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Encyclopedia > Republic of Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, the Republic of Korea borders North Korea, with which it formed a single nation until 1948. Its division was finalized by the Korean War. Japan lies across the sea. The country is commonly called Hanguk ("Han Nation", 한국; 韓國) or Namhan ("South Han", 남한; 南韓) by South Koreans and Namjosŏn ("South Chosŏn", 남조선; 南朝鮮) in North Korea. The capital is Seoul (서울). The Korean language is the most widely used language in Korea, and is the official language of both North and South Korea. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Hanja (lit. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Joseon (Cháoxiǎn (朝鲜) in Chinese; Chosen (朝鮮) in Japanese) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon Dynasty, when the countrys full official name was... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ...

대한 민국
(Daehan Minguk)
Image:South_korea_coa.png
(In Detail)
National motto: 널리 인간을 이롭게 하라
Translation: Bring benefit to all people
Image:LocationSouthKorea.png
Official language Korean
Capital Seoul
President Roh Moo-hyun
Prime Minister Lee Hae-chan
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 107th
99,274 km²
0.3%
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density
Ranked 24th
48,289,037
488/km²
Establishment
-Declaration of Republic
-Japanese Surrender
-Constitution

March 1, 1919
August 15, 1945
July 17, 1948
GDP
 - Total (2005 est.)
 - GDP/head
Ranked 12th
$1,099 billion
$22,543
Currency Won
Time zone UTC +9
National anthem Aegukga
Internet TLD .kr
Calling Code 82
edit  (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:South_Korea_infobox&action=edit)
Contents

3.1 Special City
3.2 Metropolitan Cities
3.3 Provinces
Taegeukgi: National Flag of Republic of Korea For more information, see Cheong Wa Dae, Office of the President, Republic of Korea. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Pepsi South Korea List of national coats of arms Template:South Korea infobox Template talk:Korea infobox ... The flag of South Korea is white with a red (top) and blue Yin Yang symbol in the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes, called Yeok in Korean) in each corner of the white field. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Location map for South Korea File links The following pages link to this file: South Korea User:DanielZm/test Template:South Korea infobox Template talk:Korea infobox Categories: GFDL images ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The Korean language is the most widely used language in Korea, and is the official language of both North and South Korea. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... The President is head of state of South Korea. ... Roh Moo-hyun (born September 1 (August 6 in lunar calendar), 1946) has been the President of South Korea since February 25, 2003. ... The Prime Minister of South Korea (국무총리 ; Gukmuchongri) is appointed by the President of South Korea with the National Assemblys approval. ... ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... The Establishment is a generalized, mostly negative term used in Western societies to refer to the controlling (elite) structures of those societies. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... Won is the official currency used in both South Korea and North Korea. ... -1... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... Aegukga is also the name of the national anthem of North Korea. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. ... .kr is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for South Korea. ...

History

Main articles: Korea, History of Korea, History of South Korea Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... This article is about the history of Korea. ... See History of Korea for a history of the Korean peninsula before the establishment of the Republic of Korea. ...


After the end of World War II in 1945, the world's superpowers divided Korea into two zones of influence, followed in 1948 by two matching governments: a communist North and a United States-influenced South. In June 1950, the Korean War started. The United Nations-backed South and the USSR-backed North eventually reached a stalemate and an armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the peninsula along the demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel, which had been the original demarcation line. Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Map of the Korean DMZ. The DMZ is given in red, the demarcation line runs in the middle of the DMZ (black line). ... The 38th parallel north is a line latitude that cuts across Asia and North America. ...


Thereafter, the southern Republic of Korea, under the autocratic government of Syngman Rhee and the dictatorship of Park Chung Hee, achieved rapid economic growth. Civil unrest dominated politics until protests succeeded in overthrowing the dictatorship and installing a more democratic form of government in the 1980s. A potential Korean reunification has remained a prominent topic; no peace treaty has yet been signed with the North. In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place, part of the South's continuing "Sunshine Policy" of engagement, despite recent concerns over the North's nuclear weapons program. Syngman Rhee (March 26, 1875 - July 19, 1965) was a Korean politician and the first president of South Korea. ... Park Chung-hee (September 30, 1917 - October 26, 1979) was President of South Korea from 1961 to 1979. ... Unification Flag of Korea The Korean reunification is the possible future unification of North Korea and South Korea under a single government. ... The sunshine policy is part of South Koreas foreign policy towards North Korea. ... North Korea has been attempting to obtain nuclear weapons since the late 1970s. ...


See also: Rulers of Korea, Division of Korea Korea has been ruled by a number of kingdoms/empires and republics over the last several millennia. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line On August 10, 1945 there was a meeting of commissions of the ministry of the exterior, the ministry of war and the ministry of marines. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of South Korea Government South Korea is a republic with powers shared between the President of South Korea and the legislature called the National Assembly. ...


The head of state of the Republic of Korea is the president, who is elected by direct popular vote for a single five-year term. In addition to being the highest representative of the republic and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the president also has considerable executive powers and appoints the prime minister with approval of parliament, as well as appointing and presiding over the State Council or cabinet. A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their power status on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Executive can mean: Executive (government), a branch of government; A functionary in a commercial or non-commercial organisation. ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The unicameral Korean parliament is the National Assembly or kukhae (국회), whose members serve a four-year term of office. The legislature currently has 299 seats, of which 243 are elected by regional vote and the remainder are distributed by the proportional representation ballot. The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, whose justices are appointed by the president with the consent of parliament. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... National Assembly South Korean Parliament(Gukhoe in Korean). ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Provinces and cities

Main article: Administrative divisions of South Korea. Administrative divisions of South Korea South Korea is divided into 1 Special City (Teukbyeolsi), 6 Metropolitan Cities (Gwangyeoksi), and 9 Provinces (Do). ...


South Korea consists of 1 Special City (Teukbyeolsi; 특별시; 特別市), 6 Metropolitan Cities (Gwangyeoksi, singular and plural; 광역시; 廣域市), and 9 Provinces (do, singular and plural; 도; 道). The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangul, and Hanja. The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Hanja (lit. ...


Special City

  • Seoul Special City (Seoul Teukbyeolsi; 서울 특별시; 서울特別市)

Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ...

Metropolitan Cities

  • Busan Metropolitan City (Busan Gwangyeoksi; 부산 광역시; 釜山廣域市)
  • Daegu Metropolitan City (Daegu Gwangyeoksi; 대구 광역시; 大邱廣域市)
  • Incheon Metropolitan City (Incheon Gwangyeoksi; 인천 광역시; 仁川廣域市)
  • Gwangju Metropolitan City (Gwangju Gwangyeoksi; 광주 광역시; 光州廣域市)
  • Daejeon Metropolitan City (Daejeon Gwangyeoksi; 대전 광역시; 大田廣域市)
  • Ulsan Metropolitan City (Ulsan Gwangyeoksi; 울산 광역시; 蔚山廣域市)

Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... Daegu Metropolitan City is the third largest city in South Korea. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... This article is about Gwangju Metropolitan City in South Korea. ... Daejeon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city in the centre of South Korea, and the capital of South Chungcheong Province. ... Ulsan is a metropolitan city in the south east of South Korea. ...

Provinces

  • Gyeonggi Province (Gyeonggi-do; 경기도; 京畿道)
  • Gangwon Province (Gangwon-do; 강원도; 江原道)
  • North Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongbuk-do; 충청 북도; 忠清北道)
  • South Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongnam-do; 충청 남도; 忠清南道)
  • North Jeolla Province (Jeollabuk-do; 전라 북도; 全羅北道)
  • South Jeolla Province (Jeollanam-do; 전라 남도; 全羅南道)
  • North Gyeongsang Province (Gyeongsangbuk-do; 경상 북도; 慶尚北道)
  • South Gyeongsang Province(Gyeongsangnam-do; 경상 남도; 慶尚南道)
  • Jeju Province (Jeju-do; 제주도; 濟州道)

See also: Provinces of Korea and Special cities of Korea for historical information. Gyeonggi is the most populous province in South Korea. ... Gangwon (Gangwon-do) is a province in South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. ... North Chungcheong is a province in the centre of South Korea. ... South Chungcheong is a province in the west of South Korea. ... North Jeolla is a province in the southwest of South Korea. ... South Jeolla is a province in the southwest of South Korea. ... North Gyeongsang is a province in eastern South Korea. ... South Gyeongsang is a province in the southeast of South Korea. ... Jeju is the largest island and smallest province in South Korea, and the name of islands largest city and provincial capital (see Jeju City). ... (Note: This page is currently under construction. ... In North and South Korea, Special cities, Metropolitan Cities, and Directly Governed Cities are cities that have a status equivalent to that of Provinces (Do). ...


Geography

Map of South Korea

Main articles: Geography of South Korea Download high resolution version (591x679, 42 KB)This is a map of South Korea showing major settlements. ... Download high resolution version (591x679, 42 KB)This is a map of South Korea showing major settlements. ... South Korea is located in Eastern Asia, on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the East Sea and the Yellow Sea. ...


Korea forms a peninsula that extends some 1,100 km from the Asian mainland, flanked by the Yellow Sea ("West Sea") to the west and the East Sea (Sea of Japan) to the east, and terminated by the Korea Strait and the South Sea (East China Sea) to the south. The southern landscape consists of partially forested mountain ranges to the east, separated by deep, narrow valleys. Densely populated and cultivated coastal plains are found in the west and south. Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... A peninsula is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body that is surrounded by water on three sides. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... The Yellow Sea (in North and South Korea, it is also called the West Sea (strangely not disputed like East Sea) is the northern part of the East China Sea, which in turn is a part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The Sea of Japan, known as the East Sea in South Korea, the East Sea of Korea in North Korea, and the Japan Sea in China, is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bound by the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu and Sakhalin island to the...


The local climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma, and winters that can be bitterly cold on occasion. South Korea's (current) capital and largest city is Seoul in the northwest, other major cities include nearby Incheon, central Daejeon, Gwangju in the southwest and Daegu and Busan in the southeast. Map of the climate of the Earth The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... Daejeon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city in the centre of South Korea, and the capital of South Chungcheong Province. ... This article is about Gwangju Metropolitan City in South Korea. ... Daegu Metropolitan City is the third largest city in South Korea. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ...


See also: regions of Korea Korea has traditionally been divided into a number of unofficial regions that reflect historical, geographical, and dialect boundaries within the peninsula. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of South Korea South Koreas economic growth over the past 30 years has been spectacular. ...


As one of the four East Asian Tigers, South Korea has achieved an impressive record of growth and integration into the global economy making South Korea the 11th largest economy in the world. In the aftermath of WWII, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorest countries of Africa and Asia. Then the Korean War made conditions in Korea even worse. Today its GDP per capita is roughly 20 times North Korea's and equal to the medium economies of the European Union. The East Asian Tigers, sometimes also referred to as Asias Four Little Dragons, referred to the economies of Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Singapore; these territories and nations were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ...


This success through the late 1980s was achieved by a system of close government-business ties, including directed credit, import restrictions, sponsorship of specific industries, and a strong labour effort. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices of several Asian countries, many part of the East Asian Tigers. ...


Growth plunged by 6.6% in 1998, then strongly recovered to 10.8% in 1999 and 9.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.3% in 2001 because of the slowing global economy, falling exports, and the perception that much-needed corporate and financial reforms have stalled. Led by industry and construction, growth in 2002 was an impressive 5.8%, despite anemic global growth.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of South Korea Population 47,470,969 (July 2000 est. ...


The Korean people

Korea's population is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with the only significant minority being a small Chinese community. Koreans have lived in Manchuria for many centuries, and are now a minority in China. Joseph Stalin forced thousands of ethnic Koreans residing in or near Vladivostok and Khabarovsk to relocate to the Central Asian part of the U.S.S.R., fearing Korean collaboration with the Japanese, while the majority of the Korean population in Japan was brought/kidnapped there as forced labor during the colonial period. Political, social and economic instability of South Korea in the past has driven many South Koreans to emigrate to foreign countries, particularly the United States and Canada. California has a large number of Koreans and Korean-Americans, numbering well over one million people. Currently the migration levels for people leaving and returning to South Korea are relatively equal. Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Korean people are one of the main East Asian ethnic groups. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... The Korean people are one of the main east Asian ethnic groups of Mongoloid stock. ... Vladivostok Train Station Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосто́к) is a city in Russia. ... Khabarovsk (Хабаровск) (population 582,700) is the capital city of the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, some 30 km from the Chinese border. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... A Korean American is a person of Korean ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


Cities

About 85 percent of South Koreans live in urban areas. The capital city of Seoul had 10.4 million inhabitants in 2000, making it the most populated single city (excluding greater metropolitan areas) in the world. Its density has allowed it to become one of the most "digitally-wired" cities in today's globally connected economy. Other major cities include Busan (3.9 million), Incheon (2.9 million), Daegu (2.65 million), Daejeon (1.48 million), Gwangju (1.38 million) and Ulsan (1.15 million). Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... Daegu Metropolitan City is the third largest city in South Korea. ... Daejeon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city in the centre of South Korea, and the capital of South Chungcheong Province. ... This article is about Gwangju Metropolitan City in South Korea. ... Ulsan is a metropolitan city in the south east of South Korea. ...


Language

The Korean language, is thought by some scholars to be a member of a wider linguistic family of the Altaic languages. Its vocabulary, however, has borrowed a lot from neighboring China, especially in the past. The Korean language is the most widely used language in Korea, and is the official language of both North and South Korea. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


The Korean writing system, Hangul, was invented in 1446 by King Sejong the Great to widely spread education - as Chinese characters which were used prior to Hangul in Korea were thought to not correlate well with the Korean language/grammar and be too difficult and time consuming for a common person to learn - through the Royal proclamation of Hunmin Jeongeum (훈민정음/訓民正音) which literally means the "proper sounds to teach the general public." It is different from the Chinese form of written communication as it is phonetically based. Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ... The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... Published in September or October 1446, Hunmin Jeongeum (lit. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. ...


Numerous underlying words still stem from Hanja and older people in Korea still prefer to write words in Hanja, as they were discouraged from the study and use of Korean script during the Period of Japanese Rule. The Korean writing system, hangul, was promulgated by King Sejong, although the full extent of King Sejong's involvement in the development of the writing system is unclear. It is widely acknowledged that King Sejong at least commissioned the development of hangul, with the intention to foster wider literacy among the Korean people. Hanja (lit. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... In Korean history, the Period of Japanese Rule or Iljeong Sidae (일정시대; 日政時代; (Period of Japanese Rule) in Korean) describes the period from 1910 to 1945, when Korea (at that time called Chosun) was ruled by Japan. ...


In 2000 the government decided to introduce a new romanization system, which this article also uses. English is taught as a second language in most primary and intermediate schools. Those students in high school are also taught 2 years of either Chinese, Japanese, French, German or Spanish as an elective course. The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Japanese language is a spoken and written language used mainly in Japan. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


Religion

Christianity (29%) and Buddhism (26%) comprise South Korea's two dominant religions. Christianity initially got a foothold in Korea during the Japanese Occupation, then in the 1970s and early 1980s grew exponentially, and despite slower growth in the 1990s, caught up to Buddhism as a significant faith. Presbyterians (with around 6.5-7.8 million members), Roman Catholics (2-3.8 million), Pentecostals (1-1.7 million), and Methodists (1-1.4 million) are the largest denominations. Statistics have been published purporting to show that almost 50 percent of South Koreans are Christians, but these figures are almost certainly inflated, due to the high incidence of dual membership and unrecorded transfers of membership among different denominations. Christians, although well represented in all parts of South Korea, are especially strong around Seoul, where they comprise about 50 percent of the population. (See also Christianity in Korea, Protestantism in Korea, Catholicism in Korea) Introduction Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed the dramatic growth of the Christian faith in South Korea. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... In mathematics, a quantity that grows exponentially is one that grows at a rate proportional to its size. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Introduction Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed the dramatic growth of the Christian faith in South Korea. ...


Buddhism is stronger in the more conservative south of the country, especially in Busan and other rural parts of the country. There are a number of different "schools" in Buddhism; among them are the Seon (선) (Imported from Chan Buddhism in China, then later taught to the Japanese as Zen Buddhism), and the more modern Wonbulgyo (원불교) movement, which emphasizes the unity of all things. Other religions comprise about 9.4 percent of the population. These include Shamanism (traditional spirit worship) and Cheondogyo, an indigenous religion combining elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity. Confucianism is small in terms of self-declared adherents, but the great majority of South Koreans, irrespective of their formal religious affiliation, are strongly influenced by Confucianist values, which continue to permeate Korean culture. Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and Japanese Zen. ... Chan can be variation of 陳 (Chen), a Chinese family name. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... The Japanese (日本人, Nihon-jin) are the native people of the Japanese Archipelago. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Won Buddhism is a modern Buddhist movement based in South Korea. ... There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea. ... Cheondogyo is a 20th century Korean nationalist religious movement, based on the 19th century Donghak movement founded by Choe Che-U. Being rooted in Korean Buddhist, Confucian and Daoist beliefs and rituals with some Christian influence, this Korean religion is becoming more and more popular in North and South Korea... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


About 46 percent of South Koreans profess to follow no particular religion. There are also about 37 000 members of the Bahá'í Faith and about 33 000 Muslims. The remaining religions include Taoism and Hinduism. Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Foreign relations

There are several disputes between South Korea and Japan. Refer to the Korean-Japanese disputes for other disputes.  : The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Sea name dispute

There is a dispute about the name of the sea bounded by the Korean peninsula, Russia, and Japan. Many maps call it the Sea of Japan, but in South Korea it is exclusively known as the "East Sea," and in North Korea it is known as the "East Sea of Korea". In compromise, some maps use both names, calling it the "Sea of Japan (East Sea)". For further details on this dispute, see Dispute over the name of the Sea of Japan. The Sea of Japan, known as the East Sea in South Korea, the East Sea of Korea in North Korea, and the Japan Sea in China, is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bound by the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu and Sakhalin island to the... A Map of Quan-Tong or Lea-Tonge Province and the Kindom of Kau-li or Corea, T. Kitchin, London, 1753, reprinted 1780; it shows the Sea of Korea. London 1815. ...


Territorial dispute

South Korea and Japan have a territorial dispute over "Liancourt Rocks" in the East Sea (also known as Sea of Japan). The islet is called "Takeshima" in Japanese and "Dokdo" in Korean. Liancourt Rocks is predominantly volcanic rock and surrounded by rich fishing grounds. There might also be some deposits of natural gas in the area. Currently it is controlled by South Korea, however, Japan also claims the territory and is asking the South Korean government for mediation by the International Court of Justice. The Liancourt Rocks are islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea), claimed by both South Korea and Japan but administered by South Korea since 1953. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Japan's claim that Liancourt Rocks are a territory in Japan included in Shimane Prefecture, is based on the 'Article 40 of the Shimane Prefecture's Ordinance' documented in 1905. The Japanese side, with the cabinet having proclaimed the "Liancourt Rocks" as its land on January 28, 1905 and with the governor of the Prefecture having incorporated the islets into the Shimane Prefecture a month later, argues that the islets constitute as a legitimate territory within international law. Moreover, Japan was an occupied by the United States when South Korea began to control Liancourt Rocks and therefore unable to express its territorial claim to South Korean government at that time. The Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea that the Japanese and South Korean governments ratified states that a bilateral dispute should be solved by talks. Shimane Prefecture (島根県 Shimane-ken) is located in the Chugoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea (日韓基本条約 Nikkan Kihon Jōyaku) was signed on June 22, 1965 to establish basic relationship between Japan and the Republic of Korea. ...


In contrast, Korean side presents as an important evidence royal edict No. 41 of the King Kojong in the 1900 government gazette notice to the effect that the Uleung County jurisdiction comprises of Uleung Island and Suk-do. (Dok-do was referred to as Suk-do in the royal edict.) Thus, Dok-do was not unclaimed territory when Japanese cabinet unilaterally claimed it in 1905. Before this, Japan had fought two consecutive wars for the control of the Korean Peninsula, the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... See: Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Russo-Japanese War ( 1904- 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Imperial Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. ...


Historical evidences date back to the Annals of Three Kingdoms (Samguk Saki). In 512, the 13th year of the King Jijung, the Annals records that State of Usan including Uleung Island belonged to the Shilla Dynasty; and it is generally inferred from this that the Suk-do was incorporated into the Dynasty along with the Ulleung-do. The geography book or Jiriji, compiled in the year 1432 of the Chosun Dynasty, also records that two islands, Usan and Mureung were on the sea to the due east. Another geographical book called "Shinjeungdongguk Yojiram," published in 1531, describes in its section on Uljin-hyon, Kangwon Province that 'Usan-do and Uleung-do were on the sea to the due east. The historical record of Unleung-do 1694 by Jang Hansang of Samchuk Chungsa indicates that there was an island about 300 ri (or 75km) from and one third the size of the Ulleung-do. Under the Article 2 and Section a of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan was to recognize the independence of Korea and return Jeju, Kumun, Uleung Islands; in this section, there was no mention on Dok-do. Korean side argues, however, that the Dok-do, even though its name was not specifically referred to in the Treaty, was assumed to be part of the Uleung-do. Events Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Anastasius I ends a period of moderate ecclestical policy, and starts strongly favoring his own monophysitist beliefs. ... Ulleung-do is a Korean island in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ...


Another disputed territory is the Island known as "Daemado" in Korean and "Tsushima" in Japanese. Currently the island is controlled by the Japanese. In the 15th century, General Lee Jong-mu conquered the Island from Masan, Korea and put it under the jurisdiction of Gyeongsang Province. According to Jeoson records, Donggukyeojiseungram, Korea never formally handed over the island to Japan.


Culture

Main articles: Culture of Korea, Contemporary culture of South Korea The traditional culture of Korea is shared by South Korea and North Korea, but there are regional differences. ... Since Koreas division into two separate states, South Korea has developed a distinct contemporary culture. ...


South Korea shares its traditional culture with that of North Korea. Throughout history, the Korean culture was influenced by that of China. Today, the roles are reversed, with an increased Korean influence in China in terms of popular music, fashion and television drama. North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ...


Traditional culture has also been influenced by Shamanism, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. Many great scholars and philosophers lived in Korea, but are not well known to outsiders due to the country's early isolationism. Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering because of a special relationship with, or control over, spirits. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...

Since its division into two separate states, the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture. This is a list of famous Koreans or famous people of Korean descent. ... Korean cuisine, made for common people, is based largely on rice, vegetables, fish, seaweed and tofu (dubu in Korean). ... Taekwondo is the Korean national sport and martial art, and is also one of the worlds most commonly practiced sports. ... The first evidence of Korean music is ancient, and it has been well-documented by surviving written materials since the 15th century. ...


Tourism

Domestic tourism is quite popular among Koreans, but is still catching on with non-Koreans. Seoul is the principal tourist destination for non-Koreans. Popular tourist destinations for Koreans include Seorak-san national park, the historic city of Gyeongju, and semi-tropical Jeju Island. Travel to North Korea is not normally possible except with special permission, but in recent years organized group tours have taken South Koreans to Kŭmgang-san mountain in the North. Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Seorak-san is the highest mountain in the Taebaek mountain range in the Gangwon province in eastern South Korea. ... Gyeongju is a city in North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. ... Jeju is the largest island and smallest province in South Korea, and the name of islands largest city and provincial capital (see Jeju City). ... Kŭmgang-san (Diamond Mountain) is the second-tallest mountain in North Korea, with a height of 1638 metres. ...


Miscellaneous topics

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Introduction Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed the dramatic growth of the Christian faith in South Korea. ... Map of South Korea The largest cities in South Korea have self-governing status equivalent to that of provinces. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 24 million (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 28 million (September 2000) Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services domestic: NA international: fiber-optic submarine cable to China; the Russia-Korea-Japan submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and... Since Koreas division into two separate states, South Korea has developed a distinct contemporary culture. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In August 1991, South Korea joined the United Nations along with North Korea and has remained active in most UN specialized agencies and many international forums. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... This article is about the history of Korea. ... StarCraft StarCraft (SC) is a real-time strategy computer game produced by Blizzard Entertainment in 1998. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea. ... This is a list of famous Koreans or famous people of Korean descent. ... The military of South Korea is largely considered one of Asias most powerful standing armed forces. ... The Korea Professional Soccer League, more commonly known today as the K-League was founded in 1983 with five member clubs, and is the oldest professional football league in Asia. ... Public holidays in South Korea See also Festivals of the Korean lunar calendar Korean calendar Categories: Public holidays by country | South Korea ... Expressways in South Korea were recently renumbered; originally they were numbered in order of construction. ... Subways operate in South Koreas 4 largest cities, with 2 more cities currently building their own systems: Seoul (9 lines + 1 planned) Busan (2 lines) Daegu (1 line + 1 under construction) Incheon (1 line, integrated with the Seoul subway system) Gwangju (1 line) Daejeon (1 line under construction) Subway... Transportation in South Korea is provided by extensive networks of railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that criss-cross the country. ...

External links

  • Korea.net: Gateway to Korea (http://www.kois.go.kr/)
  • Cheong Wa Dae (http://www.cwd.go.kr/warp/app/home/en_home) - Official presidential site
  • Kukhae (http://eng.assembly.go.kr) - Official National Assembly site
  • Korea National Statistical Office (http://www.nso.go.kr/eng/index.shtml)
  • Tour2Korea (http://www.tour2korea.com/) (operated by Korea National Tourism Organization)
  • Korea Peace Network (http://www.koreapeacenetwork.info/index.htm) - Summary of past/current American policy towards Korea
  • South Korea Stock Market (http://chinese-school.netfirms.com/abacus-stocks-South-Korea.html) - Summary of the South Korea stock market.
  • Republic of Korea (South Korea) banknotes (http://numismondo.com/pm/kor/) - 1949 to 2002 Government and Military Issues


Countries in East Asia
China (PRC) | Japan | North Korea | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC)
Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong | Macau

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