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Encyclopedia > Republic of Moldova
Republica Moldova
Republic of Moldova
Flag of Moldova Coat of arms of Moldova
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: none
Anthem: Limba noastră
("Our Tongue")
Location of Moldova
Capital Chişinău
47°0′ N 28°55′ E
Largest city Chişinău
Official language(s) Moldovan [1] (Romanian)
Government Parliamentary Republic
Vladimir Voronin
Vasile Tarlev
Independence
 - Formation
 - Independence
August 27, 1991
August 2, 1940,
August 27, 1991
Area
 - Total
 
 - Water (%)
 
33,843 km² (135th)
13,067 mi² 

1.4
Population
 - 2005 est.
 - 2004 census

 - Density
 
4,455,421 (117th)
3,388,071 (excluding Transnistria)

131/km² (56th)
339/mi² 
GDP (PPP)
 - Total
 - Per capita
2005 estimate
US $9.367 billion (141st)
US$2,100 (178th)
HDI (2005) 0.671 (115th) – medium
Currency Leu (MDL)
Time zone
 - Summer (DST)
EET (UTC+2)
EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .md
Calling code +373
1.   Gagauz and Russian are also official in the Gagauz Autonomous Region)
   
Republic of Moldova Portal

The Republic of Moldova (conventional long form, conventional short form: Moldova, local official long form: Republica Moldova) is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. Historically part of Principality of Moldavia it was reunited with it in 1918, then it was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 after the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, during 1940-1941, 1945-1991 as the Moldavian SSR. It declared its independence from the USSR on 27 August 1991. Image File history File links Moldova_flag_large. ... Image File history File links Moldova_gerb_large. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Moldova (Moldavia) is a tricolor of blue (haist), yellow (centre) and red (fly) (ie. ... Coat of arms of Moldova The coat of arms of Moldova consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws. ... This page lists state and national mottos for the worlds independent states and their subdivisions. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their official national song. ... Limba Noastră has been since 1994 the national anthem of the Republic of Moldova. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Chişinău coat-of-arms Chişinău (IPA /ki. ... Although Moldova is by far the most densely populated of the former Soviet republics (129 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1990, compared with thirteen inhabitants per square kilometer for the Soviet Union as a whole), it has few large cities. ... Chişinău coat-of-arms Chişinău (IPA /ki. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The President of Moldova is elected every four years, and has been since 1992. ... This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Moldova. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ... Vasile Petru Tarlev (born October 6, 1963) is the Prime Minister of Moldova. ... Births 1407 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (d. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Births 1407 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (d. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Map of countries by population This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, estimated for the year 2005. ... List of countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km² The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF and World Bank lists for 2004 These are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita This is a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita for the year of 2004, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a... World map indicating HDI of UN member states, 2003. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map indicating HDI of UN member states, 2003. ... Leu (plural: lei) is the name shared by the currencies of Romania and Moldova. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... See also List of time zones Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Daylight saving time (DST), often referred to as daylight savings time, is a widely used system of adjusting the official local time forward, usually one hour, from its official standard time for the duration of the spring and summer months. ... Time zones of Europe: Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time or Z, is an atomic realization of Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the astronomical basis for civil time. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time or Z, is an atomic realization of Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .md is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Moldova. ... // At a glance In depth Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area nanpa. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... Gagauzia (or Gagauz-Yeri) is an autonomous region within Moldova, located along the southern border with Ukraine, inhabited by the Gagauz, a Turkic people who are ethnically and culturally distinct from other Moldovans. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Births 1407 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (d. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Republic of Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, WMO, UNICEF, GUAM, CIS, BSEC and others. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... UNICEF logo The United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... CIS is an abbreviation of: Commonwealth of Independent States Canadian Interuniversity Sport Contact Image Sensor CompuServe Information Service Chinese International School Confederacy of Independent Systems (Star Wars) Continuous injection system Communication Information Services Card Information Structure Cisalpino See also uses of the word cis. ... The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an organization created on June 25, 1992, to promote cooperation between its members, hoping to transform the BSEC into a regional economic organization. ...


Moldova is a parliamentary democracy. Moldova's head of state is its president. The head of government is the Prime Minister. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State in many Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas and many more, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Actual moldovan president - Vladimir Voronin The President of Moldova is elected every four years, and has been since 1992. ... This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Moldova. ...


Moldova is a multicultural nation. Multiculturalism is a public policy approach for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a countrys borders. ...

Contents

History

Stephen the GreatRuler of Moldavia 1436–1504
Stephen the Great
Ruler of Moldavia 1436–1504
Main article: History of Moldova

Moldova's territory was inhabited in ancient times by Dacians. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, Moldova has suffered from several invasions, including those of the Kievan Rus' and the Mongols. Stefan the Great This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Stefan the Great This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Stephan the Great (Romanian icon) Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great or St. ... Moldavian coat-of-arms. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ...


During the Middle Ages the territory of Republic of Moldova (including most of present-day Moldova but also including districts to the north and south, known as Northern Bukovina and Budjak) formed the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia (which, like the present-day republic, was known in Romanian as "Moldova"). The principality became tributary to the Ottoman Empire during 16th century. Following the Treaty of Bucharest in 1812, it was annexed by Russia together with Budjak (Southern Bessarabia). At first, the Russians used the name "Gubernya of Moldova and Bessarabia", but later called it simply Bessarabia. The western part of Moldavia remained an autonomous principality and united with Walachia to form the Old Kingdom of Romania in 1859. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: Буковина, Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields administrative authority. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanlı Dynasty... Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


At the end of World War I, Bessarabia proclaimed independence from Russia in 1918, and united with the Kingdom of Romania the same year. The Soviet Union invaded with force Bessarabia in June 1940 in an agreement with Germany expressed in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and though forced out again in 1941, Soviet troops re-occupied and annexed the area in August 1944. Soviet rule brought a harsh de-nationalization policy. The southern and northern parts (which had some Slavic and Turkic minorities) were transferred to Ukraine. At the same time, Transnistria (where, at that time, ethnic Romanians outnumbered Slavs) was joined to the remainder to form the "Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic", identical in territory to present-day Moldova. Under Stalin, ethnic Russians were brought into the new country, especially into urbanized areas, while large numbers of ethnic Romanians were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan. The overall result was the destruction of Romanian elites and middle-classes, and their replacement with Soviet (mostly Slavic) elements. Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Joseph Stalin Iosif (Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 18791 – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a political leader in the Soviet Union. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ...


Along with the other peripheral Soviet republics, Moldova started to move towards independence from 1991 onwards; in August 1991, Moldova declared its independence and in December of that year became a member of the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States along with most of the former Soviet republics. At the end of that year, an ex-communist reformer, Mircea Snegur, won an election for the presidency. Four months later, the country achieved formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the CIS The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation, or alliance, consisting of 11 former Soviet Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. ... Mircea Ion Snegur (b. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The part of Moldova east of the Dniestr River, Transnistria—which is more heavily industrialized and is populated by a larger proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians— claimed independence in 1991, fearing Moldovan unification with Romania. Russian and Ukrainian forces intervened on the Transnistrian side, and remain there. The OSCE is involved in negotiations between the Transnistrian leaders and Chişinău. The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... ChiÅŸinău coat-of-arms ChiÅŸinău (IPA /ki. ...


While their emotional ties to the Romanian "motherland" remained strong, and while their visits to Romania were welcome, Moldova did not unite with Romania in 1991. In the early 1990s, the future of Moldova was a source of tension in Romania's relations with Russia. President Boris Yeltsin's government did not want to see one of the former Soviet republics on Russia's frontier joined to another country.


A March 1994 referendum saw an overwhelming majority of voters favoring continued independence. In the 2001 elections a pro-Russian Communist party won majority of seats in the Parliament and appointed a Communist president, Vladimir Voronin. After few years in power relationships between Moldova and Russia deteriorated over the Transnistrian conflict. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made 180 degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform, with Voronin re-elected to a second term as a president. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ...


During the 2005 parliamentary elections the Russian Federation tried to influence the election process by intensively favourable coverage of pro-Russian candidates in the Russian mass media and by organizing meetings and agitation campaigns using the Russian CIS-EMO organization (so-called “Elections Monitoring Organization”), which is not recognized internationally as an independent election observer. This organization was proven to have poor records from the previous Kyrgyzstan election. As a response to the security threat, Moldovan authorities denied entry to the Republic of Moldova for the members of the CIS-EMO [1] organization. Some who nonetheless made their way into the Republic were found distributing leaflets and actively participating in the election campaign, despite not having a valid Moldovan passport or any proof of Moldovan citizenship or any permission from the election authority. These members were consequently deported from the country. This action angered the Russian side. As a consequence, Russian-Moldovan ties greatly weakened, and the nation is split between building ties with the West or with Russia. The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ...


In 1992, Moldova was involved in a short-term war against Russian armed forces and Ukrainian Kazak units. Units of Kazaks (Ukrainian mercenaries) fought, supported by and alongside the Russian 14th Army. The Transnistrian war began with an attack of Russian mercenaries on the Moldovan town of Dubăsari, situated on the eastern bank of the River Dniestr, but not loyal to the separatist regime. Since 1992, Russia has maintained a military force in the eastern regions of the Republic of Moldova. The separatist Transnistrian regime established in the occupied territory is undemocratic, and no rotation in political power has taken place in this area since 1992. The de facto Transnistrian government has enforced Russification, the denationalization of ethnic Ukrainians, and discrimination against Moldovans. In the summer of 2004, Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed six Moldovan schools from Tiraspol, Tighina/Bender, and Rîbniţa that used the Romanian language in the Latin alphabet. 3,400 enrolled children were affected by this measure. Several teachers and parents who opposed the closures were arrested. The words kazaks, kazak may be a transliteration from Russian language of Kazakhs, people of Kazakhstan Cossacks (Russian: kazak) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The words kazaks, kazak may be a transliteration from Russian language of Kazakhs, people of Kazakhstan Cossacks (Russian: kazak) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between the Transnistrian separatists and the Moldovan police as early as November 1990 at Dubasari. ... Dubăsari (Russian: Дубоссары / Dubossary) is a town in eastern Moldova with a 2005 population of 49,000. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Tiraspol (Romanian pronunciation: /ti. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: Бендеры) is a city in Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova. ... RîbniÅ£a (Russian: Rybnitsa) is the seat of the Administrative Region of RîbniÅ£a of Transnistria, a country that has declared itself independent from Moldova. ...


After the Soviet Union occupied the region of Bessarabia during World War II from Romania, the Soviets began a campaign to create an Moldovan ethnic identity different from the one of the Romanians, who were said to be "capitalist oppressors". 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812. ... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France, • Soviet Union, • United States, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II, also...


The Soviet official policy also stated that Romanian and Moldovan were two different languages and Moldovan was written with a special Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet, as opposed to Romanian, which was written with its own version of Latin alphabet. The modern Russian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet (Кириллица). It was introduced into Kievan Rus (Киевская Русь) at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988), or, if certain archaelogical finds are correctly dated, at a slightly earlier date. ...


Politics

Political Map of Moldova
Political Map of Moldova
Main article: Politics of Moldova

The unicameral Moldovan parliament, or Parlament, has 101 seats, and its members are elected by popular vote every 4 years. The parliament then elects a president, who functions as the head of state. The president appoints a prime minister as head of government who in turn assembles a cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1244, 277 KB)Repblic of Moldova Political Map Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1244, 277 KB)Repblic of Moldova Political Map Source: http://www. ... Politics of Moldova takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State in many Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas and many more, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


2005 Parliamentary Elections:

The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul ComuniÅŸtilor din Republica Moldova) is a communist political party in Moldova, led by Vladimir Voronin. ... The Christian Democratic Peoples Party (Partidul Popular CreÅŸtin Democrat) is a Christian democratic political party in Moldova. ...

2001 Parliamentary Elections:

The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is a communist political party in Moldova, led by Vladimir Voronin. ... The Party Alliance Our Moldova (Partidul Alianţă Moldova Noastră) is a liberal political party in Moldova. ... The Christian Democratic Peoples Party (Partidul Popular Creştin Democrat) is a Christian democratic political party in Moldova. ...

Independence of Moldova

In the address to the Romanian parliament, in February 1991, Mircea Snegur, the Moldovan president talked about a common identity of the Moldovan and Romanians, referring to the "Romanians of both sides of the Prut River" and "Sacred Romanian lands occupied by the Soviets". Mircea Ion Snegur (b. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube...


In 1989, Romanian became the official language of Moldova and following the independence of 1991, the Romanian tricolor with a coat-of-arms was used as flag, and Deşteaptă-te române!, the Romanian anthem also became the anthem of Moldova. In those times, there was an expectation among certain groups that both countries that they were to be united soon. DeÅŸteaptă-te, române (Wake up, O, Romanian!) is Romanias national anthem. ...


However, the initial enthusiasm in Moldova was tempered and starting 1993, Moldova started to distance itself from Romania. The constitution adopted in 1994 used the term "Moldovan language" instead of "Romanian" and changed the national anthem to Limba noastră. The 1996 attempt by Moldovan president Mircea Snegur to change the official language to "Romanian" was dismissed by the Moldovan Parliament as "promoting Romanian expansionism". Limba Noastră has been since 1994 the national anthem of the Republic of Moldova. ...


A Movement for unification of Romania and the Republic of Moldova began in both countries in early 1990s, after the Republic of Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union. A Movement for unification of Romania and the Republic of Moldova began in both countries in early 1990s, after the Republic of Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


Relations with European Union

The government has stated that Moldova has European aspirations but there has been little progress toward EU membership.


On May 1, 2004 many EU enthusiasts waving the EU flags found their flags confiscated by police and some were arrested under the clause of "anti-nationalism." May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in...


During her first bilateral visit to Moldova, European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner opened the new Delegation of the European Commission to Moldova on 6 October, to be headed by Cesare De Montis. The external relations policy of the Barroso Commission is based on three key basic propositions on the EU’s role in the emerging world order. ... Benita Ferrero-Waldner Benita Ferrero-Waldner (born September 5, 1948) is the European Commissioner for Foreign Affairs and an Austrian diplomat and politician. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ...


A Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with EU is the legal basis for EU relations with Moldova. The PCA came into force in July 1998 for an initial period of ten years. It establishes the institutional framework for bilateral relations, sets the principal common objectives, and calls for activities and dialogue in a number of policy areas. Moldova welcomed EU enlargement and signed on 30 April 2004 the protocol extending the PCA to the new EU member states. A European Union Association Agreement (Association Agreement) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... EU member states and candidates There are currently 25 member states in the European Union. ...


With the joint adoption of the EU-Moldova Action Plan on February 22, 2005, the EU and Moldova have further reinforced their bilateral relationship, providing a new tool to help implement the PCA and bring Moldova closer to the EU. The TACIS programme is used as the framework for technical assistance to support agreed objectives. The enlargement of the European Union on 1 May 2004 has brought a historical shift for the Union in political, geographic and economic terms, further reinforcing the political and economic interdependence between the EU and Moldova. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... TACIS is an abbreviation of Technical Aid to CIS program, an institutional restructuring program implemented by the European Commission to help the newly independent states that once comprised the USSR, on their transition to market-oriented economy. ... Development aid (also development assistance, international aid, overseas aid or foreign aid) is aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries. ...


Administrative divisions

Administrative division
Administrative division
Main article: Administrative divisions of Moldova

Moldova is divided into 32 districts (raion, pl. raioane), 3 municipalities (Chişinău, Bălţi and Tighina), two semi-autonomous regions (Găgăuzia and the breakaway region of Transnistria, whose status is still disputed). The districts are: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1029x1194, 66 KB) Summary New administrative divisions of Moldova. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1029x1194, 66 KB) Summary New administrative divisions of Moldova. ... Moldova is divided into 32 Rayons, or raioane, 3 municipalities (ChiÅŸinău, BălÅ£i and Tighina/Bender), one semi-autonomous, non-contiguous region (Gagauzia), and the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of which is still disputed. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... ChiÅŸinău coat-of-arms ChiÅŸinău (IPA /ki. ... BălÅ£i is the third-largest city of the Republic of Moldova, and the main city in its north. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: Бендеры) is a city in Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova. ... Part of Moldova ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ...

As no other nation recognizes Transnistria, it is de jure a part of Moldova, although in reality it is not controlled by the Moldovan government. Categories: Moldova-related stubs | Cities in Moldova ... Categories: Moldova-related stubs | Cities in Moldova ... Bricheni is a Romanian city. ... Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ... Cantemir - is a city in Moldova. ... Categories: Moldova-related stubs | Cities in Moldova ... Numere de telefoane raionul Causeni Categories: Moldova-related stubs | Cities in Moldova ... Cimişlia is a city in the southern part of Moldova, on the banks of the river Cogîlnic. ... Criuleni is a city in Moldova. ... Donduşeni (Or. ... Drochia is the name of a town in Northern part of Republic of Moldova. ... Dubăsari (Russian: Дубоссары / Dubossary) is a town in eastern Moldova with a 2005 population of 49,000. ... Edineţ is a town in the north of Moldova. ... Raionul Făleşti is a district of Moldova. ... Glodeni is a city and an administrative region of north-east Moldova. ... Hînceşti is a town in Moldova, also written without diacritics as Hincesti or Hancesti. According to the latest 2004 census, the town has 15260 inhabitants. ... Ialoveni is a small region of the Republic of Moldova situated 10 km from Chisinau. ... Nisporeni is located in the central part of Moldova. ... Ocniţa is the name of several places: Ocniţa, Dâmboviţa County, Romania (population: 4,300) Ocniţa, Republic of Moldova (population: 9,400) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Orhei (population 45,000) is a town and an administrative region of Moldova. ... Soroca is a city in the north of Moldova with a population in 2004 of 39,400. ... An image of Străşeni A post stamp from Străşeni Străşeni is a town of about 20,000 inhabitants in central Moldova. ... Şoldăneşti is a town in Moldova. ... Taraclia is a city and an administrative region of Moldova in the south of the country. ... Ungheni is the largest town without a university in the part of Moldova not included within Transnistria. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Moldova Located in southeastern Europe,Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine. ...


The largest part of the country lies between two rivers, the Nistru and the Prut. Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions and a major supplier of agricultural products in the region. The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ...


The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. In the north-east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south. The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав, Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius, Turkish: Tuna) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Length 1350 km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 62,000  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Black Sea Basin countries Ukraine, Moldova The river Dniester (Polish: Dniestr, Ukrainian: Дністер, Romanian: Nistru, Russian: Днестр, Latin: Tyras) is a river in Eastern Europe. ...


The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While the northern part of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 metres (1,411 ft)—the highest point being the Dealul Bălăneşti. A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a meter. ...


Moldova has a temperate continental climate, with warm summers, but mild winters. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...


The country's main cities are the capital Chişinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in Transnistria), Bălţi and Bender. ChiÅŸinău coat-of-arms ChiÅŸinău (IPA /ki. ... Tiraspol (Romanian pronunciation: /ti. ... BălÅ£i is the third-largest city of the Republic of Moldova, and the main city in its north. ... Look up Bender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Bender may refer to one of the following. ...


See List of cities in Moldova This is a list of cities in Moldova. ...


Largest cities

# City Population (2005) County
1. Chişinău 716,700 -
2. Tiraspol 164,900 (2001) -
3. Tighina 144,400 (2004) -
4. Bălţi 127,600 -
5. Ungheni 32,700 Ungheni County
6. Soroca 28,400 Soroca County
7. Orhei 25,700 Orhei County


Chişinău coat-of-arms Chişinău (IPA /ki. ... Tiraspol (Romanian pronunciation: /ti. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: Бендеры) is a city in Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova. ... Bălţi is the third-largest city of the Republic of Moldova, and the main city in its north. ... Ungheni is the largest town without a university in the part of Moldova not included within Transnistria. ... Raionul Ungheni is a district of Moldova. ... Soroca is a city in the north of Moldova with a population in 2004 of 39,400. ... Orhei (population 45,000) is a town and an administrative region of Moldova. ... Raionul Orhei is a district in Moldova. ...


Economy

Moldovan money
Enlarge
Moldovan money

Main article: Economy of Moldova Image File history File links 1 Moldovan Lei, Currency in Moldova Photographed, Perconte File links The following pages link to this file: Moldovan leu ... Image File history File links 1 Moldovan Lei, Currency in Moldova Photographed, Perconte File links The following pages link to this file: Moldovan leu ... Overview Moldova is the second smallest of the former Soviet republics and the most densely populated. ...


Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, Moldavian wine, and tobacco. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Moldova along with Romania are famous for their wines. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ...


Moldova must import all of its supplies of petroleum, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold or Texas Tea, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (strip mining). ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth. Recent trends indicate that the communist government intends to reverse some of these policies, and recollectivise land while placing more restrictions on private business. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2002, in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. Further liberalization is in doubt because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. This article is about the year 2000. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...


Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. It has, furthermore, implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy. These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy’s further growth and development in the medium term. Despite these efforts, and despite the recent resumption of economic growth, Moldova still ranks low in terms of commonly-used living standards and human development indicators in comparison with other transition economies. Although the economy experienced a constant economic growth after 2000: with 2.1%, 6.1%, 7,8% and 6,3% between 2000 and 2003 (with a forecast of 8% in 2004), one can observe that these latest developments hardly reach the level of 1994, with almost 40% of the GDP registered in 1990. Thus, during the last decade little has been done to reduce the country’s vulnerability. After a severe economic decline, social and economic challenges, energy uprooted dependencies; Moldova continues to occupy one of the last places among the European countries according to the income per capita. In 2002 (Human Development Report 2004), in Moldova the registered GDP per capita was US $381 equivalent to US $ 1,470 PPP, which is 5.3 times lower that the world average (US $ 7,804). Moreover, GDP per capita is under the average of all regions in the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa (US $ 1,790 PPP). In 2004, about 40% of population were under the absolute poverty line and registered an income lower than US $ 2.15 -purchasing power equivalent- per day. Moldova is classified as medium human development and is placed on the 113 spot in the list of 177 countries. The value of the Human Development Index (0.681) is below the world average.


Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe in terms of GDP per capita: $ 2,100 in 2005. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

Ethnic Composition - 1989
Ethnic Composition - 1989
Main article: Demographics of Moldova

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1035x1276, 204 KB)Ethnical Moldova Composition (1989) License Source Made by CIA, published in Handbook of International Economic Statistics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1035x1276, 204 KB)Ethnical Moldova Composition (1989) License Source Made by CIA, published in Handbook of International Economic Statistics. ... Although Moldova is by far the most densely populated of the former Soviet republics (129 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1990, compared with thirteen inhabitants per square kilometer for the Soviet Union as a whole), it has few large cities. ...

Ethnic composition

(according to the 2004 census)

About the 2004 census The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...

According to a May 19 2005 article in "Moldova Azi" news agency, [2] a group of international census experts described the Moldovan census as "generally conducted in a professional manner", while remarking that that "a few topics… were potentially more problematic". Among the problematic topics:
  1. The census includes at least some Moldovans who had been living abroad over one year at the time of the census.
  2. The precision of numbers about nationality/ethnicity and language was questioned. Some enumerators apparently encouraged respondents to declare that they were "Moldovan" rather than "Romanian", and even within a single family there may have been confusion about these terms.
With respect to these matters, especially the latter, the expert group recommended that the Moldovan National Bureau of Statistics carry out an evaluation study, offered their assistance in doing so, and indicated their intention of further studying the matter themselves.
Moldavian Orthodox icon
Moldavian Orthodox icon

Image File history File linksMetadata Moldova_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Moldova_icon. ...

Religions

(2000 estimation)

... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ...

Language

Main article: Moldovan language

The official language is Moldovan; this is by all accounts a form of Daco-Romanian, and is essentially the same as Romanian. There is no particular linguistic break at the Prut River, which divides Moldova from Romania. In formal use, the languages are identical except for minor orthographical issues (the Moldovans write î in some contexts where Romanians would use â; this same form used to be normal in Romania). There is, however, some regional variation, as might be found within any linguistic territory, and the common speech of Chişinau or Transnistria can be distinguished from the speech of Iaşi, a Romanian city that is also part of the former Principality of Moldavia. Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... The Romanians (români in present-day Romanian and rumâni in historical contexts) are an ethnic group; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania and of Moldova (where they are also called Moldovans, a disputed term); each of these countries also have other significant ethnic minorities, and the Romanians... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... ChiÅŸinău coat-of-arms ChiÅŸinău (pronounced ki-shi-now, IPA /kiʃinəǔ/) is the capital and the largest city of Moldova. ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, since 2003 Area 93. ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ...


Opinions vary on the status of Moldovan as a language. Most linguists consider standard Moldovan to be identical to standard Romanian, an Eastern Romance language, although one Moldovan linguist disputes this. There are, however, more differences between the colloquial spoken languages of Moldova and Romania, most significantly due to the influence of Russian in Moldova which was not present in Romania. The matter of whether or not Moldovan is a separate language is a contested political issue within and beyond the Republic of Moldova. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...


The 1989 law on language of the Moldavian SSR, which is still effective in Moldova according to the Constitution [3], asserts the real existence of "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity". [4] 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ...


A significant minority speaks native Russian, and there are more Slavicisms in common speech in Moldova than in common speech in Romania. Nonetheless, Moldovans are generally aware when they are using a word of Slavic origin not found in common Romanian, and are capable of choosing whether or not to use these words in a particular context. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ...


Title I, Article 13 of the Moldovan Constitution, names it the "national language" (limba de stat) of the country. In the unrecognized state of Transnistria, it is co-official with Ukrainian and Russian. The 1989 law on language of the Moldavian SSR, which is still effective in Moldova according to the Constitution [2], asserts the real existence of "linguistical Moldo-Romanian identity". Several geo-political entitites in the world have no general international recognition, but they are de facto sovereign states. ... Motto: none Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital Tiraspol Largest city Tiraspol Official languages Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian Government President Parliamentary Republic Igor Smirnov Recognition Independence Recognition From Moldova none September 2, 1990 none Area  â€¢ Water (%) 3,567 km²  N/A% Population 555,500 (2004 est). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ...


Information technologies and telecommunications

In 2004, the investments volume on the telecommunications and information market in Moldova increased by 30.1% in comparison with 2003, achieving 825.3 million lei (65.5 million US dollars). The representatives of the National Agency for Telecommunications and Information Regulation communicated that 451 million lei (35.9 million dollars) were invested in the field of fixed telephone communication. It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... BlackBerry 7100t Telecommunications is the communication of information over a distance. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1 Moldovan leu note, obverse and reverse The Moldovan leu (ISO 4217 code MDL) is the national currency of Moldova. ...


The investments constituted 330 million lei (26.2 million dollars) in the field of mobile telephony, 24.2 million lei (1.9 million dollars) in the field of Internet services, 19.1 million lei (1.5 million dollars) in the field of cable television services. The essential increase in the amount of 163 million lei (12.9 million dollars) has been achieved in the field of mobile telephony. Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. ... Almería International Airport is located about 10km east of the city centre in South-East Spain, in the province of Almería. ... Cellular redirects here. ... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ... Cellular redirects here. ...


In comparison with 2003, the investments in this sector doubled practically. An insignificant increase was registered at the other market segments, but the investment volume remained the same in the field of fixed telephone communication. Market segmentation is the process in marketing of grouping a market (i. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ...


In 2005 the volume of investments in telecommunication and information technology exceeded the level of the previous year, primarily due to the investments of the national operator of the stationary telephone communications of the Joint-Stock CompanyMoldtelecom” for the implementation of the technology CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), by the investments of the operators of mobile telephony “Voxtel” and “Moldcell” in the development of infrastructure, also by means aimed at the extension and improvement of access services to Internet by new broadband technologies. A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... Moldtelecom - Moldavian national telecommunications operator. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... Cellular redirects here. ... Broadband in general refers to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Moldova

Moldovan customs and traditions are preserved and passed from generation to generation. Located geographically at the crossroads of Latin and Slavic cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture adopting and maintaining traditions of its neighbors. The Culture of Moldova has been influenced primarily by the Romanian origin, the roots of which, reach back to the second century A.D., the period of Roman colonization in Dacia. ...

ŞMihai Eminescu The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... ŞMihai Eminescu The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Mihai Eminescu Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) a. ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ...

Ştefan cel Mare

Ştefan cel Mare ("Stephen the Great"), cousin of Vlad III Dracula, was the most important Prince of Moldavia. He was born around 1436, at Borzeşti, Bacău County, (now in Romania), and died at Suceava, Romania 2 July 1504. He ruled 47 years, from 14 April 1457 until his death. Stephan the Great (Romanian icon) Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great or St. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Dracula (November or December 1431—December 1476, has also been known as Dracula (also Drăculea (see below)), or Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian). ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Borzesti church was built by Stefan cel Mare in 1493. ... Administrative map of Romania with Bacău county highlighted Bacău (Hungarian: Bákó) is a Romanian county (JudeÅ£) in the Moldovia region, with the capital city at Bacău. ... Suceava (pronunciation in Romanian: ; German: Suczawa, Yiddish: שאָץ Shots) is a municipality-status city in the Suceava county, Bucovina, Romania. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ...


Although Ştefan is mostly a historical figure and a national hero, his reign is also appreciated for the large number of churches that were built or restored. Some of the best pieces of Moldovan medieval art date from his reign.


Dimitrie Cantemir

The Prince Dimitrie Cantemir is one of the most important figures of Moldavian culture of the 18th century. Cantemir wrote the first geographical, ethnographical and economic description of the country in Descriptio Moldaviae (Berlin 1714). Dimitrie Cantemir (-Romanian, Дмитрий Кантемир in Russian, Kantemiroğlu in Turkish, Kantymir in Polish), (October 26, 1673 - 1723) was a Moldavian Voivode (Prince; March-April 1693 and 1710-1711), philosopher, historian, composer, linguist and scholar. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... (help· info), IPA: , is the capital city as well as a state of Germany. ... // Events August 1 - George, elector of Hanover becomes King George I of Great Britain. ...


Mihai Eminescu

Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici) was a late romantic poet, probably the best-known and most influential Romanian language poet. Mihai Eminescu Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) a. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Romanian (limba română IPA ) is the fifth of the Romance languages in terms of number of speakers. ...

This is a list of famous people from the Republic of Moldova. ... Moldovan music is closely related to that of its neighbor and cultural kin, Romania. ... Religion in Moldova is separated from the state. ...

Miscellaneous topics

Moldovas Parliament approved the countrys membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS--a group of 12 former Soviet republics) and a CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. ... In 1995 the main means of transportation in Moldova were railroads (1,150 kilometers) and a highway system (20,100 kilometers overall, including 14,000 kilometers of paved surfaces). ... Moldovas telecommunications facilities are poor, but they were being upgraded in 1995. ... In 1995 the national police of Moldova were under the direction of the Ministry of Interior. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later context. ... Coat of arms of Moldova The coat of arms of Moldova consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws. ... Crime in Moldova, as everywhere in former Soviet republics, has risen dramatically since the demise of the Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of arms of Moldova The coat of arms of Moldova consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws. ... Moldovas telecommunications facilities are poor, but they were being upgraded in 1995. ... Crime in Moldova, as everywhere in former Soviet republics, has risen dramatically since the demise of the Soviet Union. ... Moldova along with Romania are famous for their wines. ...

Maps

  • Map of Moldova
  • Map of Chisinau
  • Maps of Moldova (political, ethnic, etc...) plus those of other former Soviet Republics

Gallery

External links

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Profiles

News portals

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Tourism

  • Official site of the Department of Tourism

Others

  • Moldova: Young Women From Rural Areas Vulnerable To Human Trafficking

International rankings

Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization interested in issues relating to freedom of the press. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with a worldwide average daily circulation of more than 2. ... The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual report published by The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Limited in London. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Geneva-based foundation whose annual meeting of chief executives of the worlds richest corporations, some national political leaders (presidents, prime ministers and others), and selected intellectuals and journalists, about 2000 people in all, is usually held in Davos, Switzerland. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

References

  • 2004 census results (ZIP file, in Romanian)

Notes

  1. CIS: Monitoring The Election Monitors. Saturday, 02 April 2005
  2. Experts Offering to Consult the National Statistics Bureau in Evaluation of the Census Data, Moldova Azi, May 19, 2005, story attributed to AP Flux. Retrieved October 11, 2005.
  3. Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, Title 7, Article 7: "The law of 1 September 1989 regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova remains valid, excepting the points where it contradicts this constitution."
  4. Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian RSS supports the desire of the Moldovans that live across the borders of the Republic, and considering the really existing linguistical Moldo-Romanian identity - of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their maternal language."

 



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  Results from FactBites:
 
Republic of Moldova - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3351 words)
The Republic of Moldova (conventional long form, conventional short form: Moldova, local official long form: Republica Moldova) is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east.
During the Middle Ages the territory of Republic of Moldova (including most of present-day Moldova but also including districts to the north and south, known as Northern Bukovina and Budjak) formed the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia (which, like the present-day republic, was known in Romanian as "Moldova").
The Republic of Moldova is a beautiful small country, situated in the Southeast part of Europe, neighboring Romania to the West and Ukraine to the East.
LLRX --An Overview of the Legal System of the Republic of Moldova (2769 words)
The Republic of Moldova (www.moldova.md) is a sovereign, independent state, situated in southeastern Europe between Romania and Ukraine.
Moldova gained its independence (http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/moldova/md_appnd.html) from the Soviet Union on the 27th of August, 1991 and is undertaking a serious program of economic, social and political reforms to secure its future (http://www.ifes.md/moldova).
From 1994, when the Constitution was approved, and until the 5th of July 2002, the Republic of Moldova was a semi-presidential country, after it became a parliamentary republic and the president is elected by a 3/5 votes of the members from parliament.
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