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Encyclopedia > Republic of Mahabad
كوماری مهاباد
Komarî Mehabad

Republic of Mahabad

1946 – 1947

Flag of Mahabad It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kurdistan. ...


Flag The official flag of Iraqi Kurdistan, & ethnic flag of Kurdish people worldwide The Kurdish flag (also flag of Kurdistan, Kurdish: Alaya Kurdistanê [1]) first appeared during the Kurdish independence movement from the Ottoman Empire. ...

Anthem: Ey Reqîb
(English: "Hey Guardian")
Approximate extent of the Republic.
Capital Mahabad
36°45′N, 45°43′E
Language(s) Kurdish
Religion Islam
Government Republic
President Qazi Muhammad
Prime minister Haji Baba Sheikh
Historical era Cold War
 - Independence Declared January 22, 1946
 - Soviet withdraws June, 1946
 - Iran establishes control December 15, 1946
 - Leaders executed March 30, 1947
Area
 - 1946 37,437 km2
14,455 sq mi
Currency Iranian rial
This article is part of the
Kurdish history series
Early ancestors
Ancient history
Medieval history
Modern history

The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), also known as Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. Its capital was the Kurdish city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The republic's founding and demise was a part of the Iran crisis, a conflict between USA and USSR, which was a precursor to the Cold War. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ey Reqib is sung by Kurdish nationalists as the Kurdish national anthem. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Qazi Mohammad Qazi Muhammad (1893-1947) was the Nationalist and Religious Kurdish leader and the Head of Republic of Mahabad the second modern Kurdish state in the Middle East (after Republic of Ararat). ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Haji Baba Sheikh (Hacî Baba Şêx in Kurdish) was the prime minister of the Republic of Mahabad. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with a length of 30 days. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân(226-380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom in central and southern Kurdistan established in 226 CE. The House of Kayus was established after an agreement between Kurdish principalities and kingdoms and the Persian Empire, following a... Sharazor (also: Sharazur, Shahrazor, Shahrazur, Shahrezour, Shehrizor, land of Zor and City of Zor) was name of a historic Wilayet and a city situated to the south and east of Iraqi Kurdistan; // The name of Sharazor is formed of two words: Shar or shahr meaning: land, region, city; and Zor... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır. ... Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Badlis (1182-1847), was a Kurdish principality originated from the Rojaki tribe. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Badinan, was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish principalities. ... Soran Emirate (1399-1883 A.D) was a Kurdish principality in Southern Kurdistan Its Capital was the city of Rawanduz. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. ... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... The Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan, Arabic: اقلیم کردستان) is an autonomous, federally recognized political entity located in northern Iraq. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [4] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [5] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [6] (North of Kurdistan) or Kurdistana Bakûr [7] (Northern Kurdistan) ) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited... A notable population of Kurds (Turkish: Kürtler) live in Turkey. ... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... The Iran crisis an international crisis concerning Iran in 1946. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Founding of the Republic

As the theatre of World War II expanded into the Middle East, British and Soviet forces occupied two-thirds of Iran, with the Brits moving in from the south and the Soviets from the north. The middle region containing Mahabad was left unoccupied and labeled “neutral” (Yassin "A History" 128). The occupational forces dethroned the Shah and weakened his regime by deactivating his army in order to secure their Middle Eastern supply routes (Yassin "A History" 126).


At first, the British and the Soviets were both thoroughly dedicated to non-intervention, but their definitions of “intervention” differed. For the British, non-intervention translated into unquestioned support of Teheran in all questions of self-determination (Yassin "A History" 133). For the USSR, non-intervention meant involving themselves only in matters related to their ability to fight the Axis powers (Yassin "A History" 140). Early on, these interpretations of non-interference produced similarly negative responses to any possibility of Kurdish autonomy.


In 1944, an oil crisis hit the USSR. Soviet support for Kurdish mobilization became a bargaining chip which the Soviets used against Teheran to expedite negotiations regarding large oil concessions. When the new Shah (the former Shah's son) decided against granting any concessions until after the war, the USSR began to court the democratically-run, underground Kurdish Komala party. The Soviets invited Qazi Muhammad and a delegation of his choosing to represent the group during a visit to the USSR.


Thus, Qazi Muhammad and other Kurdish diplomats along with some high profile US leaders visited Tabriz to see a Soviet Consul on the backing of a new communist republic, and were then redirected to Baku, Azerbaijan SSR. There, they learned that the Soviets were planning to establish a communist state in Iranian Azerbaijan, and his supporters should do the same in their region in West Azerbaijan (McDowall 240). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ...


On January 22, 1946, Qazi Muhammad announced the formation of the Republic of Mahabad. (McDowall 241). Some of their aims mentioned in the manifesto are listed below (McDowall 241)- January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

  • i. Autonomy for the Iranian Kurds within the Iranian state.
  • ii. the use of Kurdish as the medium of education and administration.
  • iii. the election of a provincial council for Kurdistan to supervise state and social matters.
  • iv. all state officials to be of local origin.
  • v. unity and fraternity with the Azerbaijani people.
  • vi. the establishment of a single law for both peasants and notables.

End of the Republic

On March 26, 1946, the Soviets promised to the Iranian government that they would pull out of northwestern Iran (McDowall 243). Shortly after in June, the Azarbaijan rebels who took control in East Azerbaijan handed control of the Azerbaijan provinces back to Iran. This move isolated the Republic of Mahabad, eventually leading to the destruction of the republic (McDowall 243). March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


By this point, Qazi Muhammed's support was dwindling, mainly from the Kurdish tribes who had supported him initially. Their crops and supplies were dwindling, and their way of life was becoming hard as a result of the isolation. The economic aid and military assistance from the Soviet Union was now gone, and the tribes saw no reason to support Qazi Muhammed. Many tribes began to leave, those who stayed began to resent the Barzani Kurds, as they had to share their resources with them (McDowall 243). By December 5th, the war council told Qazi Muhammad that they would fight and resist the Iranian army if they tried to enter the region (McDowall 243). The Barzani tribe is a large and prominent Kurdish tribe in Iraqi Kurdistan. ...


On December 15, Iranian forces entered and secured Mahabad. Once there, they closed down the Kurdish printing press, banned the teaching of Kurdish, and burned any books that were written in Kurdish that they could find (McDowell 245). December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finally, on March 31, 1947, Qazi Muhammad was hanged in Mahabad (McDowall 246) on counts of treason. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Aftermath

Massoud Barzani, the current President of Iraqi Kurdistan, was born in Mahabad when his father, the late General Mustafa Barzani, was chief of the military of Mahabad declared in Iranian Kurdistan [1]. After the republic was defeated, Barzani fled with 500 of his supporters to the Soviet Union, not returning until 1958 to Northern Iraq (Meiselas 182). In October of 1958, Mustafa Barzani returned into his homeland of Northern Iraq, beginning a series of struggles to fight for an independent Kurdish state under the KDP party, carrying the same flag that was used in Mahabad[2]. Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... Motto: None Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Official languages Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) [1] Government Parliamentary Democracy  - President Masoud Barzani  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed... Mustafa Barzani (March 14, 1903–March 1, 1979) was a Kurdish nationalist leader and President of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP). ...


Reasons for failure

Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, Jr., grandson of the former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, wrote in "The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad" that a main problem of the People's Republic of Mahabad was that the Kurds needed the assistance of the USSR; only with the Red Army did they have a chance. But this close relationship to Stalin and the USSR caused most of the Western powers to side with Iran. Qazi Muhammad, though not denying the fact that they were funded and supplied by the Soviets, denied that the KDP was a communist party, stating this was a lie fabricated by the military authorities, and adding that his ideals were too different from the Soviets (Meiselas 182). Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, Jr. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Qazi Mohammad Qazi Muhammad (1893-1947) was the Nationalist and Religious Kurdish leader and the Head of Republic of Mahabad the second modern Kurdish state in the Middle East (after Republic of Ararat). ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ...


Also, the republic was suffering from a number of internal issues. The townspeople and the tribes had a large divide between them, and their alliance for Mahabad was crumbling. As previously stated, the tribes and their leaders had only supported Qazi Muhammad for his economic and military aid from the Soviet Union. Once that was gone, many didn't see the purpose in staying with Qazi Muhammad. Other tribes resented the Barzanis, since they didn't like sharing their already dwindling resources with them. Some Kurds deserted Mahabad, including one of Mahabad's own marshalls, Amr Khan. Also, Mahabad was economically bankrupt, and it would have been nearly impossible for Mahabad to have been economically sound without harmony with Iran (McDowall 244-245).

References

  1. "The Republic of Kurdistan: Fifty Years Later," International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 11, no. 1 & 2, (1997).
  2. The Kurdish Republic of 1946, William Eagleton, Jr. (London: Oxford University Press, 1963)
  3. Moradi Golmorad: Ein Jahr autonome Regierung in Kurdistan, die Mahabad-Republik 1946 - 1947 in: Geschichte der kurdischen Aufstandsbewegungen von der arabisch-islamischen Invasion bis zur Mahabad-Republik, Bremen 1992, ISBN 3-929089-00-9 (German)
  4. M. Khoubrouy-Pak: Une république éphémère au Kurdistan, Paris u.a. 2002, ISBN 2-7475-2803-0 (French)
  5. Archie Roosevelt, Jr., "The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad", Middle East Journal, no. 1 (July 1947), pp. 247-69.
  6. Kurdish Republic of Mahabad, Encyclopedia of the Orient. [3]
  7. The Kurds: People without a country, Encyclopedia Britannica [4]
  8. Meiselas, Susan Kurdistan In the Shadow of History, Random House, 1997. ISBN 0-679-42389-3
  9. McDowall, David A Modern History of the Kurds, I. B. Tauris, 1996 (Current revision at May 14, 2004). ISBN 1-86064-185-7
  10. Yassin, Burhaneddin A., "A History of the Republic of Kurdistan", The International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 115-240.
  11. Yassin, Burhaneddin A., Vision or Realty: The Kurds in the Policy of the Great Powers, 1941-1947, Lund University Press, Lund/Sweden, 1995. ISSN 0519-9700, ISBN 91-7966-315-X Lund University Press. ou ISBN 0-86238-389-7 Chartwell-Bratt Ltd.
  12. Масуд Барзани. Мустафа Барзани и курдское освободительное движение. Пер. А. Ш. Хаурами, СПб, Наука, 2005. (Russian)
  13. М. С. Лазарев. Курдистан и курдский вопрос (1923—1945). М., Издательская фирма «Восточная литература» РАН, 2005. (Russian)
  14. Жигалина О. И. Национальное движение курдов в Иране (1918—1947). М., «Наука», 1988. (Russian)
  15. История Курдистана. Под ред. М. С. Лазарева, Ш. Х. Мгои. М., 1999. (Russian)
  16. Муртаза Зарбахт. От Иракского Курдистана до другого берега реки Аракс. Пер. с курдск. А. Ш. Хаурами. М.-СПб, 2003. (Russian)

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

See also

The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. ... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... See also Southern (or Iraqi) Kurdistan The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970 following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. ... This article focuses on ethnic minorities in Iran and their related political issues and current realities. ...

External links

  • The Republic of Kurdistan in Mehabad, Encyclopaedia Kurdistanica.
  • Kurds at the crossroad
  • Proclamation of the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad from The Encyclopedia of World History Sixth Edition, Peter N. Stearns (general editor), © 2001 The Houghton Mifflin Company, at Bartleby.com.
  • The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad at PDKI-Canada
  • Republic of Kurdistan, A discussion forum on Washington Post's blog. (Anaylsis by Kurdologists: Amir Hassanpour, Goran Nowicki and Burhan Elturan)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Republic of Mahabad" (1061 words)
The republic's founding and demise was a part of the Iran crisis, a conflict between USA and USSR, which was a precursor to the Cold War.
The republic was led by President Qazi Muhammad and the Minister of Defense, Mustafa Barzani.
The Republic of Mahabad declared independence on January 22, 1946, but was never recognized by the international community, and was defeated a year later by the army of the central government of Iran once the occupying Soviets pulled out.
Footnotes to History- K and L (5933 words)
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Kawthoolei, Republic of- The Karens are a tribe of eastern Burma.
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