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Encyclopedia > Republic of Venice
Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia
Most Serene Republic of Venice

697 – 1797
 

Flag Coat of arms
Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796
Capital Venice
Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Republic
Doge
 - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin
History
 - Established 697
 - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358
 - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797
* Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697.
Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red.

The Most Serene Republic of Venice (Venetian: (Serenìssima) Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia, Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia), was an Italian state originating from the city of Venice (today in Northeastern Italy). It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until the late 18th century (1797). Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... “Venetia” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Most Serene Republic of Venice Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (765x785, 87 KB) A map showing the territories of the Republic of Venice in the year 1796, before the Napoleonic invasions of that year. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Lodovico Manin was the last Doge of The Most Serene Republic of Venice. ... The Treaty of Zara was the peace treaty signed in Zara, Croatia in 1358 in which the Venetian Republic lost influence over its Dalmatian holdings. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Jacquerie. ... The Treaty of Leoben (also known as the Peace of Leoben) was signed on April 17, 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Republik_Venedig. ... Image File history File links Republik_Venedig. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


It is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title in Venetian, The Most Serene Republic. It is also referred to as the Republic of Venice or the Venetian Republic. The term Most Serene Republic is a name used for three former countries: The Republic of Venice (the Most Serene Republic of Venice), city-state that existed in Italy from the 9th century until the 18th century. ...

Contents

History

The city of Venice originated as a collection of lagoon communities banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards, Huns and other steppe peoples as the power of the Byzantine Empire dwindled in northern Italy. Sometime in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the lagoon elected their first leader Ursus, who was confirmed by Byzantium and given the titles of hypatus and dux. He was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, however, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon. Whatever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. The history of the Republic of Venice began with the city of Venice, which originated as a collection of lagoon communities banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards as the power of the Byzantine Empire dwindled in northern Italy in the late seventh century. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... Orso Ipato (Latin Ursus) was the third traditional Doge of Venice (726–742) and the first historically known. ... Hypatus or ypatus (pl. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Paolo Lucio Anafesto or Anafestus Paulucius was the first doge of Venice. ... John, deacon of Venice (d. ... Eraclea is a town in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy. ...


Rise

Ursus's successor, Deusdedit, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s. He was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were ultimately unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politic of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional division of Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported mostly by clergy (in line with papal sympathies of the time), they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard, faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring (and surrounding, but for the sea) Lombard kingdom. Teodato Ipato (also Diodato or Deusdedit) was the doge of Venice after a brief interregnum following the death of his father, Orso Ipato, in 742. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...


Early Middle Ages

The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori (803) the two emperors had recognised Venetian de facto independence, while it remained nominally Byzantine in subservience. During the reign of the Participazio, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, Agnello, first doge of the family, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, canals, bulwarks, fortifications, and stone buildings. The modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being born. Agnello was succeeded by his son Giustiniano, who brought the body of Saint Mark the Evangelist to Venice from Alexandria and made him the patron saint of Venice. The Pax Nicephori was an 803 peace treaty concluded between the two emperors of Europe, Charlemagne in the West, and Nicephorus I in the East. ... Agnello Participazio (Angelo Particiaco) was the tenth (traditional) or eighth (historical) Doge of Venice from 811 to 827. ... Giustiniano Participazio (also Partecipazio or Particiaco, English Justinian) (died 829) was the eleventh (traditional) or ninth (historical) Doge of Venice briefly from 827 to his death. ... Mark the Evangelist (Greek: Markos) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


During the reign of the successor of the Participazio, Pietro Tradonico, Venice began to establish its military might which would influence many a later crusade and dominate the Adriatic for centuries. Tradonico secured the sea by fighting Slavic and Saracen pirates. Tradonico's reign was long and successful (837–64), but he was succeeded by the Participazio and it appeared that a dynasty may have finally been established. Around 841, the Republic of Venice sent a fleet of 60 galleys (each carrying 200 men) to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but it fails.[1] In 1000, Pietro II Orseolo sent a fleet of 6 ships to defeat the Croatian pirates from Dalmatia.[2] Pietro Tradonico, an Istrian by birth, was the Doge of Venice from 837 to 864. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Pietro II Orseolo was the Doge of Venice from 991 to 1009. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


High Middle Ages

Horses of Saint Mark, brought as loot from Constantinople in 1204.

In the High Middle Ages, Venice became extremely wealthy through its control of trade between Europe and the Levant, and began to expand into the Adriatic Sea and beyond. In 1084, Domenico Selvo personally led a fleet against the Normans, but he was defeated and lost 9 great galleys, the largest and most heavily armed ships in the Venetian war fleet.[3] Venice was involved in the Crusades almost from the very beginning; 200 Venetian ships assisted in capturing the coastal cities of Syria after the First Crusade, and in 1123 they were granted virtual autonomy in the Kingdom of Jerusalem through the Pactum Warmundi.[4] In 1110, Ordelafo Faliero personally commanded a Venetian fleet of 100 ships to assist Baldwin I of Jerusalem in capturing the city of Sidon.[5] In the 12th century, the Venetians also gained extensive trading privileges in the Byzantine Empire and their ships often provided the Empire with a navy. In 1182 there was an anti-Western riot in Constantinople, of which the Venetians were the main targets. Many in the Empire had become jealous of Venetian power and influence, and thus, when in 1182 the pretender Andronikos I Komnenos marched on Constantinople, Venetian property was seized and the owners imprisoned or banished, an act which humiliated, and angered the Republic. The Venetian fleet was crucial to the transportation of the Fourth Crusade, but when the crusaders could not pay for the ships, the cunning and manipulative Doge Enrico Dandolo quickly exploited the situation and offered transport to the crusaders if they were to capture the (Christian) Dalmatian city of Zadar (Italian: Zara), which had rebelled against the Venetian rule in 1183, placed itself under the dual protection of the Papacy and King Emeric of Hungary and had proven too well fortified[citation needed] to retake for Venice alone. Upon accomplishing this the crusade was again diverted to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, another rival of Venice in revenge for the 1182 massacre of Venetian citizens living in Constantinople. The city was captured and sacked in 1204; the sack has been described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history.[6] The Byzantine Empire, which until 1204 had resisted several attacks and kept the Islamic invaders out of Western Anatolia and the Balkans, was re-established in 1261 by Michael VIII Palaiologos but never recovered its previous power and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks, who later occupied the Balkans and Hungary and on two occasions even besieged Vienna. The Venetians, who accompanied the crusader fleet, claimed much of the plunder, including the famous four bronze horses which were brought back to adorn St. Mark's basilica. As a result of the subsequent partition of the Byzantine Empire, Venice gained a great deal of territory in the Aegean Sea (three-eighths of the Byzantine Empire), including the islands of Crete and Euboea. The Aegean islands came to form the Venetian Duchy of the Archipelago. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Domenico Selvo[1] (died 1087) was the 31st Doge of Venice, serving from 1071 to 1084. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Venetian could mean Of Venice/Venetia. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... // Look up fleet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I KomnÄ“nos) (c. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Siege of Zara (November 10-November 23, 1203) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade. ... Emeric (or Imre) was a Hungarian king (1174–1204), who ruled from 1196 to 1204. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, MikhaÄ“l VIII Palaiologos) (1224/1225 – December 11, 1282) reigned as Byzantine emperor 1259–1282. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco in Venezia) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ... The Duchy of Naxos and states in the Morea, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Republic of Venices Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos in Greek) was a maritime state created in the Cyclades islands of...


In 1295, Pietro Gradenigo sent a fleet of 68 ships to attack a Genoese fleet at Alexandretta, then another fleet of 100 ships were sent to attack the Genoese in 1299.[7] From 1350 to 1381, Venice fought an intermittent war with the Genoese. Initially defeated, they devastated the Genoese fleet at the Battle of Chioggia in 1380 and retained their prominent position in eastern Mediterranean affairs at the expense of Genoa's declining empire. Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Iskenderun, formerly known in the west as Alexandretta, is a city in the Turkish province of Hatay. ... The Venetian-Genoese War was a long conflict between the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice for dominance in the eastern Mediterranean Sea between 1350 and 1381. ... The Battle of Chioggia was naval battle fought in the lagoon off of Chioggia, Italy, in June 1380 between the Venetian and the Genoese fleets, who had captured the little fishing port in August the preceding year. ...

Venetian fort in Nafplion, Greece. This is one of the many forts that secured the Venetian trade routes in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2957 KB) Summary Author: Frank van Mierlo Licensing Please give clear credit to the photographer (Frank van Mierlo) when using this image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2957 KB) Summary Author: Frank van Mierlo Licensing Please give clear credit to the photographer (Frank van Mierlo) when using this image. ... Nafplion (Ναύπλιο; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a town on the Peloponnese in Greece. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

15th century

In the early fifteenth century, the Venetians also began to expand in Italy, as well as along the Dalmatian coast from Istria to Albania, which was acquired from King Ladislas of Naples during the civil war in Hungary. Ladislas was about to lose the conflict and had decided to escape to Naples, but before doing so he agreed to sell his now practically forfeit rights on the Dalmatian cities for a meager sum of 100,000 ducats. Venice exploited the situation and quickly installed nobility to govern the area, for example, Count Filippo Stipanov in Zadar. This move by the Venetians was a response to the threatening expansion of Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. Control over the north-east main land routes was also a necessity for the safety of the trades. By 1410, Venice had a navy of 3,300 ships (manned by 36,000 men) and taken over most of Venetia, including such important cities as Verona (which swore its loyalty in the Devotion of Verona to Venice in 1405) and Padua.[8] Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Coat of Arms of Ladislas, as titular King of Hungary, titular King of Jerusalem, and King of Naples. ... Giangaleazzo Visconti (1351-1406) was the first Duke of Milan and he ruled the city for much of the early Renaissance. ... This page lists rulers of Milan from the 13th century to the present. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ...


The situation in Dalmatia had been settled in 1408 by a truce with King Sigismund of Hungary but the difficulties of Hungary finally granted to the Republic the consolidation of its Adriatic dominions. At the expiration of the truce, Venice immediately invaded the Patriarchate of Aquileia, and subjected Traù, Spalato, Durazzo and other Dalmatian cities. Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... The Patriarachate of Aquileia was an historical state and episcopal see in north Eastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Austrian sea-coast, at the confluence of the Anse an the Torre. ... Coat of arms Trogir (Italian Traù, Latin Tragurium, Greek Tragurion, Hungarian Tengerfehérvár) is a historic town and harbour on the Adriatic coast in Split-Dalmatia county, Croatia, with a population of 10,907 (2001) and a total municipality population of 13,322 (2001). ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ...


Slaves were plentiful in the Italian city-states as late as the 15th century. Between 1414 and 1423, some 10,000 slaves were sold in Venice, almost all of whom were "nubile" young women from Russia, Greece, Bosnia, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, and Turkey.[9][10] Slave redirects here. ...


In February 1489, the island of Cyprus, previously a crusader state (the Kingdom of Cyprus), was annexed to Venice. The Crusader states, c. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ...

Venetian possessions in Greece, 1450

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

League of Cambrai, Lepanto and the loss of Cyprus

The Ottoman Empire started sea campaigns as early as 1423, when it waged a seven year war with the Venetian Republic over maritime control of the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The wars with Venice resumed in 1463 until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479. In 1480 (now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet) the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto. By 1490, the population of Venice had risen to about 180,000 people.[11] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rhodes is the easternmost island of Greece, located 11 miles west of Turkey. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ...


War with the Ottomans resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1499, Venice allied itself with Louis XII of France against Milan, gaining Cremona. In the same year the Ottoman sultan moved to attack Lepanto by land, and sent a large fleet to support his offensive by sea. Antonio Grimani, more a businessman and diplomat than a sailor, was defeated in the sea battle of Zonchio in 1499. The Turks once again sacked Friuli. Preferring peace to total war both against the Turks and by sea, Venice surrendered the bases of Lepanto, Modon and Coron. Battle of Zonchio (1499) This article is about the Turkish-Venetian War of 1499-1503. ... Louis XII (b. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... Naupactus is also a scientific name, see Naupactus (beetle) Nafpaktos, Latin: Naupactus or Naupactos (Italian, Lepanto; modern Greek, Ναύπακτος, rarely Epakto), is a town in the nomarchy of Acarnania and Aetolia, Greece, situated on a bay on the north side of the straits of Lepanto. ... Antonio Grimani was the Doge of Venice from 1521 to 1523. ... Combatants Republic of Venice Ottoman Empire Commanders Antonio Grimani Kemal Reis Strength 47 galleys, 17 galliots, circa 100 small vessels 67 galleys, 20 galliots, circa 200 small vessels Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis at the Battle of Zonchio The naval Battle of Zonchio, also known as... Modon is the name given by the Venetians to the coastal town of Methoni on the Ionian Sea, in present-day Greece. ... Koroni (Κορώνη) is a municipality in Messenia, Greece. ...


Venice's attention was diverted from its usual maritime position by the delicate situation in Romagna, then one of the richest lands in Italy, which was nominally part of the Papal States but effectively fractionated in a series of small lordship of difficult control for Rome's troops. Eager to take some of Venice's lands, all neighbouring powers joined in the League of Cambrai in 1508, under the leadership of Pope Julius II. The pope wanted Romagna; Emperor Maximilian I: Friuli and Veneto; Spain: the Apulian ports; the king of France: Cremona; the king of Hungary: Dalmatia, and each of the others some part. The offensive against the huge army enlisted by Venice was launched from France. On 14 May 1509, Venice was crushingly defeated at the battle of Agnadello, in the Ghiara d'Adda, marking one of the most delicate points of the entire Venetian history. French and imperial troops were occupying the Veneto, but Venice managed to extricate itself through diplomatic efforts. The Apulian ports were ceded in order to come to terms with Spain, and pope Julius II soon recognized the danger brought by the eventual destruction of Venice (then the only Italian power able to face kingdoms like France or empires like the Ottomans). The citizens of the mainland rose to the cry of "Marco, Marco", and Andrea Gritti recaptured Padua in July 1509, successfully defending it against the besieging imperial troops. Spain and the pope broke off their alliance with France, and Venice regained Brescia and Verona from France also. After seven years of ruinous war, the Serenissima regained its mainland dominions west to the Adda river. Although the defeat had turned into a victory, the events of 1509 marked the end of the Venetian expansion. Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed on December 10, 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Agnadello was the one of the more significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai, and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars. ... Portrait by Titian, 1540 Andrea Gritti was the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538, following a distinguished diplomatic and military career. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... The Capitoline Temple. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


In 1489, the first year of Venetian control of Cyprus, Turks attacked the Karpasia Peninsula, pillaging and taking captives to be sold into slavery. In 1539 the Turkish fleet attacked and destroyed Limassol. Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire, the Venetians had fortified Famagusta, Nicosia, and Kyrenia, but most other cities were easy prey. By 1563, the population of Venice had dropped to about 168,000 people.[11] The Karpass Peninsula (Turkish: ), also known as Karpasia, is a long, finger-like peninsula that is one of the most prominent geographical features of the island of Cyprus. ... District Limassol Government  - Mayor Andreas Christou Population (2004)  - City 201. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell — September 9, 1570 — 20,000 Nicosian Greeks and Venetians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted.[citation needed] Word of the massacre spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a heroic defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries. By 1575, the population of Venice was about 175,000 people, but dropped to 124,000 people by 1581.[11] The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded...


17th century

In 1605, a conflict between Venice and the Holy See began with the arrest of two clerics accused of petty crimes, and with a law restricting the Church's right to enjoy and acquire landed property. Pope Paul V held that these provisions were contrary to canon law, and demanded that they should be repealed. When this was refused, he placed Venice under an interdict. The Republic paid no attention to the interdict or the act of excommunication, and ordered its priests to carry out their ministry. It was supported in its decisions by the Servite monk Paolo Sarpi, a sharp polemical writer who was nominated to be the Signoria's adviser on theology and canon law in 1606. The interdict was lifted after a year, when France intervened and proposed a formula of compromise. Venice was satisfied with reaffirming the principle that no citizen was superior to the normal processes of law. Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Paolo Sarpi. ...


Decline

Giovan Battista Tiepolo, Neptune offers the wealth of the sea to Venice, 1748–50. This painting is an allegory of the power of the Republic of Venice, as the wealth and power of the Serenissima was based on the control of the sea.

In December 1714, the Turks declared war when the Peloponnese (the Morea) was "without any of those supplies which are so desirable even in countries where aid is near at hand which are not liable to attack from the sea". Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixel Image in higher resolution (4096 × 1826 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Republic of Venice... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixel Image in higher resolution (4096 × 1826 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Republic of Venice... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was a Italian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ...


The Turks took the islands of Tinos and Aegina, crossed the isthmus and took Corinth. Daniele Dolfin, commander of the Venetian fleet, thought it better to save the fleet than risk it for the Morea. When he eventually arrived on the scene, Nauplia, Modon, Corone and Malvasia had fallen. Levkas in the Ionian islands, and the bases of Spinalonga and Suda on Crete which still remained in Venetian hands, were abandoned. The Turks finally landed on Corfù, but its defenders managed to throw them back. In the meantime, the Turks had suffered a grave defeat by the Austrians at Battle of Petrovaradin on 5 August 1716. Venetian naval efforts in the Aegean and the Dardanelles in 1717 and 1718, however, met with little success. With the Treaty of Passarowitz (21 July 1718), Austria made large territorial gains, but Venice lost the Morea, for which its small gains in Albania and Dalmatia were little compensation. This was the last war with the Ottoman Empire. By the year 1792, the once great Venetian merchant fleet had declined to a mere 309 merchantmen. [12] Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi NÄ“soi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Damad Ali † Strength cca 90,000 120,000-190,000 Casualties 5,000 10,000-30,000 The Battle of Petrovaradin was a decisive victory for Austrian forces in the war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire (1716–1718), at Petrovaradin... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... The Treaty of Passarowitz was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, Serbia (German: Passarowitz, Turkish Pasarofça, Hungarian: Pozsarevác) on July 21, 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Merchantman may mean: A cargo ship. ...


The fall of the Republic

By 1796, the Republic of Venice could no longer defend itself since its war fleet numbered only 4 galleys and 7 galliots.[13] In spring 1796, Piedmont fell and the Austrians were beaten from Montenotte to Lodi. The army under Bonaparte crossed the frontiers of neutral Venice in pursuit of the enemy. By the end of the year the French troops were occupying the Venetian state up to the Adige. Vicenza, Cadore and Friuli were held by the Austrians. With the campaigns of the next year, Napoleon aimed for the Austrian possessions across the Alps. In the preliminaries to the Peace of Leoben, the terms of which remained secret, the Austrians were to take the Venetian possessions as the price of peace (18 April 1797). Galleys redirects here. ... Galiot in Willaumezs Dictionnaire de la Marine Galiots (or galliots) were types of ships from the Age of Sail. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Montenotte is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Italy. ... For other places called Lodi, see Lodi. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Adige (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Adiç or Adesc; Latin: Athesis; Trentino: Ades; Veneto: Adexe; Slovenian: Adiža) is a river with its source in the Alpine region of Trentino-Tiroler Etschland near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland. ... Alp redirects here. ... The Treaty of Leoben (also known as the Peace of Leoben) was signed on April 17, 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Government

In the early years of the republic, the Doge ruled Venice in an autocratic fashion, but later his powers were limited by the promissione, a pledge he had to take when elected. As a result powers were shared with the (Major) Council, composed of 480 members taken from certain families, so that "He could do nothing without the Major Council and the Major Council could do nothing without him".[14] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ...


In the 12th century, the aristocratic families of Rialto further diminished the Doge's powers by establishing the Minor Council (1175), composed of six advisors of the Doge, and the Quarantia (1179) as a supreme tribunal. In 1223, these institutions were combined into the Signoria, which consisted of the Doge, the Minor Council and the three leaders of the Quarantia. The Signoria was the central body of government, representing the continuity of the republic as shown in the expression: "si è morto il Doge, no la Signoria" ("Though the Doge is dead, not the Signoria"). The Signoria of Venice (Serenissima Signoria) was the supreme body of government of the Republic of Venice. ...


Also created were the sapientes, two (and alter six) bodies that combined with other groups to form a collegio, which formed an executive branch. In 1229, the Consiglio dei Pregadi, a senate, was formed, being 60 members elected by the Major Council.[15] These developments left the Doge with little personal power and saw actual authority in the hands of the Major Council.


Venice described its political system as a 'classical republic' combining the monarchy in the Doge, aristocracy in the senate, and democracy in the Major Council.[16]. Machiavelli also refers to Venice as a republic.[17]. A political system is a system of politics and government. ... A classical republic, according to certain modern political theorists, is a state of Classical Antiquity that is considered to have a republican form of government, a state where sovereignty rested with the people rather than a ruler or monarch. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classical republic. ...


In 1335, a Council of Ten was established and became the central political body whose members operated in secret. Around 1600, its dominance over the Major Council was considered a threat and the Ten's reduced.


In 1454, the Supreme Tribunal of the three state inquisitors was established to guard the security of the republic. By means of espionage, counterespionage, internal surveillance and a network of informers, they ensured that Venice did not come under the rule of a single "signore", as many other Italian cities did at the time. One of the inquisitors - popularly known as Il Rosso ("the red one") because of his scarlet robe - was chosen from the Doge's councillors, two - popularly known as I negri ("the black ones") because of their black robes - were chosen from the Council of Ten. The Supreme Tribunal gradually assumed some of the powers of the Council of Ten.[15] Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Espionage operations intended to identify enemy spies. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ...


In 1556, the provveditori ai beni inculti were also created for the improvement of agriculture by increasing the area under cultivation and encouraging private investment in agricultural improvement. The consistent rise in the price of grain during the 16th century encouraged the transfer of capital from trade to the land.


References

  1. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 32.
  2. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 53.
  3. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 72.
  4. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 77.
  5. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 83.
  6. ^ Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, Introduction, xiii.
  7. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 176-180.
  8. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 269.
  9. ^ How To Reboot Reality — Chapter 2, Labor
  10. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History
  11. ^ a b c J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 494.
  12. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 591.
  13. ^ J. J. Norwich, A History of Venice, p. 615.
  14. ^ Marin Sanudo.
  15. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia, "Venice", p. 602.
  16. ^ The Political Ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas, Dino Bigongiari ed., Hafner Publishing Company, NY, 1953. p. xxx in footnote.
  17. ^ Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. & ed. by Robert M. Adams, W.W. Norton & Co., NY, 1992. Machiavelli Balanced Government

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Bibliography

  • Patricia Fortini Brown. Private Lives in Renaissance Venice: art, architecture, and the family (2004)
  • Chambers, D.S. (1970). The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380–1580. London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still completely reliable.
  • Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
  • Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of Venetian Historiography." Journal of Modern History 58, pp. 43–94 — the classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice.
  • Deborah Howard and Sarah Quill. The Architectural History of Venice (2004)
  • John Rigby Hale. Renaissance Venice (1974), ISBN 0571104290
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin. Venice: Maritime Republic (1973) — a standard scholarly history with an emphasis on economic, political and diplomatic history; ISBN 0801814456
  • Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the life of women more generally.
  • Mallett, M. E. and Hale, J. R. The Military Organisation of a Renaissance State, Venice c. 1400 to 1617 (1984), ISBN 0521032474
  • Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). Venice Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297–1797. (2002) Johns Hopkins UP — The most recent collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
    • Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "Venice Misappropriated." Trames 6(2), pp. 192–201 — A scathing review of Martin & Romano 2000; also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice.
  • Muir, Edward (1981). Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princeton UP — The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated.
  • David Rosand. Myths of Venice: The Figuration of a State (2001) — how writers (especially English) have understood Venice and its art
  • Manfredo Tafuri. Venice and the Renaissance (1995) — architecture

Primary sources

  • Contarini, Gasparo (1599). The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice. Lewes Lewkenor, translator. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes." — The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during the time of its blossoming; numerous reprint editions; online facsimile.

Sources

John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ...

See also

For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Arno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The wars in Lombardy between Venice and Milan, lasted from 1425 to the signing of the Treaty of Lodi in 1454. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... The Turkish Navy was once the largest sea power in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; entering the history books of many countries in distant lands such as the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iceland, Labrador, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Virginia in the... The Patriarachate of Aquileia was an historical state and episcopal see in north Eastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Austrian sea-coast, at the confluence of the Anse an the Torre. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... The Repubbliche Marinare ( ) is the collective name of a number of important city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia in the Middle Ages. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This page is about the Shakespeare play, for the board game, see Othello board game. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Venetian Slovenia (Italian Slavia Veneta, Slovenian Beneška Slovenija) is a small region in northeastern Italy, near the Slovenian border, north of the town of Gorizia (Slovenian Gorica). ... The Republic of Venice in 1560 and the Albania veneta shown as the pink area south of the Republic of Ragusa around Cattaro (Kotor) Albania Veneta (English: Venetian Albania) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice in the western Balkans from 1420 to 1797. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Article about "Venice" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (1270 words)
Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto.
Venice was a major sea power, a very important center of commerce (especially the spice trade) and art in the Renaissance and was a staging area for the Crusades.
It was realised that extraction of the aquifer was the cause.
Republic of Venice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (818 words)
This move by the Ventians was as a response to the threatening expansion of Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan.
This led in 1508 to the League of Cambrai against Venice, in which the Pope, the King of France, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the King of Aragon came together to despoil the republic.
Venice claimed that its government was a ‘classical republic’ because it was a fusion of the three basic forms present in a mixed government: with the regal power in the Doge, the aristocratic in the senate, and the democratic in the Great Council
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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