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Encyclopedia > Republic of Karelia
Republic of Karelia (English)
Республика Карелия (Russian)

Location of the Republic of Karelia in Russia
Coat of Arms Flag

Coat of arms of the Republic of Karelia

Flag of the Republic of Karelia
Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Karelia
Capital Petrozavodsk
Established July 16, 1956
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Republic
Northwestern
Northern
Code 10
Area
Area
- Rank
172,400 km²
20th
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
716,281 inhabitants
67th
4.2 inhab. / km²
75.0%
25.0%
Official language Russian[1]
Government
Head Sergey Katanandov
Prime minister Pavel Chernov
Legislative body Legislative Assembly
Constitution Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
Official website
http://www.gov.karelia.ru/

The Republic of Karelia (Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct romanization of the republic's name is Respublika Kareliya. In Karelian, the Republic is called Karjalan Tazavalla. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Coat of Arms of the Republic The National Coat of Arms of the Republic of Karelia is a rectangle on top of a semicircular bottom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Karelia. ... The Flag of the Republic of Karelia The National flag of the Republic of Karelia is a rectangle with equal horizontal stripes: the upper stripe is red, the middle one is blue and the lower is green. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Carelia The music for Anthem of the Republic of Karelia was written by Alexander Beloborodov (Александр Белобородов), whilst the (Russian) lyrics were composed by Armas Mashin and Ivan Kostin (Армас Мишин & Иван Костин ). The Finnish text was written by Mr. ... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Northern economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... Sergey Leonidovich Katanandov, in Russian Сергей Леонидович Катанандов, is the President of the Republic of Karelia in Russia. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed... The romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and into the Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet and other Latin alphabets in particular (and sometimes non-Latin alphabets). ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ...

Contents

Geography

The Republic is located in the north-western part of the Russian Federation, taking intervening position between the basins of White and Baltic seas. The White Sea shore line is 630 km. Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...

Murmansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russian: , Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...

Time zone

The Republic of Karelia is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD). Image File history File links RTZ2. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...

Rivers

There are about 27,000 rivers in Karelia. Major rivers include:

Vodla (Russian: ) is a river in the south-east of Republic of Karelia, Russia. ... Kem (Russian: ) is a river in Republic of Karelia, Russia. ... Shuya River is the name of several rivers in Russia: Shuya River, a river in Kostroma Oblast Shuya River, a river in Karelia Category: ... Kivach Waterfall on the Suna. ... Kivach in 2006. ...

Lakes

There are 60,000 lakes in Karelia. Republic's lakes and swamps contain about 2,000 km³ of high-quality fresh water. Lake Ladoga (Finnish:Laatokka) and Lake Onega (Ääninen) are the largest lakes in Europe. Other lakes include: Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

The Regions of North and South Karelia lie in Finland and the Karelian Republic in Russia. The Karelian Isthmus is now part of Leningrad Oblast
The Regions of North and South Karelia lie in Finland and the Karelian Republic in Russia. The Karelian Isthmus is now part of Leningrad Oblast

Map of current political divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Republic of Karelia Talk:Republic of Karelia North Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images South Karelia Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... Map of current political divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Republic of Karelia Talk:Republic of Karelia North Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images South Karelia Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... The Region of North Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. ... The Region of South Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Lake Nyuk seen from space Lake Nyuk (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Pyaozero seen from space Lake Pyaozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Segozero seen from space Lake Segozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Syamozero (Russian: , Finnish: , Karelian: Seämärvi) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Topozero seen from space Lake Topozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Vygozero seen from space Lake Vygozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ...

Natural resources

The most part of the republic's territory (148,000 km², or 85%) is composed of state forest stock. The total growing stock of timber resources in the forests of all categories and ages is 807 million m³. The mature and overmature tree stock amounts to 411.8 million m³, of which 375.2 million m³ is coniferous.


Fifty useful minerals are found in Karelia, located in more than 400 deposits and orebearing layers. Natural resources of the republic include iron ore, diamonds, vanadium, molybdenum, and others. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


Administrative divisions

Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction: Petrozavodsk (Петрозаводск) (capital) Kostomuksha (Костомукша) with 1 rural administration under the towns jurisdiction. ...

Demographics

  • Population: 716,281 (2002)
    • Urban: 537.395 (75.0%)
    • Rural: 178,886 (25.0%)
      Early 20th-century photo of a bridge across the Shuya River
      Early 20th-century photo of a bridge across the Shuya River
    • Male: 331,505 (46.3%)
    • Female: 384,776 (53.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,161
  • Average age: 37.1 years
    • Urban: 35.9 years
    • Rural: 40.6 years
    • Male: 33.9 years
    • Female: 39.9 years
  • Number of households: 279,915 (with 701,314 people)
    • Urban: 208,041 (with 525,964 people)
    • Rural: 71,874 (with 175,350 people)
  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 6,952 (birth rate 9.9)
    • Deaths: 12,649 (death rate 18.1)
  • Ethnic groups

According to the 2002 Census, ethnic Russians make up 76.6% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Karelians are only 9.2%. Other groups include Belarusians (5.3%), Ukrainians (2.7%), Finns (2.0%), Veps (0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 4,886 people (0.7%) did not indicate their nationality during the Census. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x712, 96 KB) en: Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x712, 96 KB) en: Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Shuya River is the name of several rivers in Russia: Shuya River, a river in Kostroma Oblast Shuya River, a river in Karelia Category: ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Veps language, spoken by Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ...

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Karelians 100,781 (37.4%) 108,571 (23.2%) 85,473 (13.0%) 84,180 (11.8%) 81,274 (11.1%) 78,928 (10.0%) 65,651 (9.2%)
Finns 2,544 (0.9%) 8,322 (1.8%) 27,829 (4.2%) 22,174 (3.1%) 20,099 (2.7%) 18,420 (2.3%) 14,156 (2.0%)
Veps 8,587 (3.2%) 9,392 (2.0%) 7,179 (1.1%) 6,323 (0.9%) 5,864 (0.8%) 5,954 (0.8%) 4,870 (0.7%)
Russians 153,967 (57.2%) 296,529 (63.2%) 412,773 (62.7%) 486,198 (68.1%) 522,230 (71.3%) 581,571 (73.6%) 548,941 (76.6%)
Belarusians 555 (0.2%) 4,263 (0.9%) 71,900 (10.9%) 66,410 (9.3%) 59,394 (8.1%) 55,530 (7.0%) 37,681 (5.3%)
Ukrainians 708 (0.3%) 21,112 (4.5%) 23,569 (3.6%) 27,440 (3.8%) 23,765 (3.2%) 28,242 (3.6%) 19,248 (2.7%)
Others 2,194 (0.8%) 20,709 (4.4%) 29,869 (4.5%) 20,726 (2.9%) 19,565 (2.7%) 21,505 (2.7%) 25,734 (3.6%)

The Karelian language is close to Finnish, and in recent years, it has been considered by some authorities as a dialect of Finnish. Nevertheless, far Eastern Karelian might not be completely mutually intelligible with Finnish and could be considered a proper language. Russian is currently the only official language of the republic, but there is a motion in the republic's government to make Karelian official as well. The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Veps language, spoken by Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


History

Many fine examples of old Russian wooden architecture survive in Karelia.

Historically, Karelia was a region to the northwest of Russia, east of present-day Finland, controlled by the Novgorod Republic. From the 13th century and onwards, various parts were conquered by Sweden, and incorporated into Swedish Karelia until they were lost to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Image File history File links Photo of Kizhi, taken in the 1963. ... Image File history File links Photo of Kizhi, taken in the 1963. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden...


In 1923, the province became the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelian ASSR). From 1940 it was made into the Karelo-Finnish SSR, incorporating the Finnish Democratic Republic created during the Winter War. Annexed territories were incorporated into Karelo-Finnish SSR after the Winter War but after the Continuation War the Karelian Isthmus was incorporated into the Leningrad Oblast. Its status was changed back to an ASSR in 1956. During the Continuation War in 1941 Finland occupied large parts of the area but was forced to withdraw in 1944. Though Finland is not currenty pursuing any measures to reclaim Karelian lands ceded to Russia, the "Karelian Question" is still a topic present in Finnish politics. Flag of the KASSR The Karelian ASSR (in Russian: Карельская АССР) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... The Finnish Democratic Republic (Finnish: Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta) was a short-lived Communist regime in those minor parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000[2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian dead[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000[2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian dead[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union. ...


The autonomous Republic of Karelia in its present form was formed on November 13, 1991. is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Politics

The highest executive authority in the Republic of Karelia is the Head of the Republic. As of 2007, the Head of the Republic is Sergey Leonidovich Katanandov, who was elected in May of 2002. Sergey Leonidovich Katanandov, in Russian Сергей Леонидович Катанандов, is the President of the Republic of Karelia in Russia. ...


The parliament of the Republic of Karelia is the Legislative Assembly comprising 50 deputies elected for a four year term. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The Constitution of the Republic of Karelia was adopted on February 12, 2001. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Culture

View of the old town of Kem in 1911
View of the old town of Kem in 1911

Karelia is sometimes called "the songlands" in the Finnish culture, as Karelian poems constitute most of the Finnish national epic Kalevala. Image File history File links View of Kem, Karelia in 1911. ... Image File history File links View of Kem, Karelia in 1911. ... View of Kem in 1911 Kem (Russian: ) is a historic town in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located on the railroad leading from Petrozavodsk to Murmansk. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ...


Religion

The Karelians have been traditionally Russian Orthodox, known in Finland for their small chapels called tsasouna. However, Lutheranism was brought to the area by the Finnish immigrants during Sweden's conquest of Karelia. The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Russian is currently the only official language of the Republic of Karelia. Although the Karelian language does not have official status at present, a motion has been set in place to grant it a place alongside Russian in the republic's government.

The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ...

See also

Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Traditional Sami music revolves around singing. ... Pegrema is an abandoned village in the Russian Republic of Karelia, in the region of the town of Medvezhyegorsk. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...

External links

  • (English) (Russian) (Finnish) Official website of the Republic of Karelia.
  • (English) (Russian) (Finnish) Karelia.ru web server.
  • (English) (Russian) (Finnish) Window to Karelia server (also in Karelian).
  • (English) (Russian) (Finnish) Heninen.net - various information about Karelia.
  • (English) Information about Karelians.
  • (English) Virtual Finland - "The Many Karelias" article.
  • (English) ProKarelia (also available in other languages).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kommersant - Russia's Daily Online (537 words)
The Republic of Karelia is situated in northwestern Russia and is part of the Northwestern economic region of the Russian Federation.
Karelia borders on Finland in the west, Leningrad and Vologda regions in the south, Murmansk Region in the north, and Arkhangelsk Region in the east.
The republic produces 10% of the iron ore in Russia, 23% of the paper, 9% of the pulp, 7.3% of the industrial wood, 4.0% of the lumber, and nearly 60% of the paper bags.
Economics (53 words)
Ministry of Economics of the Republic of Karelia
Economic development of the Republic of Karelia in 2006
Economic development of the Republic of Karelia 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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