Ohio Republican Party, the Ohio state affiliate of the United States Republican Party, controls all the elected statewide offices in Ohio as well as both houses of the Ohio General Assembly, the state legislature. ... The Oklahoma Republican Party is an Oklahoma political party affiliated with the United States Republican Party. ... The Oregon Republican Party is the state affiliate of the national Republican Party in Oregon. ... Republican State Committee of Pennsylvania is based in Harrisburg in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Rhode Island Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Rhode Island. ... The South Carolina Republican Party is the South Carolina affiliate of the national Republican Party. ... The South Dakota Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in South Dakota. ... The Tennessee Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Tennessee. ... The Republican Party of Texas is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Texas. ... The Utah State Republican Party works to elect Republicans to office in the state ofUtah. ... The Vermont Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Vermont. ... Republican Party of Virginia is based in Richmond in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Washington State Republican Party is the state affiliate of the national Republican Party in Washington. ... The West Virginia Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in West Virginia. ... The Republican Party of Wisconsin is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Wisconsin. ... The Wyoming Republican Party is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Wyoming. ...

See also

The List of notable Republicans is a list of prominent politicians, government officials, and organizational leaders of the Republican Party of the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Political party strength in U.S. states. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Neuhart, P. (22 January, 2004). Why politics is fun from catbirds' seats. USA Today'.. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  2. ^ Washington Post, "How the GOP became God's Own Party". Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  3. ^ Ronald Reagan's Inaugural Address, January 20, 1981. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  4. ^ Will, George. "What Goeth Before the Fall", The Washington Post, 2006-10-05. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. 
  5. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20040722-121146-3494r.htm
  6. ^ Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, signing statement
  7. ^ "Why The Court Said No" by David Cole, New York Review of Books - [1]
  8. ^ Opinion of the court, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, pg 72, [2]
  9. ^ Podhoretz, John (2004). Bush Country: How George W. Bush Became the First Great Leader of the 21st Century---While Driving Liberals Insane, p. 116.
  10. ^ House Committee on Ways and Means Subcommittee on Human Resources (2003-04-07). New Report Shows Welfare Reform Success in Increasing Work and Raising Incomes. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  11. ^ Wachino, Victoria (2005-03-10). The House Budget Committee's Proposed Medicaid and SCHIP Cuts Are Larger Than Those The Administration Proposed. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  12. ^ Filler, Daniel. [http://pantheon.cis.yale.edu/~thomast/essays/filler/filler.html Theodore Roosevelt: Conservation as the Guardian of Democracy]. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  13. ^ Nixon, Richard (1970-07-09). Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  14. ^ Bush, George W. (2001-03-13). Text of a Letter from the President. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  15. ^ (2000-8-12) "Encourage Market-Based Solutions to Environmental Problems". OnTheIssues. 
  16. ^ Paul Rauber (2006 May-June). "Elephant Graveyard-How the Republican Party is Handling Environmental Issues". Sierra. 
  17. ^ Fact Sheet: Harnessing the Power of Technology for a Secure Energy Future (2007-02-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  18. ^ Kudlow & Company (2007-03-26). Interview with Rudy Giuliani. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  19. ^ Issue Watch: Achieving Energy Independence. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  20. ^ The Candidates: Rep. Duncan Hunter. Washington Post.com (2007-10-12). Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  21. ^ Imielinski, Konrad (2007-03-14). Ethanol -- Tracking the Presidential Candidates: John McCain. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  22. ^ On the Issues: Stewards of Our Nation's Rich Natural Heritage. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  23. ^ Eilperin, Juliet. "Watts Walks a Tightrope on Affirmative Action", The Washington Post, 1998-05-12. Retrieved on 2007-01-22. 
  24. ^ Blanton, Dana. "National Exit Poll: Midterms Come Down to Iraq, Bush", FOX News, 2006-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-01-06. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Exit Polls. CNN (2006-11-07). Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  26. ^ a b c Exit Polls. CNN (2004-11-02). Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  27. ^ Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks (1978).
  28. ^ Affordable Family Formation–The Neglected Key To GOP’s Future by Steve Sailer
  29. ^ Unmarried Women in the 2004 Presidential Election (PDF). Report by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research, January, 2005. Page 3: "The marriage gap is one of the most important cleavages in electoral politics. Unmarried women voted for Kerry by a 25-point margin (62 to 37 percent), while married women voted for President Bush by an 11-point margin (55 percent to 44 percent). Indeed, the 25-point margin Kerry posted among unmarried women represented one of the high water marks for the Senator among all demographic groups."
  30. ^ Lobe, J. (1 Januray, 2004). Military More Republican, Conservative Than Public – Poll. LewRockwell.com.. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  31. ^ Data based on exit polls reported in The New York Times, November 10, 1988, p. 18.
  32. ^ Kurtz, H. (29 March, 2005). College Faculties A Most Liberal Lot, Study Finds. The Washington Post.. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
  33. ^ Republican Party on the Issues Civil_Rights Republican Party on the Issues. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  34. ^ Robert Booth Fowler et al, Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices (2004)
  35. ^ Earl Black and Merle Black. Politics and Society in the South (2005)
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Gould (2003)
  37. ^ Franklin, Will (2005-06-08). Checking In On That Emerging Democratic Majority. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  38. ^ Judis, John B.; Teixeira, Ruy. "Movement Interruptus", The American Prospect, 2005-01-04. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  39. ^ Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation (2004).
  40. ^ Evans, B. (15 December, 2005). Ex-Rep. Barr Quits GOP for Libertarians. The Associated Press.. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  41. ^ [3]
  42. ^ a b c d Shafer and Badger (2001)
  43. ^ 1984 Presidential Election Results - Minnesota. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  44. ^ Johnson, Haynes (1989). Sleepwalking Through History: America in the Reagan Years. 28.
  45. ^ "Corruption named as key issue by voters in exit polls", CNN, 2006-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-01-25. 
  46. ^ Appleby, Joyce (2003). Thomas Jefferson, 4. 
  47. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1996). The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush, 2. 
  48. ^ Gould, Lewis (2003). Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans, 14-15. 
  49. ^ Cartoon of the Day: "The Third-Term Panic". Retrieved on 2007-02-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning, conservative American newspaper columnist, journalist, and author. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Podhoretz (born April 18, 1961) is a U.S. neoconservative commentator for a variety of media sources, the author of several books on politics, and a former presidential speechwriter. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) describes itself as a policy organization . ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Prospect is a monthly magazine which focuses on US politics and public policy. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joyce Oldham Appleby is Professor Emerita of History at UCLA. Reconciliation and the Northern Novelist, 1865-1880, Civil War History, Vol. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • American National Biography (20 volumes, 1999) covers all politicians no longer alive; online at many academic libraries.
  • Aistrup, Joseph A. The Southern Strategy Revisited: Republican Top-Down Advancement in the South (1996)
  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 2006: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (2005).
  • Black, Earl and Merle Black. The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002)
  • Brennan, Mary C. Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP (1995)
  • Crane, Michael. The Political Junkie Handbook: The Definitive Reference Books on Politics (2004) covers all the major issues explaining the parties' positions
  • Donald, David. Lincoln (1999)
  • Ehrman, John, The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan (2005)
  • Frank, Thomas. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (2005)
  • Frum, David. What's Right: The New Conservative Majority and the Remaking of America (1996)
  • Gould, Lewis. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2003)
  • Jensen, Richard. Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983 (1983)
  • Judis, John B. and Ruy Teixeira. The Emerging Democratic Majority (2004) two Democrats project social trends
  • Kleppner, Paul, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983), applies party systems model
  • Lamis, Alexander P. ed. Southern Politics in the 1990s (1999)
  • Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854-1966. 2d ed. (1967)
  • Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2002) broad account of 1964
  • Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right since 1945 (1983)
  • Rutland, Robert Allen. The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush (1996)
  • Sabato, Larry J. Divided States of America: The Slash and Burn Politics of the 2004 Presidential Election (2005)
  • Sabato, Larry J. and Bruce Larson. The Party's Just Begun: Shaping Political Parties for America's Future (2001) textbook.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). Essays on the most important election are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972)
  • Shafer, Byron E. and Anthony J. Badger, eds. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775-2000 (2001), long essays by specialists on each time period:
    • includes: "'To One or Another of These Parties Every Man Belongs;": 1820-1865 by Joel H. Silbey; "Change and Continuity in the Party Period: 1835-1885" by Michael F. Holt; "The Transformation of American Politics: 1865-1910" by Peter H. Argersinger; "Democracy, Republicanism, and Efficiency: 1885-1930" by Richard Jensen; "The Limits of Federal Power and Social Policy: 1910-1955" by Anthony J. Badger; "The Rise of Rights and Rights Consciousness: 1930-1980" by James T. Patterson; and "Economic Growth, Issue Evolution, and Divided Government: 1955-2000" by Byron E. Shafer
  • Shafer, Byron and Richard Johnston. The End of Southern Exceptionalism (2006), uses statistical election data & polls to argue GOP growth was primarily a response to economic change
  • Steely, Mel. The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt Gingrich Mercer University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-86554-671-1.
  • Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States (1983)
  • Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America (2004).

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Michael Barone Michael Barone is a political expert and commentator. ... David J. Frum (born 1960) is a former economic speechwriter for President George W. Bush, and the author of the first insider book about the Bush presidency. ... John Judis is an American author and journalist. ... Ruy Teixeira is a political consultant and commentator. ... Larry J. Sabato is the Robert Kent Gooch Professor of Politics at the University of Virginia and is director of their Center for Politics. ... Larry J. Sabato is the Robert Kent Gooch Professor of Politics at the University of Virginia and is director of their Center for Politics. ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ... The Right Nation (ISBN 1594200203) is a book which charts the rise of the Republican Party in America since Barry Goldwaters defeat in 1964. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Republican Party
  • Republican National Committee
  • Senate Republican Conference
  • House Republican Conference
  • National Republican Senatorial Committee
  • National Republican Congressional Committee
  • Republican Governors Association
  • Republican State Leadership Committee
  • Republicans Abroad International
  • Young Republican National Federation
  • College Republican National Committee
  • 2004 National Platform (PDF), *HTML version
  • Republican Party at the Open Directory Project

  Results from FactBites:
 
Republican Party (United States) - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (8546 words)
During the 109th Congress, the Republican Party was the majority party in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a vision for modernizing the United States.
In the early 20th century, the usual symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic donkey.
Republican Party (United States) information - Search.com (8197 words)
The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States.
The Republican Party has demanded reforms in the UN and opposes the Kyoto Protocol because of the Protocol's uneven application to countries around the world, because they believe it is likely to slow economic growth and the reduction of poverty, and because of disputes concerning the science behind it.
In the early 20th century, the usual symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m