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Encyclopedia > Republic of Macedonia
Република Македонија
Republika Makedonija
Republika e Maqedonisë
Republic of Macedonia
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Coat of arms of the Republic of Macedonia
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Денес над Македонија  (Macedonian)
"Today over Macedonia"
Location of the  Republic of Macedonia  (orange)

on the European continent  (white)  —  [ Legend] This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Grb. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The Flag of the Republic of Macedonia represents a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field. ... The coat of arms of the Republic of Macedonia is composed of a double bent garland of ears of wheat, tobacco leaves and poppy seeds, tied by a ribbon decorated with the pattern of a traditional Macedonian costume. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Today Over Macedonia is the national anthem of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Republic of Macedonia Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
 Skopje
42°0′N 21°26′E
Official languages Macedonian, Albanian1
Government Parliamentary republic
 - President Branko Crvenkovski
 - Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski
Independence from Yugoslavia 
 - Declared September 8, 1991 
Area
 - Total 25,333 km² (148th)
9,779 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 1.9
Population
 - 2005 estimate 2,034,000 (143rd)
 - 2002 census 2,022,547 
 - Density 79 /km² (111th)
205 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 - Total $15.78 billion (121st)
 - Per capita $7,645 (80th)
HDI (2004) 0.796 (medium) (66th)
Currency Macedonian denar (MKD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .mk
Calling code +389
1 Macedonian is designated as the primary official language. As of June 2002, any language spoken by at least 20% of the population is also an official language. At present, only Albanian fulfils this requirement, but it can only be used as prescribed by law (e.g., issuing official documents, when communicating with government offices, in municipal self-government) and always in addition to Cyrillic Macedonian. In communities where over 20% of the population speak another language, that language can be used as a municipal official language along with Macedonian and any other official languages; such languages include Turkish, Serbian, Romany and Aromanian.

The Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Република Македонија Republika Makedonija listen , Albanian: Republika e Maqedonisë), often referred to as Macedonia, is a landlocked country on the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Serbia to the north, Albania to the west, Greece to the south, and Bulgaria to the east. As the result of a naming dispute with Greece, in 1993 it was admitted to the United Nations under the provisional reference the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), pending resolution of the dispute.[1] This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... // Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia , Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Image File history File links MMCA(Skopje). ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The Macedonian Presidency began after the Macedonian declaration of independence on September 18, 1991, and its first president was Kiro Gligorov, the oldest president in the world up until his resignation as president in 1999. ... Missing image Image:.jpg Branko Crvenkovski in Macedonian Бранко Црвенковски is the President of the Republic of Macedonia. ... List of Prime Ministers of the Republic of Macedonia See also President of the Republic of Macedonia Categories: | ... Nikola Gruevski was the Minister of Finance in the VMRO-DPMNE government led by Ljubco Georgievski until September 2002. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Purchasing power parity (PPP) is in economics the method of using the long-run equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize the currencies purchasing power. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links Red_Arrow_Down. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code MKD User(s) Republic of Macedonia Inflation rate 0% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Daylight saving time around the world  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), or summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. ... Time zones of Europe: Pale colours indicate countries without daylight saving Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .mk is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the Republic of Macedonia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba aromână, limba armânească, armâneashti or armãneshce) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Image File history File links Makedonija. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The capital is Skopje, with 500,000 inhabitants, and there are a number of smaller cities, notably Bitola, Kumanovo, Prilep, Tetovo, Ohrid, Veles, Štip, Kočani, Gostivar and Strumica. It has more than 50 natural and artificial lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2,000 meters (6,550 ft) above sea level. Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... City motto : Битола, бабам Битола (Bitola, babam Bitola) Coordinates Municipality : Bitola municipality Elevation 576 m Population 95 385 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 047 Postal code 7000 Car plates BT Official Website www. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Kumanovo municipality Elevation 340 m Population 105 484 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 031 Postal code 1300 Car plates KU Official Website www. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Prilep municipality Elevation 620 – 650 m Population 76 768 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 048 Postal code 7500 Car plates PP Official Website www. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Tetovo municipality Elevation 486 m Population 80 841 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 044 Postal code 1200 Car plates TE Official Website tetovo. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 046 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Veles is a city in the center of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Å tip municipality Elevation m Population 46 732 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 032 Postal code 2000 Car plates Å T Official Website www. ... Category: ... Gostivar-view on the city center Gostivar (Macedonian: Гостивар; Albanian: Gostivari) is city in the Republic of Macedonia, located in the upper Polog region. ... Strumica (Macedonian/Bulgarian: Струмица, Greek: Στρώμνιτσα Stromnitsa, Turkish: Usturumca) is a city of about 55,000 people in southeastern Republic of Macedonia. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


The country is a member of the UN and the Council of Europe and a member of La Francophonie, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Since December 2005 it is also a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe () is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into North Asia). ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Republic of Macedonia

The lands governed by the Republic of Macedonia were previously the southernmost part of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. Its current borders were fixed shortly after World War II when the government of the then People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established the People's Republic of Macedonia, recognizing the Macedonian ethnicity, and the region as a separate nation within Yugoslavia. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In the past, these lands came under a number of ancient states and former empires. The first recorded state on the territory was Paionia, which was succeeded by the kingdom of ancient Macedon (which gave its name to the whole Macedonian region). It must be noted though, that the ancient kingdom of Macedon was centred in what is today Greek Macedonia and its boundaries did not span north of the modern town of Bitola until after 323 BC, a date by which most of the world then known to the Greeks was already under Macedonian rule.[2] Later, in 146 BC, the area became part of the Roman and Byzantine empires, becoming Christian in the 3rd and 4th century AD. Paionia (also Romanized as Paeonia) was, in ancient geography, the land of the Paionians (Gk. ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... City motto : Битола, бабам Битола (Bitola, babam Bitola) Coordinates Municipality : Bitola municipality Elevation 576 m Population 95 385 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 047 Postal code 7000 Car plates BT Official Website www. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


In the late 6th century AD, Byzantine control over the area disintegrated, and the region was conquered by Slavic tribes from the north, assimilating the preexisting Greek, Latin, Illyrian and Thracian-speaking inhabitants.[3] In the 9th century, the territory converted to Christianity through the evangelizing work of the Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples. In the same century, the First Bulgarian Empire assumed control of most of the area. Sclaveni (variants: Sclauini, Sthlaueni in Latin, Σκλαβήνοι, Σκλαυήνοι, Σθλαβίνοι in Greek) is an old form of the name of the Slavs that was used in the Middle Ages. ... Monument to Sts. ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ...


The Byzantines reassumed full control of the Balkans by the early 11th century, but by the late 12th century Byzantine decline brought about the birth of the Second Bulgarian Empire. The empire soon met with political difficulties, and the wider geographical Macedonia region fell once again under Byzantine control. In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire, only to pass a few decades later into Ottoman hands, under whose rule it was to remain for five centuries. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... Serbia was formerly a principality (1817-1882), kingdom (1882-1918) and part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1945, until 1929 the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


Ottoman rule over the region was considered harsh. One of the earliest uprisings against Ottoman rule came in 1689 with Karposh's Rebellion. Several movements whose goals where the establishment of an independent Macedonian state encompassing the entire region of Macedonia began to arise in the mid and late 1800s, the most famous of these was the IMRO. In 1903, IMRO organised the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans, which after the initial successes including the forming of the Krushevo Republic, was crushed with much loss of life. The uprising and the forming of the Krushevo Republic are considered the corner-stone and precursors to the eventual establishment of the Republic of Macedonia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Орг&#1072... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Орг&#1072... The Ilinden Uprising as seen by the English daily The Times, Aug. ... KruÅ¡evo Republic was a short-lived republic proclaimed by the rebels of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising on 3 August 1903 in he city of KruÅ¡evo (then Ottoman Empire) - the first modern day republic in the Balkans. ... KruÅ¡evo Republic was a short-lived republic proclaimed by the rebels of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising on 3 August 1903 in he city of KruÅ¡evo (then Ottoman Empire) - the first modern day republic in the Balkans. ...


Following the two Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913 and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the wider region of Macedonia was divided between Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia was then named Južna Srbija, "Southern Serbia". After the First World War, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929, the Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into provinces called banovinas. So-called "Southern Serbia" (Vardar Macedonia), including all of what is now the Republic of Macedonia, became known as the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev The outcome... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija ; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern or Old Serbia ( Serbian:Јужна/Стара Србија , Južna/Stara Srbija) is an area in the north of the Macedonia region. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


In 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis Powers and the Vardar Banovina was divided between Bulgaria and Italian-occupied Albania. Local recruits and volunteers formed the Bulgarian 5th Army, based in Skopje, which was responsible for the round-up and deportation of over 7,000 Jews in Skopje and Bitola. Harsh rule by the occupying forces encouraged some Macedonians to support the Communist Partisan resistance movement of Josip Broz Tito. After the end of the Second World War, when Tito became Yugoslavia's president, the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established. The People's Republic of Macedonia became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav federation. Following the federation's renaming as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963, the People's Republic of Macedonia was likewise renamed, becoming the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. It dropped the "Socialist" from its name in 1991 when it peacefully seceded from Yugoslavia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 (May 25th according to official birth certificate) – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - dissolution June 25...


The country officially celebrates 8 September 1991 as Independence day (Ден на независноста), with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia, albeit legalizing participation in future union of the former states of Yugoslavia. The anniversary of the start of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising (St. Elijah's Day) on the 2 August is also widely celebrated on an official level. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic of Macedonia independence day (Den na nezavisnosta or Ден на независноста) is held on September 8. ... The Ilinden Uprising as seen by the English daily The Times, Aug. ...


The Republic of Macedonia remained at peace through the Yugoslav wars of the early 1990s. A few very minor changes to its border with Yugoslavia were agreed upon to resolve problems with the demarcation line between the two countries. However, it was seriously destabilized by the Kosovo War in 1999, when an estimated 360,000 ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo took refuge in the country. Although they departed shortly after the war, soon after, Albanian radicals on both sides of the border took up arms in pursuit of autonomy or independence for the Albanian-populated areas of the Republic. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about Albanians as an ethnic group. ... The National Liberation Army (Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare Kombëtare - UÇK ; Macedonian: Ослободителна национална армија - ОНА), also known as the Macedonian UÇK, is a military organization that operated in the Republic of Macedonia in 2001. ...


A short conflict was fought between government and ethnic Albanian rebels, mostly in the north and west of the country, between March and June 2001. This war ended with the intervention of a NATO ceasefire monitoring force. In the Ohrid Agreement, the government agreed to devolve greater political power and cultural recognition to the Albanian minority. The Albanian side agreed to surrender separatist demands and to fully recognise all Macedonian institutions. In addition, according to this accord, the NLA were to disarm and hand over their weapons to a NATO force. In 2005, the country was officially recognized as a European Union candidate state, under the reference "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Ali Ahmeti Strength 9,000 (State Army with Tanks APCs, Air Force and other heavy equipment) also some 4,000 - 5,000 NATO troops 1,000. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The Ohrid Agreement, or the Ohrid Framework Agreement was the peace deal signed by the government of the Republic of Macedonia and Albanian representatives in 2001. ...


Politics

President of the Republic of Macedonia, Branko Crvenkovski
President of the Republic of Macedonia, Branko Crvenkovski

The Republic of Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature (Собрание, Sobranie) and an independent judicial branch with a constitutional court. The Assembly is made up of 120 seats and the members are elected every four years. Politics of the Republic of Macedonia: From the CIA World Factbook 2000/2001, partially updated Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia conventional short form: none local long form: Republika Makedonija local short form: Makedonija abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M. Data code: MK Government type... Image File history File links Macedoniapresident1. ... Image File history File links Macedoniapresident1. ... Missing image Image:.jpg Branko Crvenkovski in Macedonian Бранко Црвенковски is the President of the Republic of Macedonia. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government. The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President of the Republic is elected every five years and he or she can be elected twice at most. The current President is Branko Crvenkovski. Missing image Image:.jpg Branko Crvenkovski in Macedonian Бранко Црвенковски is the President of the Republic of Macedonia. ...


With the passage of a new law and elections held in 2005, local government functions are divided between 78 municipalities (општини, opštini; singular: општина, opština). The capital, Skopje, is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as the "City of Skopje". Municipalities in the Republic of Macedonia are units of local self-government. Neighbouring municipalities may establish cooperative arrangements. In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ...


Judiciary power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council. The assembly appoints the judges.


The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically-based political parties representing the country's ethnic Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, the Republic's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians in areas where they predominate.


After a troublesome pre-election campaign, the country saw a relatively calm and democratic change of government in the elections held on 5 July 2006. The elections were marked by a decisive victory of the centre-right party VMRO-DPMNE led by Nikola Gruevski. The parliamentary election, 2006 in the Republic of Macedonia was held on 5 July 2006. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (Macedonian: Vnatrešno-Makedonska Revoluciona Organizacija-Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edintsvo), or VMRO-DPMNE is a political party in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Nikola Gruevski was the Minister of Finance in the VMRO-DPMNE government led by Ljubco Georgievski until September 2002. ...


Gruevski's decision to include the Democratic Party of Albanians in the new government, instead of the Democratic Union for Integration - Party for Democratic Prosperity coalition which won the majority of the Albanian votes, triggered protests throughout the Albanian-dominated parts of the country. The Democratic Party of Albanians (Partia Demokratike Shqiptare/Demokratska Partija na Albancite) is a political party of the ethnic Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia. ... DUI symbol The Democratic Union for Integration (Bashkimi Demokratik për Integrim, BDI, Demokratska Unija za Integracija, DUI) is the largest political party in the Republic of Macedonia among ethnic Albanians, and the third largest political party in all of Macedonia. ... The Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP is ethnic Albanian political party in the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Foreign relations

// The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...

General situation

The Republic of Macedonia is a member of a number of international organisations such as the United Nations, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, associate member of La Francophonie, World Trade Organization (WTO) etc. It is seeking to join NATO and the European Union, although its accession to either is unlikely to occur before 2008 and 2012, respectively. In December 2005, the leaders of the EU formally named it as a candidate country but did not set a date for starting entry talks. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe () is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into North Asia). ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ...


The United States Agency for International Development has underwritten a project called "Macedonia Connects" which has made the Republic of Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country its size or larger in the world. The Ministry of Education and Sciences reports that 461 schools (primary and secondary) are now connected to the internet. In addition, an Internet Service Provider (On.net), has created a MESH Network to provide WIFI services in the 11 largest cities/towns in the country. USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


Diplomatic representation

The Republic of Macedonia is represented abroad by embassies in the following countries: Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and the Vatican. Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ...


The Republic of Macedonia also maintains consulates or representative offices in Pristina, Kosovo (Serbia); Thessaloniki, Greece; Toronto, Canada; Detroit, USA; Istanbul, Turkey and Podgorica, Montenegro. There are also permanent missions at the UN, NATO, EU, UNESCO, Council of Europe, and FAO headquarters. There is currently no representation in Taiwan (Republic of China) since 2001 when diplomatic relations were formally severed between the two countries and the Macedonian embassy in Beijing was reopened. Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area...


Greece

The Republic of Macedonia generally has good relations with Greece and includes substantial foreign investment to the country from Greece. However, the naming dispute has inhibited the establishment of full diplomatic relations so far but has not prevented Greece and the Republic from engaging in military and security co-operation, cross-border investments, and cultural exchanges. The November 2005 European Commission report states that, "Relations with Greece have improved in the last few years. Greece is the most important investor in the country (57% of the total foreign investments) and trade has been constantly increasing." For the official position of the Hellenic Republic on its trade relations with the Republic, and on the name issue, see [3] and [4] For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


The November 2006 European Commission report states that,[5], "In December 2005 the two countries opened an Office for Consular, Economic and Trade Relations in Bitola and a Consulate in Thessaloniki respectively. Cooperation has developed in many areas, including transport, health, security, culture and customs. However, there has been no progress on the name issue which remains an open problem. Renewed efforts are needed, with a constructive approach, to find a negotiated and mutually acceptable solution on the name issue with Greece, under the auspices of the UN, within the framework of UN Security Council Resolutions (EEC) No 817/93 and (EEC) No 845/93, thereby contributing to regional cooperation and good neighbourly relations." The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


Former Greek foreign minister, M. Papakonstandinou, clearly expressed Athens' position towards the republic, "Greek interests demand that this state survives. It must exist [...] This is the firm position of [both ND and PASOK]." (ref: Interview with the minister. In, 'Andi' (weekly socio-political journal), Nr 588, 13 October 1995). Party logo New Democracy (ND, Greek: Νέα Δημοκρατία, Nea Dhimokratia), founded in 1974, is the main center-right liberal-conservative political party in Greece. ... The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Due to the dispute over the name, the United Nations agreed to a provisional reference — "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) (Macedonian: Поранешна Југословенска Република Македонија (ПЈРМ)) — when it became a member state in 1993 [6]. Most international organizations adopted the same convention, including the European Union, NATO, the International Monetary Fund, the European Broadcasting Union, and the International Olympic Committee, among others. The EU recognises the country as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and the negotiations with the EU are held using this reference [7], [8]. FYROM is also used as a provisional name in any discussion to which Greece is a party [9] but is inconsistently used by other countries. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... [[Image:Example. ... <marquee bgcolor=white><text color=lime> sup --> The European Broadcasting Union (EBU), known in French as LUnion Européenne de Radio-Télévision (UER), and unrelated to the European Union, was formed on 12 February 1950 by 23 broadcasting organisations from Europe and the Mediterranean at a conference... Bold textralf is gay IOC redirects here. ...


However, an increasing number of countries have abandoned the United Nations provisional reference and have recognised the country as the Republic of Macedonia instead. These include three of the five permanent UN Security Council members: the United States, Russia, and the People's Republic of China. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


From 1992 to 1995, the two countries also engaged in a dispute over the Republic's first flag, which incorporated the Vergina Sun symbol, a symbol of the ancient Kingdom of Macedon. Its adoption by the Republic of Macedonia, on 3 July 1992, was seen as a reaction by Skopje to Athens' pressure to change the name. This aspect of the dispute was permanently resolved after an interim accord between the two states, when the flag was changed by an act of parliament, in October 1995. Vergina Sun The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a sixteen-ray star symbol found in archaeological excavations in Vergina in northern Greece. ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Irredentist ethnic Macedonian groups, however, propagate the idea of United Macedonia, calling for the bringing of Greek and Bulgarian territories under the control of the Republic of Macedonia. A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. ...


Bulgaria

The Republic of Macedonia maintains uneven relations with the Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgaria was the first country to recognize Macedonian independence and the republic under its constitutional name. Many Macedonian students matriculate in Bulgarian universities. Bulgaria supports the Macedonian bid to enter the EU and NATO. It also donated a large amount of tanks, artillery and other materials to the Macedonian army.


According to Bulgarian media, there have been repeated cases of anti-Bulgarian violence towards citzens with a Bulgarian national background and desecrations [10]. The Bulgarian government maintains that there has been conducted in Macedonia an active propaganda against Bulgaria (the police being indifferent in this respect), and that Skopje maintains a harsh attitude towards its citizens with a Bulgarian background.[citation needed]


Issues have also been raised over what many Bulgarians view as appropriation and falsification of their history, and the treatment in the Republic of Macedonia of people espousing a Bulgarian national identity. The organization of the Bulgarian minority in the Republic of Macedonia Radko for example (which was later banned by the Macedonian Constitutional Court) had been publicly harassed after they claimed that there is no Macedonian ethnicity today, and the perpetrators were acclaimed as heroes by the media. [11]


Bulgaria is also concerned at repeated territorial claims against it, backed by the Skopje authorities; for instance, according to the new Macedonian encyclopedia (funded by the Ministry of Culture), some parts of Bulgaria are represented in Macedonia. [12]


Another point of contention in the relationship between the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria is the latter's refusal to recognise the existence of a separate Macedonian ethnicity, instead considering Macedonians to be Bulgarians and their language as a regional "norm" based on local Bulgarian dialects [13]. The so-called "language dispute", which started in 1993 and was effectively impeding diplomatic relations, was resolved in 1999 when the two governments adopted the formula "the official language in the Republic of Macedonia, and the official language in Bulgaria" in their bilateral agreements where they use the Macedonian and Bulgarian languages.[citation needed]


Similarly, the Bulgarian Constitutional Court has banned the political party of the ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria UMO Ilinden-Pirin as separatist; this measure was found not to be "proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued" on October 20, 2005 by the European Court of Human Rights. UMO Ilinden-Pirin (United Macedonian Organisation: Ilinden-Pirin) is a Macedonian organisation in Bulgaria, whose self-declared aims are protection of the human rights, language and nationality of the Macedonian minority in the country. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Turkey

Turkey has very close relations with the "Republic of Macedonia" and recognises this state with its constitutional name (Makedonya Cumhuriyeti) instead of FYROM. Official languages Macedonian language¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ...


European Union candidacy and membership

The EU leaders on the meeting held in Thessaloniki in 2003 [14] promised western Balkan countries that they will become an integral part of the EU, once they meet the established criteria. As part of the ongoing efforts to expand its membership, the European Union (EU) granted the Republic of Macedonia candidate status on 17 December 2005, but with no promise of when such negotiations could start. France had made a budget deal as a condition for granting the Republic of Macedonia candidate status and Greece agreed not to veto the decision on the premise that the name dispute will be resolved. The Republic of Macedonia applied for full membership on 22 March 2004. Vlado Bučkovski, then minister of defence and later prime minister, hailed the decision as a "one-way ticket" to the EU for his country. Official logo of the process for European integration of Republic of Macedonia The membership of the Republic of Macedonia in the European Union is the highest strategic interest and priority for the Republic of Macedonia, referred to by the European Union (EU) as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM... Coordinates 40°38′ N 22°57′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Macedonia Prefecture Thessaloniki [1] Population 352,658 source (2006) Metropolitan area population 976. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vlado Buckovski Vlado Bučkovski (Владо Бучковски) (born December 2, 1962 in Skopje) is the current prime minister of the Republic of Macedonia, elected by parliament on December 15, 2004. ...


The country is still included in the black visa list of the EU [15]. According to the EU, namely in accordance with its Copenhagen criteria, the main obstacles towards eventual EU membership for Republic of Macedonia concern good relations with neighbouring countries and reforms to its judicial and police systems. Also, growth rate lags behind that of most EU members, unemployment is high, and foreign investment is relatively low. The decentralisation process imposed after the six-month conflict in 2001 still requires full implementation. In principle, the relatively low population and European characteristics of the Republic promise few strains on the EU budget. At a press conference held in March 2006, German chancellor Angela Merkel suggested a privileged partnership for potential members. Following the rejection of the EU constitution by the French and Dutch voters, the EU is in a period of reflection (time to decide what to do next) that can last for several years. This decision seems to delay the prospect of EU membership for candidates like Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Turkey for some period. The French have warned that they want strict application of the notion of absorption capacity for the EU - a concept which has existed since 1993 but which has rarely been highlighted. The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... The term absorption capacity (as a part of EU Cohesion Rolicy) stands for the degree to which a country is able to effectively and efficiently spend the financial resources received from the European Funds. ...


Another problem in the relations between the EU and the Republic of Macedonia is the EU visa regime with the country, fostering resentment and inhibiting progress on trade, business, education etc, contributing negatively to regional stability. [16].


In February 2006, the Republic became the fourth member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), joining Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. CEFTA acts as 'sandbox' to encourage joint efforts for the integration of participating countries in Western European institutions and look for opportunities for close economic and political co-operation.  member states  former member states  prospective member states The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Look up sandbox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The naming dispute with Greece remains an unresolved issue in the country's accession to the EU. On August 29, 2006, the Greek foreign minister, Ms.Dora Bakoyannis, affirmed that "...the Hellenic Parliament, under any composition, will not ratify the accession of the neighbouring country to the EU and NATO if the name issue is not resolved beforehand."[4] // The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. ... Dora Bakoyianni Dora Bakoyianni (born 1954), is the mayor of Athens, capital of Greece. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


More recently, EU sources have confirmed that the Republic of Macedonia's hope of starting accession talks next year cannot succeed, since its new prime minister Nikola Gruevski has shut out the former Yugoslav republic's ethnic Albanian minority and has politicised many state institutions.[5] Nikola Gruevski was the Minister of Finance in the VMRO-DPMNE government led by Ljubco Georgievski until September 2002. ... Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, according to the 1981 census. ...


Administrative divisions

Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia
Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia

In August 2004, the Republic of Macedonia was reorganized into 84 municipalities (opštini; sing. opština), 10 of which comprise Greater Skopje. This is reduced from the previous 123 municipalities established in September, 1996. Prior to this, local government was organized into 34 administrative districts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1025x624, 19 KB) Summary Map of the municipalities of Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1025x624, 19 KB) Summary Map of the municipalities of Macedonia. ... The municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia are first-order administrative divisions. ... Greater Skopje (Macedonian: Големо Скопје, Golemo Skopje), is an administrative division within the Republic of Macedonia constituted of 10 municipalities. ...

Geography

The Republic of Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ...


The Republic's terrain is mostly rugged, located between the Šara and Rhodope, which frame the valley of the Vardar river. Three large lakes — Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Dojran Lake — lie on the southern borders of the Republic, bisected by the frontiers with Albania and Greece. Ohrid is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world [17]. The region is seismically active and has been the site of destructive earthquakes in the past, most recently in 1963 when Skopje was heavily damaged by a major earthquake, killing over 1,000. The Sharr mountains Albanian Malet e Sharrit, Sharr) Å ar mountain (Serbian and Macedonian Шар Планина, Å ar Planina; is a mountain located on the southern border of Serbia and Montenegro (in Kosovo) and the northwest part of Republic of Macedonia. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: Родопи, Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: Ροδόπη, Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Vardar in Skopje Axios redirects here. ... Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ... Map Satellite image Prespa is the name of two freshwater lakes in southeast Europe, shared by Greece, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Dojran Lake (Macedonian: Доjранско Езеро; Greek: λίμνη Δοϊράνη) is a lake with an area of 43. ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ...


The Republic of Macedonia also has scenic mountains. They belong to two different ranges: Dinarska and Rodopska. The Dinarska range is the oldest with subsequent erosion; the Rodopska range is younger offering rugged, alpine sceneries. Ten highest mountains in the Republic of Macedonia:

Mount Korab 2,764 m 9,396 ft
Šar Mountain 2,747 m 9,012 ft
Baba Mountain 2,601 m 8,533 ft
Jakupica 2,540 m 8,333 ft
Nidze 2,521 m 8,271 ft
Deshat 2,373 m 7,785 ft
Galichica 2,288 m 7,507 ft
Stogovo 2,273 m 7,457 ft
Jablanica 2,257 m 7,405 ft
Osogovo 2,251 m 7,383 ft
Mount Bistra 2,163 m 7,096 ft
Plachkovica 1,754 m 5,754 ft

The Korab Mountain range Korab Mountain landscape Mount Korab is the highest mountain of both Albania and Republic of Macedonia at the border of the two states. ... The Sharr mountains Albanian Malet e Sharrit, Sharr) Šar mountain (Serbian and Macedonian Шар Планина, Šar Planina; is a mountain located on the southern border of Serbia and Montenegro (in Kosovo) and the northwest part of Republic of Macedonia. ... Pelister mountain Baba Mountain overlooks the city of Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Jakupica (Macedonian:Јакупица) is a mountain range in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Nidze (Macedonian: Ниџе) is a mountain situated in the south-western part of the Macedonia. ... Deshat is a mountain on the border between the Republic of Macedonia and Albania. ... Galichica mountain is situated in the Republic of Macedonia and one part in Albania. ... Stogovo is a mountain in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Jablanica is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Osogovo (Bulgarian and Macedonian Cyrillic: Осогово) or Osogovska Planina (Осоговска планина or Осоговска Планина) is a mountain between southwestern Bulgaria (Kyustendil Province) and northeastern Republic of Macedonia. ... Bistra (English: Clear mountain) is one of the most interesting mountains in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Plačkovica (Macedonian: Плачковица, English: Plachkovica) is a mountain near the city of Radovish, in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Big Lake (2218 m) – glacier lake on Pelister Mountain The Republic of Macedonia is mainly mountainous country. ...

Economy

Today the Republic of Macedonia is considered a country with an intermediary-developed industry, with continuing growth of the industrial production. The process of transition in the economy was triggered in 1995. The government has signed arrangements with the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank. It has an open economy that is integrating into international trade, with a total trade-to-GDP ratio of 79.5%. The most important sectors are agriculture and industry. The service sector also grew in the past few years. The work force has competitive education and skills, but lacks adequate jobs, leading to steady brain drain. The country's economic policy is to attract foreign investments and to increase employment. One of the biggest features of the country's economy is the fiscal discipline which maintained a stable currency for a long period. The country also makes efforts to develop the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise sector. Economy - overview: The breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991 deprived F.Y.R.O.M. (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), then its poorest republic (only 5% of the total federal output of goods and services), of its key protected markets and large transfer payments from the center. ... [[Image:Example. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals (human capital) to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, or health hazards where they are living. ...


Looking back, the country together with Montenegro, Bosnia and Hercegovina and Kosovo belonged to the less developed regions in the former Yugoslavia. It suffered severe economic difficulties after independence, when the Yugoslav internal market collapsed and subsidies from Belgrade ended. In addition, it faced many of the same problems faced by other former socialist East European countries during the transition to a market economy. Its main land and rail exports route, through Serbia, remains unreliable with high transit costs, thereby affecting the export of its formerly highly profitable, early vegetables market to Germany. Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet, Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ...


The outbreak of the Yugoslav wars and the imposition of sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro caused great damage to the Republic's economy, with Serbia constituting 60% of its markets prior to the disintegration of Yugoslavia. When Greece imposed a trade embargo on the Republic in 1994–95, the economy was also affected. Some relief was afforded by the end of the Bosnian war in November 1995 and the lifting of the Greek embargo, but the Kosovo War of 1999 and the 2001 Albanian crisis caused further destabilization. Since the end of the Greek embargo, Greece has become the most important business partner of the Republic of Macedonia. Many Greek companies have bought former state companies in the country, such as the oil refinery Okta, the baking company Zhito Luks, a marble mine in Prilep, textile facilities in Bitola etc. Other key partners are Germany, Italy and Slovenia. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Prilep municipality Elevation 620 – 650 m Population 76 768 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 048 Postal code 7500 Car plates PP Official Website www. ... City motto : Битола, бабам Битола (Bitola, babam Bitola) Coordinates Municipality : Bitola municipality Elevation 576 m Population 95 385 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 047 Postal code 7000 Car plates BT Official Website www. ...


The Macedonian economy has since made a sluggish recovery, though the extent of unemployment, the grey market, corruption and a relatively ineffective legal system keep the growth rate low and cause significant problems. The Republic still has one of the lowest per capita GDPs in Europe. The official unemployment rate is 36%. The active population numbers about 900,000 people with about 320,000 of them unemployed. However, many of the employed go unreported. This is reflected in the large grey market, estimated at close to 20% of GDP.[6] An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose by 3.4% in 2003, 2.9% in 2004, and 3.7% in 2005. The current government has announced plans to introduce flat tax system with the intention to make the country more attractive location for prospective foreign investors. The flat tax rate will amount to 12% in 2007 and will be further lowered to 10% in 2008.[18] A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ...


Demographics

// Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia , Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ...

Population

The Republic of Macedonia has a population of approximately 2,070,000 citizens, according to the last population census in 2002 with 58% of the population living in urban areas. Following is a list of the largest Macedonian cities according to the 1994 census data as more recent census does not list city populations [19] and municipalities according to the 2002 census data: [20] 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...

Largest Macedonian cities and municipalities
City Population Coat
of arms
Administrative division Population
Skopje 444,000 Greater Skopje 506,926
Bitola 80,000 Bitola municipality 95,385
Kumanovo 71,000 Kumanovo municipality 105,484
Prilep 68,000 Prilep municipality 76,768
Tetovo 60,000 Tetovo municipality 86,580
Gostivar 46,000 Gostivar municipality 81,042
Štip 42,000 Štip municipality 47,796
Ohrid 51,000 Ohrid municipality 55,749
Veles 48,000 Veles municipality 55,108
Strumica 40,000 Strumica municipality 54,676
Kočani 27,000 Kočani municipality 38,092
Radoviš 16,223 Radoviš municipality 28,244

Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... Image File history File links MMCA(Skopje). ... Greater Skopje (Macedonian: Големо Скопје, Golemo Skopje), is an administrative division within the Republic of Macedonia constituted of 10 municipalities. ... City motto : Битола, бабам Битола (Bitola, babam Bitola) Coordinates Municipality : Bitola municipality Elevation 576 m Population 95 385 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 047 Postal code 7000 Car plates BT Official Website www. ... Bitola (Macedonian:Битола) is a municipality in northweastern Macedonia. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Kumanovo municipality Elevation 340 m Population 105 484 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 031 Postal code 1300 Car plates KU Official Website www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x604, 353 KB) Опис Coat of arms of Kumanovo municipality Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Kumanovo (Macedonian:Куманово) is a municipality in northern Macedonia. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Prilep municipality Elevation 620 – 650 m Population 76 768 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 048 Postal code 7500 Car plates PP Official Website www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x781, 549 KB) Опис Coat of arms of Prilep municipality. ... Municipality center Prilep Mayor Marjan Ristevski Municipality area 1194,44 km² Population  - density 76 768 64,27 people/km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Status Urban municipality Area code +389 048 Car plates PP Postal code 2 7500 Official Website www. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Tetovo municipality Elevation 486 m Population 80 841 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 044 Postal code 1200 Car plates TE Official Website tetovo. ... Image File history File links MMCA(Tetovo). ... Tetovo (Macedonian:Тетово) is a municipality in northwestern Macedonia. ... Gostivar-view on the city center Gostivar (Macedonian: Гостивар; Albanian: Gostivari) is city in the Republic of Macedonia, located in the upper Polog region. ... [[Image:|250px|center|Location of Gostivar municipality]] Municipality center Gostivar Mayor [[]] Municipality area km² Population  - density 81,042 people/km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Status [[]] Area code +389 Car plates Postal code Official Website [http:// ] Gostivar (Macedonian: Гостивар) is a municipality in western Republic... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Å tip municipality Elevation m Population 46 732 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 032 Postal code 2000 Car plates Å T Official Website www. ... Image File history File links MMCA(Shtip). ... Municipality center Å tip Mayor Pande Sarev Municipality area 583,24 km² Population  - density 47 796 81,95 people/km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Status Urban municipality Area code +389 032 Car plates Å T Postal code 2000 Official Website www. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 046 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Image File history File links MMCA(Ohrid). ... Municipality of Ohrid (Macedonian:Општина Охрид) is a municipality in the South western part of the Macedonia. ... Veles is a city in the center of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river. ... Veles (Macedonian:Велес) is a municipality in central Macedonia. ... Strumica (Macedonian/Bulgarian: Струмица, Greek: Στρώμνιτσα Stromnitsa, Turkish: Usturumca) is a city of about 55,000 people in southeastern Republic of Macedonia. ... [[Image:|250px|center|Location of Strumica municipality]] Municipality center Strumica Mayor [[]] Municipality area km² Population  - density 54,676 people/km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Status [[]] Area code +389 Car plates Postal code Official Website [http:// ] Strumica (Macedonian: Струмица) is a municipality in eastern Republic... Category: ... Municipality center Kočani Mayor Ljubomir Janev Municipality area 375,44 km² Population  - density 38 092 105,71 people/km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Status Urban municipality Area code +389 033 Car plates Å T Postal code 2300 Official Website www. ... Centre of Radovish RadoviÅ¡ (Macedonian: Радовиш) is positioned in the southeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Centre of Radovish RadoviÅ¡ (Macedonian: Радовиш) is positioned in the southeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... This is a list of cities in the Republic of Macedonia. ...

Ethnicities

Ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia, according to the 2002 census
Ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia, according to the 2002 census

The largest ethnic group in the country are the Macedonians. According to the 2002 census,[7] 1,297,981 inhabitants declared themselves to be Macedonians, representing 64.18% of the total population. Approximately 509,083 inhabitants are declared as Albanians, representing 25.17% of the population. Smaller ethnic minorities include Turks (77,959 or 3.85%), Roma (53,879 or 2.66%), Serbs (35,939 or 1.78%), Bosniaks (17,018 or 0.84%), Vlachs (9,695 or 0.48%), and other (20,993 or 1.04%). The Macedonian national census records most ethnic groups, but the smaller ones are not enumerated separately in the final report. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 639 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (801 × 752 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png)Ethnic map of the Republic of Macedonia (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 639 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (801 × 752 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png)Ethnic map of the Republic of Macedonia (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Bosniaks (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slav people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Kosovo and Macedonia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Languages

A wide variety of languages are spoken in the Republic of Macedonia, reflecting its ethnic diversity. The official and most widely spoken language is Macedonian, which belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group. Structurally, it is closer to Bulgarian than any other Slavonic language. Its current form was codified after World War II and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Other languages including Albanian, Bulgarian, Romani, Turkish, Serbian, Vlach (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian), Circassian, Greek and others are spoken roughly in proportion with their associated ethnic groups. Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba aromână, limba armânească, armâneashti or armãneshce) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... The Kabardian language is a Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ...


Macedonian is the only language designated as the country's official national language. Languages spoken by over 20% of the total population can be used for some official purposes, in some allowed areas (at present only Albanian fulfils this requirement), in municipalities where at least 20% of the population is from other ethnic minorities their individual languages are used for official purposes in local government.


Religion

The majority of the population belongs to the Macedonian Orthodox Church (64.7%). Muslims comprise 33.3% of the population and other Christian denominations comprise 0.37%. The remainder (1.63%) is recorded as "unspecified" in the 2002 national census[21]. Most of the native Albanians, Turks and Bosniaks are Muslims, as are a minority of the country's ethnic Macedonian population, known as Macedonian Muslims. Altogether, there are more than 1200 churches and 400 mosques in the country. The Orthodox and Islamic religious communities have secondary religion schools in Skopje. There is an Orthodox theological college in the capital. Percentagewise, the country has the largest muslim population in Europe after Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Latinic: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Macedonian Muslims (Macedonian:Македонци Муслимани), also known as Muslim Macedonians or Torbesh (the later name is somewhat pejorative and means the bag carriers), are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Muslims. ...


Macedonian Orthodox Church

The Macedonian Orthodox Church has issues with the Serbian Orthodox Church after the separation and self-declaration of autocephaly (not recognized by any other Orthodox church) in 1967. After the negotiations between the two churches were suspended, the Serbian Orthodox Church recognized a schismatic group lead by Zoran Vranishkovski (also known as Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid, recognised by all other Eastern Orthodox Churches), a former Macedonian church bishop, as the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric. The reaction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church was to cut-off all relations with the clergy of the Ohrid Archbishopric and to prevent bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church from entering the Republic of Macedonia. Bishop Jovan was jailed for 18 months for defaming the Macedonian Orthodox church and harming the religious feelings of local citizens. [22]. The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Latinic: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... Zoran Vraniškovski (so-called Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid) was born on February 28, 1966 in Bitola, Republic of Macedonia where he completed primary and secondary school education. ... The Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (Macedonian: Pravoslavna Ohridska Arhiepiskopija) was formed in 2002 following a failure in negotiations between the Serbian Orthodox Church and the canonically-unconstitutional and unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC). ...


The Macedonian State Religion Commission denies the group to be registered as a religious group saying that only one group may be registered for each confession and that the name was not sufficiently distinct from that of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. The Macedonian church had acquired documents confirming direct involvement of the Serbian government in financing the activities of the group, seen as interference in the internal affairs of another sovereign state by the Macedonian President Crvenkovski. [23]. The Macedonian President also rejected the request of the Head of the Serbian Orthodox Church for abolition of Zoran Vranishkovski (set as a main condition for resumption of negotiations between two churches by the Serbian Patriarch). Vranishkovski is convicted of misappropriate usage of a large sum of money donated to the Macedonian Orthodox Church. [24]

The Republic of Macedonia is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the U.N. Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Convention against Torture, and the Macedonian Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Macedonian citizens. ...

Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church

The Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church (also known as the Macedonian Greek Catholic Church) has approximately 11,000 adherents in the Republic. The Church was established in 1918, and is made up mostly of converts to Catholicism and their descendents. The Church is a Byzantine Rite within the Roman Catholic Church, and conducts its liturgy in Macedonian. The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, called the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular church within Roman Catholic Church and uses Macedonian in the liturgy. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


Jewish Community

The Jewish community of the Republic of Macedonia, which numbered some 7,200 people on the eve of World War II, was almost entirely destroyed during the War, with only 2% of Macedonian Jews surviving the Holocaust. After their liberation and the end of the War, most opted to emigrate to Israel. Today, the country's Jewish community numbers approximately 200 people, almost all of whom live in Skopje. Most Macedonian Jews are Sephardic - the descendants of 15th century refugees who had fled the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. The word Jew ( Hebrew: &#1497;&#1492;&#1493;&#1491;&#1497;) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (&#1505;&#1508;&#1512;&#1491;&#1497;, Standard Hebrew S&#601;fardi, Tiberian Hebrew S&#601;p&#772;ardî; plural Sephardim: &#1505;&#1508;&#1512;&#1491;&#1497;&#1501;, Standard Hebrew S&#601;fardim, Tiberian Hebrew S&#601;p&#772;ardîm) is a Jew original to the...

The history of Jews in the Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times, when Jews first arrived in Illyricum in the 6th Century BC. Today, no more than 200 Jews remain in the Republic of Macedonia, almost all in the capital, Skopje. ...

Protestant Community

There is a small Protestant community. The most famous Protestant in the country is the former president Boris Trajkovski. He was from the Methodist Community, which is the largest and oldest Protestant Church in the Republic, dating back to the late nineteenth century. Since the 1980s the small Protestant community has grown, partly through new confidence and partly with outside missionary help. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Boris (Kiril) Trajkovski (June 25, 1956 - February 26, 2004) (&#1041;&#1086;&#1088;&#1080;&#1089; &#1058;&#1088;&#1072;&#1112;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080; in Cyrillic) was a president of the Republic of Macedonia (1999 - 2004). ...


Education

The Macedonian education system consists of:

The higher levels of education can be obtained at one of the three state universities: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola and State University of Tetovo. There is a number of private university institutions, such as the European University [25], Slavic University in Sveti Nikole, the South East European University and others. A kindergarten classroom in Afghanistan. ... A large elementary school in Magome, Japan. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The Ss. ... The St. ... State University of Tetovo Established: 1994 The State University of Tetovo (Macedonian: Државен универзитет во Тетово and Albanian: Universiteti Shtetëror i Tetovës) is one of the three Macedonian state universities and it is located in Tetovo. ... Universitys emblem South East European University (SEE University), located in Tetovo, in western part of the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Culture

See also: Macedonian culture (Slavic)

The Republic of Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites. Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. Macedonian culture is the culture of the Macedonian population of the Balkan region, known in the 20th century as Vardar Macedonia or the current Republic of Macedonia. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organised sounds and silence. ...


Macedonian music styles developed under the strong influence of Byzantine church music. The Republic of Macedonia is amongst one of the countries with the most beautiful preserved Byzantine fresco paintings, mainly from the period between the 11th and 16th centuries. There are several thousands square metres of fresco painting preserved, the major part of which is in very good condition and represent masterworks of the Macedonian School of ecclesiastical painting.


In the Republic of Macedonia the past meets the present. Its age-old architecture and monasteries and churches of exquisite beauty make an interesting contrast to the super modern new architecture. Most of the Macedonian monasteries, built in various periods, and particularly those built between the 11th and 15th–16th centuries, have been completely preserved until today. The Macedonian collection of icons, and in particular the Ohrid ones, are among the most valuable collections in the world today. After the Sinai and the Moscow collection of icons, it is third in importance in Orthodoxy. From a Byzantological aspect, it is unique.


The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga Poetry evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, Skopje May Opera Evenings, International Camera Festival in Bitola, Open Youth Theatre and Jazz festivals in Skopje etc. City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 046 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... 69. ... City motto : Битола, бабам Битола (Bitola, babam Bitola) Coordinates Municipality : Bitola municipality Elevation 576 m Population 95 385 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 047 Postal code 7000 Car plates BT Official Website www. ...

. ... The Republic of Macedonia is a diverse country, with a Macedonian majority (65%) and a large Albanian minority (25%), and Turks, Cincars, Gypsies, Greeks and Serbs. ... The Macedonian language (Macedonian: , Latinic: ) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... 1–2 January : New Year – Нова Година 7 January : Christmas Day (Orthodox) – Прв ден Божиќ Easter Sunday (Orthodox) – Прв ден Велигден Easter Monday (Orthodox) – Втор ден Велигден 1–2 May : Labour Days – Ден на трудот 2 August : National (Ilinden Uprising) Day – Илинден 8 September : Independence Day – Ден на независноста 11 October: Revolution Day – Ден на востанието Category: ...

Gallery

See also

Portal:Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia Portal

Image File history File links Flag-map_of_FYR_Macedonia. ... This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 408,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,362 (1997) Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998) Radios: 410,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 136 (1997) Televisions: 510,000 (1997) Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999) Internet... // The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Armed Forces of the Republic of Macedonia {Macedonian (Slavonic) Армијата на Република Македонија} were formed in 1992 after withdrawal of Yugoslav Peoples Army which left behind only small number of infantry weapons and four broken World War 2 T-34 tanks to equip new army. ... // Railways total: 699 km standard gauge: 699 km 1. ... 1–2 January : New Year – Нова Година 7 January : Christmas Day (Orthodox) – Прв ден Божиќ Easter Sunday (Orthodox) – Прв ден Велигден Easter Monday (Orthodox) – Втор ден Велигден 1–2 May : Labour Days – Ден на трудот 2 August : National (Ilinden Uprising) Day – Илинден 8 September : Independence Day – Ден на независноста 11 October: Revolution Day – Ден на востанието Category: ...

Notes

  1. ^ United Nations Resolution 225 (1993)
  2. ^ www.cs.indiana.edu
  3. ^ [1] Mi-An Publishing House
  4. ^ Embassy of Greece - Washington, DC (English). Answer of FM Ms. D. Bakoyannis regarding the FYROM name issue. Retrieved on September 11, 2006.
  5. ^ Euronews.net. Western Balkans told 'hold' for EU membership. Retrieved on November 2, 2006.
  6. ^ The 2006 CIA Factbook [2]
  7. ^ http://www.stat.gov.mk/pdf/kniga_13.pdf

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Republic of Macedonia - From a Member State of the Yugoslav Federation to a Sovereign and Independent State (1870 words)
Expressing the determination of the Republic of Macedonia to oppose any kind of disrespect for its territorial integrity and sovereignty, the Declaration confirms the Republic's determination to adhere strictly to the principle that all problems in mutual relations should be solved in a peaceful manner by way of negotiations and mutual respect (Article 4).
According to the constitutional provisions, the borders of the Republic of Macedonia may be changed only in conformity with the Constitution and the principle of voluntariness and in conformity with generally accepted international standards.
This means that the state border of the Republic may only be changed by a decision of the Assembly, passed by a two-thirds majority vote of the total number of representatives and adopted in a referendum by a majority vote of the total number of voters in the Republic.
Republic of Macedonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4892 words)
The basic problem in the relationship between the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria is the latter's refusal to recognise the existence of a separate Macedonian ethnicity, instead considering Macedonians to be Bulgarians and their language as a Bulgarian dialect [4].
The Republic of Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges.
The Republic of Macedonia has a population of approximately 2,070,000 citizens, according to the last population census in 2002 with 58% of the population living in urban areas.
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