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Encyclopedia > Republic of Ireland
Éire
Ireland
Flag of Ireland Coat of arms of Ireland
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAmhrán na bhFiann  
The Soldier's Song
Location of  Republic of Ireland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The national flag of the Republic of Ireland (Irish: An Bhratach Náisiúnta), also known as the tricolour,[1] is a vertical tricolour of green (at the hoist), white, and orange. ... The Coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as azure a harp or, stringed argent - a gold harp with silver strings on a St. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... (pronounced ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Dublin
53°20.65′N, 6°16.05′W
Official languages Irish, English
Ethnic groups  White: 94.8% (including 0.5% Irish Traveller)
Asian: 1.3%
Black: 1.1%
Other/Mixed: 1.1%
Not Stated: 1.7%[1]
Demonym Irish
Government Republic and Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Mary McAleese
 -  Taoiseach Brian Cowen, TD
 -  Tánaiste Mary Coughlan, TD
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 24 April 1916 
 -  Ratified 21 January 1919 
 -  Recognised 6 December 1922 
 -  Current constitution 29 December 1937 
EU accession January 1, 1973
Area
 -  Total 70,273 km² (120th)
27,133 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.00
Population
 -  2007 estimate 4,339,000[2] 
 -  2006 census 4,239,848 (121st)
 -  Density 60.3/km² (139th)
147.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $177.2 billion (50th)
 -  Per capita $45,600 (8th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $202.9 billion (30th)
 -  Per capita $50,150 (5th)
HDI (2005) 0.959 (high) (5th)
Currency Euro ()¹ (EUR)
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) IST (WEST) (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .ie2
Calling code +353
Patron saint St. Patrick
1 Before 1999: Irish pound.
2 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
Ireland Portal

Ireland (Irish: Éire, pronounced [ˈeːrʲə]) is a country in north-western Europe. The modern sovereign state occupies about five-sixths of the island of Ireland, which was first partitioned on May 3, 1921. It is bordered by Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom) to the north, by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by the Irish Sea to the east and by the Celtic Sea and St George's Channel to the South and South-East. Legally, the term Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the description of the State but Ireland is its name.[3] Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current President of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Brian Cowen (Irish: Brian Ó Comhain, born 10 January 1960) is the current Taoiseach of Ireland. ... The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Western European Time (WET, UTC+0) is the time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe, including the following countries and regions: Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, i. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... British Summer Time (BST), known in Ireland as Irish Summer Time (IST), is the daylight saving time in effect in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each year. ... BST redirects here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ie is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the Republic of Ireland. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Numbers on the Irish Telephone Numbering Plan are regulated and assigned to operators by Comreg. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... For the coin of the same value, see Irish one pound coin. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This article is about the Irish-language name of the island called Ireland and the state of the same name. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921, following the enactment in December 1920 of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, and was accepted in the ratification of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in January 1922 that ended the Anglo-Irish War and the union of the United Kingdom of... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the constituent country. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ...


In the mid 20th century, the Republic of Ireland became the successor-state to the Irish Free State. Ireland was one of the poorest countries in Western Europe and had high emigration. The protectionist economy was opened in the late 1950s and Ireland joined the European Community (now the European Union) in 1973. An economic crisis led Ireland to start large-scale economic reforms in the late 1980s. Ireland reduced taxation and regulation dramatically compared to other EU countries.[4] This article is about the prior state. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Today, the Index of Economic Freedom ranks Ireland as the world's third most economically free country. Ireland currently is rated as having the fifth highest gross domestic product per capita and the eighth highest gross domestic product per capita considering purchasing power parity,[5] and having the fifth highest Human Development Index rank. The country also boasts the highest quality of life in the world, ranking first in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Quality-of-life index. Ireland was ranked fourth on the Global Peace Index. Ireland also has high rankings for its education system, political freedom and civil rights, press freedom and economic freedom; it was also ranked fourth from the bottom on the Failed States Index, being one of the few "sustainable" states in the world. Ireland has emerged as an attractive destination and foreign immigrants who now make up approximately 10% of the population. Ireland's population is the fastest growing in Europe with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... GDP redirects here. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... This is a list of countries by Failed States Index. ...


Ireland is a member of the EU, the OECD, and the UN. Ireland's policy of neutrality means it is not a member of NATO, although it does contribute to peacekeeping missions sanctioned by the UN. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... UN redirects here. ... Irish neutrality has been a policy of the Irish Free State and its successor, Ireland, since independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1922. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

Contents

Name

Article 4 of the Irish constitution, which was adopted in 1937, provides that “the name of the state is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland”.[6] For all official purposes including in international treaties and in other legal documents, where the language of the documents is English, the Irish government uses the name Ireland. The same is true in respect of the name Éire for documents written in Irish. Institutions of the European Union follow the same practice. Since Irish became an official EU language on 1 January 2007, at EU meetings name plates for the state read as Éire - Ireland, just as the two official names are used on Irish passports.[7] The front cover of an Irish passport showing the name of the state in its two official languages. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Irish passports (Irish: Pas) are issued by the Consular and Passport Division, Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland. ...


Since 1949 the Republic of Ireland Act has provided that the Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description for the state. The Act was intended primarily to declare that Ireland was a republic rather than a form of constitutional monarchy. It provided the state’s official description but it did not change its name. The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


What is now Ireland has been known by a range of other names, all of which are still sometimes used unofficially. The whole island of Ireland was unilaterally proclaimed an independent republic by rebels in 1916 and styled as the Irish Republic (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann, subsequently also Saorstát Éireann). Following the 1918 general election, that proclamation was ratified by a large majority of the Irish Members of Parliament. Between 1921 and 1922, when the British government legislated to establish what is now Ireland as an autonomous region of the United Kingdom, it was named Southern Ireland. Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, from 1922 until 1937, as a dominion in the British Commonwealth, it was styled as the Irish Free State (Irish:Saorstát Éireann). That name was abolished with the adoption of the current Irish constitution. Other colloquial names such as the Twenty-Six Counties and The South (a name frequently used by people in Northern Ireland) are also often used. The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the constituent country. ...


History

Main articles: History of the Republic of Ireland and History of Ireland

Ireland is the successor-state to the Dominion called the Irish Free State. That Dominion came into being when all of the island of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 6 December 1922. However, the following day the Parliament of Northern Ireland exercised its right under the Anglo-Irish Treaty to opt back into the United Kingdom.[8] This action, known as the Partition of Ireland, followed four attempts to introduce devolved autonomous government over the whole island of Ireland (in 1886, 1893, 1914 and 1920). The Irish Free State was abolished when Ireland was formally established on 29 December 1937, the day its constitution came into force. The state known today as the Republic of Ireland came into being when twenty-six of the counties of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1922. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... This article is about the prior state. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921, following the enactment in December 1920 of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, and was accepted in the ratification of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in January 1922 that ended the Anglo-Irish War and the union of the United Kingdom of... There were four Irish Home Rule Bills in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to reverse parts of the 1801 Act of Union. ... This article is about the prior state. ...


Irish independence in 1922 was preceded by the Easter Rising of 1916, when Irish volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army took over sites in Dublin and Galway under terms expressed in the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. The seven signatories of this proclamation, Patrick Pearse, Thomas MacDonagh, Thomas Clarke, Sean MacDiarmada, Joseph Plunkett, Eamonn Ceannt and James Connolly, were executed, along with nine others, and thousands were interned precipitating the Irish War of Independence. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig Pearse; Irish: ; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was a teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist and political activist who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. ... Thomas MacDonagh (Irish: Tomás Mac Donnchadha ; (1 February 1878 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish nationalist, poet, playwright, and a leader of the 1916 Easter Rising. ... A Professor of Management at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. ... Sean MacDermott (February 28, 1884 – May 12, 1916) was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916 in Ireland. ... Joseph Mary Plunkett (November 21, 1887 - May 4, 1916) was an Irish nationalist, poet, and leader of the Easter Rising in 1916. ... Eamonn Ceannt (September 21, 1881 - May 8, 1916) was an Irish nationalist and rebel. ... For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athletics). ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


Early background

From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801 until 6 December 1922, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine from 1845 to 1849 the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30 percent. One million Irish died of starvation and another 1.5 million emigrated,[9] which set the pattern of emigration for the century to come and would result in a constant decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, but particularly from 1880 under Charles Stewart Parnell, the Irish Parliamentary Party moved to prominence through widespread agrarian agitation that won improved tenant land reforms and with its attempts to win two Home Rule Bills, which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy within the United Kingdom. These nevertheless led to the “grass-roots” control of national affairs under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 previously in the hands of landlord dominated grand juries. The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... For other uses, please see Great Famine. ... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... The Irish painter Henry Jones Thaddeus enlisted the conscience of the propertied classes with the sentimental realism of La retour du bracconier (The Wounded Poacher), exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1881, at the height of the Irish Land War The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of... // The Irish Question British Prime Minister William Gladstone had taken up the Irish Question in part to win the general election of 1868 by uniting the Liberal Party behind this single issue. ... There were four Irish Home Rule Bills in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to reverse parts of the 1801 Act of Union. ... The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 a piece of legislation passed as an Act of Parliament by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1898, to establish a system of local government in Ireland on lines similar that had been recently created in Great Britain at the time. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ...

Life in the Republic of Ireland

v  d  e

A pint of stout and some wheaten bread Irish cuisine can be divided into two main categories – traditional, mainly simple dishes, and more modern dishes, as served by hotels etc. ... A page from the Book of Kells. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Public holidays are observed in the Republic of Ireland on: New Years Day, 1 January[1] St Patricks Day, 17 March[1] Easter Monday, moveable Labour Day/May Day, the first Monday in May June Bank Holiday, the first Monday in June August Bank Holiday, the first Monday... Irish Music is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres on the entire island of Ireland, North and South of the border. ... Communications in the Republic of Ireland, including postal services run by An Post, are regulated to a large extent by the Commission for Communications Regulation (ComReg), the Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources has overall responsibility for national policy and regulation. ... Christ Church Cathedral founded c. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... Rates of household recycling in Ireland have increased dramatically since the late 1990s, but are still lagging behind European averages. ... Population (in millions) from 1841 - 2006 The initial, ancient settlers of Ireland were migrants from tribes in modern-day Iberia and southern France [1]. Modern-day Irish people are mainly of Gaelic ancestry, and although some of the population is also of English, Scottish (also often Gaelic), Anglo-Norman, Viking... The Republic of Ireland has a common law legal system with four main sources of law: Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) Legislation Primary Legislation - Acts of the Oireachtas Secondary Legislation - Statutory Instrument Case law European Community Law Historical The state became independent in 1922 as the Irish Free... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Politics of Ireland (the Republic of Ireland) takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Republic of Ireland is involved in a number of outstanding international disputes. ... See Prostitution in the United Kingdom for information about prostitution in Northern Ireland. ...

Home Rule statute

Home Rule seemed certain in 1911 when the House of Lords lost their veto, and John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act 1914. The Unionist movement, however, had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing that they would face discrimination and lose economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics were to achieve real political power. Though Irish unionism existed throughout the whole of Ireland, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century unionism was particularly strong in parts of Ulster, where industrialisation was more common in contrast to the more agrarian rest of the island. (Any tariff barriers would, it was feared, most heavily hit that region.) In addition, the Protestant population was more strongly located in Ulster, with unionist majorities existing in about four counties. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... John Redmond, MP John Edward Redmond (September 1, 1856 – March 6, 1918) was the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... Unionism, in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and order of government of the Act of Union 1800 which had merged both countries in 1801 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ...


Mounting resistance

Under the leadership of the Dublin-born Sir Edward Carson of the Irish Unionist Party and the northerner Sir James Craig of the Ulster Unionist Party unionists became strongly militant in order to oppose the Coercion of Ulster. In 1914, to avoid rebellion with Ulster, the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, with agreement of the Irish Party leadership, amended a clause into the bill providing for home rule for 26 of the 32 counties, with an as of yet undecided new set of measures to be introduced for the area to be temporarily excluded. Though it received the Royal Assent and was placed on the statute books, the Third Home Rule Act 1914's implementation was suspended until after the Great War. (The war at that stage was expected to be ended by 1915, not the four years it did ultimately last.) For the prior reasons of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war, Redmond and his Irish National Volunteers supported the Allied cause, and 175,000 joined Irish regiments of the 10th (Irish), 16th (Irish) and 36th (Ulster) divisions of the New British Army.[10] For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, PC (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The National Volunteers is the name taken by the group of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the group split in the wake of the question of the Volunteers role in World War I. While Redmond took no role in the creation of... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... An Irish regiment is a regiment (or similar military unit), excepting those actually in the Irish Defence Forces, that at some time in its history has or had intentional recruitment consisting primarily of members either from Ireland or of Irish descent. ... The 10th (Irish) Division, was a New Army division, one of Kitcheners New Army K1 Army Group divisions raised largely in Ireland from the Irish National Volunteers in 1914. ... The British 36th (Ulster) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914. ... WWI recruitment poster for Kitcheners Army. ...


In January 1919, after the December 1918 general election, 73 of Ireland's 106 MPs elected were Sinn Féin members who refused to take their seats in the British House of Commons. Instead, they set up an Irish parliament called Dáil Éireann. This Dáil in January 1919 issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed an Irish Republic. The Declaration was mainly a restatement of the 1916 Proclamation with the additional provision that Ireland was no longer a part of the United Kingdom. The new Irish Republic was recognised internationally only by the Russian Republic. The Republic's Aireacht (ministry) sent a delegation under Ceann Comhairle Seán T. O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, but it was not admitted. The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The First Dáil (Irish: ) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... The ireacht was the name of the cabinet or ministry in the D il Constitution passed by the First D il of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... The Ceann Comhairle1 is the chairman or speaker of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Irish name: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced ) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ...


After the bitterly fought War of Independence, representatives of the British government and the Irish treaty delegates, led by Arthur Griffith, Robert Barton and Michael Collins negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty in London from 11 October6 December 1921. The Irish delegates set up headquarters at Hans Place in Knightsbridge and it was here in private discussions that the decision was taken at 11.15am on 5 December to recommend the Treaty to Dáil Éireann. Under the Treaty the British agreed to the establishment of an independent Irish State whereby the Irish Free State (in the Irish language Saorstát Éireann) with dominion status was created. Dáil Éireann narrowly ratified the treaty. Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert Childers Barton (1881- August 10, 1975) was an Irish lawyer, statesman and farmer who participated in the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. ... For other persons named Michael Collins, see Michael Collins (disambiguation). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hans Place is a prime residential garden square situated immediately south of Harrods in Knightsbridge. ... Knightsbridge is a street and district spanning the City of Westminster and theRoyal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London notable for its eclectic mix of rich, famous, and international residents including several billionaires Roman Abramovich, oligarchs from Russia, China and India, international businessman Lord Marshall of Knightsbridge, trend setters Charles... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the prior state. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ...


History of Ireland
series
Prehistory
Early history
Early Christian Ireland
Early medieval and Viking era
Norman Ireland
Early Modern Ireland 1536–1691
Ireland 1691–1801
Ireland 1801–1922
History of Ireland (state)
History of Northern Ireland
Economic history
 v  d  e 

The Treaty was not entirely satisfactory to either side. It gave more concessions to the Irish than the British had intended to give but did not go far enough to satisfy republican aspirations. The new Irish Free State was in theory to cover the entire island, subject to the proviso that six counties in the north-east, termed "Northern Ireland" (which had been created as one of the two separate Home Rule regions under the Government of Ireland Act 1920) could opt out and choose to remain part of the United Kingdom, which they duly did. The remaining twenty-six counties (originally "Southern Ireland" under the Act) became the Irish Free State, a constitutional monarchy over which the British monarch reigned (from 1927 with the title King of Ireland). It had a Governor-General, a bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council" and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council. The History of Ireland began with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... The Early Medieval era in Ireland, from 800 to 1166 is characterised by Viking raids, then settlement, in what had become a stable and wealthy country. ... A tower house near Quin. ... Early Modern Ireland is a pivotal era in the countrys history. ... The state known today as the Republic of Ireland came into being when twenty-six of the counties of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1922. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // History until the Enlightenment The first settlers in Ireland were seafarers who survived largely by fishing, hunting and gathering. ... This article is about the constituent country. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... The Executive Council (Irish: Ard-Chomhairle) was the cabinet and de facto executive branch of government of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the head of government or prime minister of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State, and the leader of the Executive Council (cabinet). ...


Permeating partition

The Irish Civil War was the direct consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. Anti-Treaty forces, led by Éamon de Valera, objected to the fact that acceptance of the Treaty abolished the Irish Republic of 1919 to which they had sworn loyalty, arguing in the face of public support for the settlement that the "people have no right to do wrong". They objected most to the fact that the state would remain part of the British Commonwealth and that Teachtaí Dála would have to swear an oath of fidelity to King George V and his successors. Pro-Treaty forces, led by Michael Collins, argued that the Treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it". The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... For other persons named Michael Collins, see Michael Collins (disambiguation). ...


At the start of the war, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) split into two opposing camps: a pro-treaty IRA and an anti-treaty IRA. The pro-Treaty IRA became part of the new Irish Army. However, through the lack of an effective command structure in the anti-Treaty IRA, and their defensive tactics throughout the war, Collins and his pro-treaty forces were able to build up an army with many tens of thousands of WWI veterans from the 1922 disbanded Irish regiments of the British Army, capable of overwhelming the anti-Treatyists. British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty. The lack of public support for the anti-treaty forces (often called the Irregulars) and the determination of the government to overcome the Irregulars contributed significantly to their defeat. This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... For other persons named Michael Collins, see Michael Collins (disambiguation). ... An Irish regiment is a regiment (or similar military unit), excepting those actually in the Irish Defence Forces, that at some time in its history has or had intentional recruitment consisting primarily of members either from Ireland or of Irish descent. ...


The destruction caused by the war caused considerable economic damage to the Free State in the earliest days of its existence, and Northern Ireland's Unionists became hardened in distancing themselves from the Free State.

Republic of Ireland population during the twentieth century
Republic of Ireland population during the twentieth century

Graph made from statistics by the Central Statistics Office of Ireland. ... Graph made from statistics by the Central Statistics Office of Ireland. ...

New Constitution

On December 29, 1937, a new constitution, the Constitution of Ireland, came into force. It replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State and created a new state called simply "Éire" or in the English language "Ireland". The former Irish Free State government had taken steps to formally abolish the Office of Governor-General some months before the new Constitution came into force [11]. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the Irish-language name of the island called Ireland and the state of the same name. ... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ...


Although the State's constitutional structures provided for a President of Ireland instead of a king, it was not technically a republic as the office of President in reality replaced the office of Governor General (the King's representative) rather than the King (at the same time the office of Taoiseach (Prime Minister) replaced the office of President of the Executive Council). The principal key role possessed by a head of state, that of symbolically representing Ireland internationally remained vested, in statutory law, in the King as an organ of the Irish government and it is not without significance that Éamon de Valera, as Taoiseach, retained for himself the portfolio of what was then Minister for Exernal Affairs (now Foreign Affairs). The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...


Ireland remained neutral during World War II, a period it described as The Emergency. Marking to alert aircraft to neutral Ireland (Éire) during WWII on Malin Head, Co Donegal The Irish policy of neutrality during the Second World War has variously been described as cowardice and duplicity and much writing on the subject has concentrated on the unduly negative aspects of it, preferring to... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


On 18 April 1949, the Republic of Ireland Act came into force. Under that Act, Ireland declared that it was a republic and delegated the functions previously exercised by the King acting on the behalf of the Irish government to the President of Ireland instead. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ...


The Irish state had remained a member of the then-British Commonwealth after independence until the declaration of a republic on 18 April 1949. Under the Commonwealth rules at the time, a declaration of a republic automatically terminated membership of the Commonwealth. Ireland therefore immediately ceased to be a member and did not subsequently reapply for membership when the Commonwealth later changed its rules to allow republics to join the Commonwealth. Ireland joined the United Nations in 1955. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ...


Economic opening

From the 1920s Ireland had high trade barriers such as high tariffs and a policy of import substitution. A high number of residents emigrated. In the 1950s, 400,000 (a seventh of the population) emigrated.[12] It became increasingly clear that economic nationalism was unsustainable. While other European countries enjoyed fast growth, Ireland suffered economic stagnation, emigration, and other ills.[12]


The policy changes were drawn together in Eco­nomic Development, an official paper published in 1958 that advocated free trade, foreign investment, productive (rather than mainly social) investment, and growth rather than fiscal restraint as the prime objective of economic management.[12] Ireland joined the European Community (now the European Union) in 1973. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


During the 1970s, the population increased for the first time since independence, by 15 percent for the decade. National income increased at an annual rate of about 4 percent. Employment increased by around 1 percent per year, but the state sector amounted to a large part of that. Public sector employment was a third of the total workforce by 1980. Budget deficits and public debt increased, leading to the crisis in the 1980s.[12]


In the Northern Ireland question, Irish governments started to seek a peaceful reunification of Ireland and have usually cooperated with the British government in the violent conflict involving many paramilitaries and the British Army in Northern Ireland known as "The Troubles". A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, the Belfast Agreement, was approved in 1998 in referendums north and south of the border. As part of the peace settlement, Ireland dropped its territorial claim to Northern Ireland. The peace settlement is currently being implemented. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ...


Recent history

By the 1980s, underlying economic problems become pronounced. High unemployment, emigration, growing public debt returned. Middle income workers were taxed 60% of their marginal income[13]. Unemployment was 20%. Annual emigration to overseas reached over 1% of population. Public deficits reached 15% of GDP. Fianna Fáil, which was largely responsible for the spending hikes in the late 1970s that caused much of the economic turmoil in which they found themselves, was elected in 1987 and surprised everyone by announcing a swing toward small government. Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ...


Public spending was reduced quickly and taxes cut. Ireland promoted competition in all areas. For instance, Ryanair utilized Ireland's deregulated aviation market and helped European regulators to see benefits of competition in transport markets. The more competitive economy attracted foreign investment quickly. Intel invested in 1989 and was followed by hordes of technology companies such as Microsoft and Google, who have found Ireland an excellent investment location. All government parties have had a consensus about the economic development.[12] For the unrelated U.S. carrier, see Ryan International Airlines. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... This article is about the corporation. ...


In less than a decade, the GDP per capita ranking rose from 21st in 1993 to 4th in 2002.[14] Between 1985 and 2002, private sector jobs increased 59% compared to -1% in Sweden.[4] Between 1984 and 2002, GDP per capita increased 111% compared to 36% in Sweden.[4]


Politics

Ireland is a republic, with a parliamentary system of government. The President of Ireland, who serves as head of state, is elected for a seven-year term and can be re-elected only once. The president is largely a figurehead but can still carry out certain constitutional powers and functions, aided by the Council of State, an advisory body. The Taoiseach (prime minister), is appointed by the president on the nomination of parliament. Most Taoisigh have been the leader of the political party which wins the most seats in the national elections. It has become normal in the Republic for coalitions to form a government, and there has not been a single-party government since 1989. Image File history File links Mary_McAleese. ... Image File history File links Mary_McAleese. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current President of Ireland. ... Politics of Ireland (the Republic of Ireland) takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... In politics, a figurehead, by metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship, is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... The Council of State (Irish: Comhairle Stáit) is an institution established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ...


The bicameral parliament, the Oireachtas, consists of the President of Ireland, a Senate, Seanad Éireann, being the upper House, and a House of Representatives, Dáil Éireann, being the lower House.[15] The Seanad is composed of sixty members; eleven nominated by the Taoiseach, six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis. The Dáil has 166 members, Teachtaí Dála, elected to represent multi-seat constituencies under the system of proportional representation by means of the Single Transferable Vote. Under the constitution, parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law. The current statutory maximum term is five years. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... This article is about the legislative institution. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... The lower house of the Irish parliament, Dáil Éireann, currently contains 166 Teachtaí Dála (TDs), representing 42 parliamentary constituencies throughout the Republic of Ireland. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ...

Leinster House, the seat of Oireachtas Éireann (the Irish parliament).
Leinster House, the seat of Oireachtas Éireann (the Irish parliament).

The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. No more than two members of the Government can be selected from the Seanad, and the Taoiseach, Tánaiste (deputy prime minister) and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil. The current government consists of a coalition of three parties; Fianna Fáil under Taoiseach Brian Cowen, the Green Party under leader John Gormley and the Progressive Democrats under Senator Ciarán Cannon. The last scheduled general election to the Dáil took place on 24 May 2007, after it was called by the Taoiseach on 29 April. photograph of Irelands parliament, Leinster House. ... photograph of Irelands parliament, Leinster House. ... Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland1. ... The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Brian Cowen (Irish: Brian Ó Comhain, born 10 January 1960) is the current Taoiseach of Ireland. ... The Green Party (Irish: ; lit. ... John Gormley (born August 4, 1959) is an Irish Green Party politician. ... The Progressive Democrats (Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach, lit. ... The Irish general election of 2007 took place on 24 May 2007 after the dissolution of the 29th Dáil by the President on 29 April 2007, at the request of the Taoiseach. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The main opposition in the current Dáil consists of Fine Gael under Enda Kenny, the Labour Party under Eamon Gilmore and Sinn Féin. A number of independent deputies also sit in Dáil Éireann though less in number than before the 2007 election. Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in... For the Australian singer of the same name, see Enda Kenny (singer) Enda Kenny (Irish: ; born 24 April 1951), an Irish politician, is the 10th leader of the Fine Gael party and Leader of the Opposition in Dáil Éireann. ... The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a Democratic Socialist political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... Eamon Gilmore (born 24 April 1955) is the leader of the Irish Labour Party. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


Ireland joined the European Union in 1973 but has chosen to remain outside the Schengen Treaty. Citizens of the UK can freely enter Ireland without a passport thanks to the Common Travel Area, but some form of identification is required at airports and seaports. Ireland has voted against a number of European treaties. On 12 June, 2008, Ireland voted in a referendum which rejected the Lisbon treaty. This has caused much controversy within the EU and may affect the future of the Union [16] Schengen Treaty members are in dark blue, while signatories (where it is not yet implemented) are in light blue. ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Treaty of Lisbon is either: A 1668 treaty between Portugal and Spain. ...


Counties

Main article: Counties of Ireland

The Republic of Ireland traditionally had twenty-six counties, and these are still used in cultural and sporting contexts. They are also used for postal purposes. Dáil constituencies are required by statute to follow county boundaries, as far as possible. Hence counties with greater populations have multiple constituencies (e.g. Limerick East/West) and some constituencies consist of more than one county (e.g. Sligo-North Leitrim), but by and large, the actual county boundaries are not crossed. For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ...


As local government units, however, some have been restructured, with the now-abolished County Dublin distributed among three new county councils in the 1990s and County Tipperary having been administratively two separate counties since the 1890s, giving a present-day total of twenty-nine administrative counties and five cities. The five cities — Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Waterford (Kilkenny is a city but does not possess a city council) — are administered separately from the remainder of their respective counties. Five boroughs — Clonmel, Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo and Wexford — have a level of autonomy within the county: Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city...

Map of the Republic of Ireland with numbered counties.
Map of the Republic of Ireland with numbered counties.
Republic of Ireland
  1. Dublin
    Dublin City
    — Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown
    Fingal
    South Dublin
  2. Wicklow
  3. Wexford
    Wexford Town (Borough)
  4. Carlow
  5. Kildare
  6. Meath
  7. Louth
    Drogheda Town (Borough)
  8. Monaghan
  9. Cavan
  10. Longford
  11. Westmeath
  12. Offaly
  13. Laois
  14. Kilkenny
    Kilkenny City (Borough)
  1. Waterford
    Waterford City
  2. Cork
    Cork City
  3. Kerry
  4. Limerick
    Limerick City
  5. Tipperary
    North Tipperary
    South Tipperary
     Clonmel Town (Borough)
  6. Clare
  7. Galway
    Galway City
  8. Mayo
  9. Roscommon
  10. Sligo
    Sligo Town (Borough)
  11. Leitrim
  12. Donegal

These counties are grouped together into regions for statistical purposes. Image File history File links IrelandNumbered. ... Image File history File links IrelandNumbered. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Dun Laoghaire–Rathdown1 (Irish: Dún Laoghaire–Ráth an Dúin) is an administrative county in the Republic of Ireland forming part of the traditional county of Dublin. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Swords Code: D (FL proposed) Area: 448. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tallaght Code: D (SN proposed) Area: 222. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wicklow Code: WW Area: 2,024 km² Population (2007) 114,676 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Carlow Code: CW Area: 896 km² Population (2006) 50,471 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,831 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O088754 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 1 m Population (2006)  - Proper  - Environs    28,973[1]  6,117[1] Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Monaghan Code: MN Area: 1,294 km² Population (2006[1]) 55,816 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Cavan Code: CN Area: 1,931 km² Population (2006) 63,961 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Longford Code: LD Area: 1,091 km² Population (2006) 34,361 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Mullingar Code: WH Area: 1,764 km² Population (2006) 79,403 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tullamore Code: OY Area: 1,999 km² Population (2006) 70,604 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Portlaoise Code: LS Area: 1,719 km² Population (2006) 69,012 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Kilkenny Code: KK Area: 2,061 km² Population (2006) 87,394 Website: www. ... For other uses, see Kilkenny (disambiguation). ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... Statistics Province: Munster County seat: Cork Code: C Area: 7,457 km² (2,879 sq mi) Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... This article is about the city. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... North Tipperary (Tiobraid Árann Thuaidh in Irish), known until 2002 as Tipperary North Riding, is a local government area in Ireland, consisting of the northern part of County Tipperary. ... South Tipperary (Tiobraid Árann Theas in Irish), known until 2002 as Tipperary South Riding, is a local government area in Ireland, consisting of the southern part of County Tipperary. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S199229 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural: 16,910 Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is the largest inland town in the south of Republic of Ireland. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Roscommon Code: RN Area: 2,547 km² (983 mi²) Population (2006) 58,700 County Roscommon (Irish: ) is a county located in central Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,837 km² Population (2006) 60,894[1] Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G685354 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Elevation: 13 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   17,892 [1]  24,096[1] Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County seat: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² (613 sq mi) Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... The Republic of Ireland is split into eight sub-regions for statistical purposes. ...


Geography, climate, and environment

Topography of Ireland
Topography of Ireland
Cliffs of Moher, Co. Clare
Cliffs of Moher, Co. Clare
Main article: Climate of Ireland

The island of Ireland extends over 84,421 Square kilometres (32,556 square miles), of which 83% (approx. five-sixths) belong to the Republic (70,280 km²; 27,103 sq mi), while the remainder constitute Northern Ireland. It is bound to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the northeast by the North Channel. To the east is found the Irish Sea which reconnects to the ocean via the southwest with St George's Channel and the Celtic Sea. The west coast of Ireland mostly consists of cliffs, hills and low mountains (the highest point being Carrauntoohil at 1,038 m or 3,406 ft). The interior of the country is relatively flat land, traversed by rivers such as the River Shannon and several large lakes or loughs. The centre of the country is part of the River Shannon watershed, containing large areas of bogland, used for peat extraction and production. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (6587 × 8336 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (6587 × 8336 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1532, 360 KB) The Cliffs of Moher (looking north), County Clare, Ireland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1532, 360 KB) The Cliffs of Moher (looking north), County Clare, Ireland. ... Ireland is sometimes known as the Emerald Isle because of its green scenery. ... See Also: Geography of Ireland Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain Geographic coordinates: 53° N, 8° W Map references: Europe Area: total: 70,280 km² land: 68,890 km² water: 1,390 km² Area - comparative: slightly... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... Carrantuohill, located in County Kerry, is the highest peak in Ireland. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


The local temperate climate is modified by the North Atlantic Current and is relatively mild. Summer temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) usually once every decade, though commonly reach 29 °C (84 °F) most summers, and freezes occur only occasionally in winter, with temperatures below -6 °C (21 °F) being uncommon. Precipitation is very common, with some parts of the country getting up to 275 days with rain annually. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Schematic of the worlds ocean currents. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Chief city conurbations are the capital Dublin 1,045,769 on the east coast, Cork 190,384 in the south, Limerick 90,757 in the mid-west, Galway 72,729 on the west coast, and Waterford 49,213 on the south east coast (see Cities in Ireland). For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... There are officially eleven cities in Ireland between the two jurisdictions in Ireland, five of these in Northern Ireland and six of them in the Republic of Ireland. ...


Impact of agriculture

The long history of agricultural production coupled with modern intensive agricultural methods (such as pesticide and fertiliser use) has placed pressure on biodiversity in Ireland. Agriculture is the main factor determining current land use patterns in Ireland, leaving limited land to preserve natural habitats (also forestry and urban development to a lesser extent),[17] in particular for larger wild mammals with greater territorial requirements. With no top predator in Ireland, populations of animals that cannot be controlled by smaller predators (such as the fox) are controlled by annual culling, i.e. semi-wild populations of deer. A land of green fields for crop cultivation and cattle rearing limits the space available for the establishment of native wild species. Hedgerows, however, traditionally used for maintaining and demarcating land boundaries, act as a refuge for native wild flora. Their ecosystems stretch across the countryside and act as a network of connections to preserve remnants of the ecosystem that once covered the island. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... To cull is to remove from a group of animals those individuals who show signs of weakness. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... In gardening a hedge is a row of woody plants, generally of one species, used to demarcate spaces. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Pollution from agricultural activities is one of the principal sources of environmental damage. "Runoff" of contaminants into streams, rivers and lakes impact the natural fresh-water ecosystems.[18] Subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy which supported these agricultural practices and contributed to land-use distortions are undergoing reforms.[19] The CAP still subsidises some potentially destructive agricultural practices, however, the recent reforms have gradually decoupled subsidies from production levels and introduced environmental and other requirements.[19] The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ...


Forest covers about 10% of the country, with most designated for commercial production.[17] Forested areas typically consist of monoculture plantations of non-native species which may result in habitats that are not suitable for supporting a broad range of native species of invertebrates. Remnants of native forest can be found scattered around the country, in particular in the Killarney National Park. Natural areas require fencing to prevent over-grazing by deer and sheep that roam over uncultivated areas. This is one of the main factors preventing the natural regeneration of forests across many regions of the country.[20] Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... Thelenota ananas, a sea cucumber (phylum: Echinodermata) An invertebrate is an animal lacking a vertebral column. ... The Lakes of Killarney as viewed from Ladies View Killarney National Park (Irish: ) is located beside Killarney, County Kerry, Ireland. ...


Education

See also: Education in the Republic of Ireland

The education systems are largely under the direction of the government via the Minister for Education and Science (currently Batt O'Keefe, TD). Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by authorities that have power to set them. The Republic of Irelands education system is quite similar to that of most other western countries. ... The Minister for Education and Science is the senior minister at the Department of Education and Science (An Roinn Oideachais agus Eolaíochta) in the Irish Government. ... Batt OKeeffe (b. ...


The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Ireland's education as the 20th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average.[21] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Primary, Secondary and Tertiary (University/College) level education are all free in Ireland for all EU citizens. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...


Economy

Disposable income per person as a percentage of the national average in 2005.

The economy of Ireland has transformed in recent years from an agricultural focus to a modern knowledge economy, focusing on services and high-tech industries and dependent on trade, industry and investment. Economic growth in Ireland averaged a (relatively high) 10% from 1995–2000, and 7% from 2001–2004. Industry, which accounts for 46% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and 29% of the labour force, now takes the place of agriculture as the country's leading sector. The economy of Ireland is modern and trade-dependent with growth averaging a robust 10% in 1995–2000. ... A knowledge economy is either economy of knowledge focused on the economy of the producing and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. ... GDP redirects here. ...


Exports play a fundamental role in Ireland's growth, but the economy also benefits from the accompanying rise in consumer spending, construction, and business investment. On paper, the country is the largest exporter of software-related goods and services in the world.[unreliable source?] In fact, a lot of foreign software, and sometimes music, is filtered through the country to avail of Ireland's non-taxing of royalties from copyrighted goods.[citation needed]


A key part of economic policy, since 1987, has been Social Partnership which is a neo-corporatist set of voluntary 'pay pacts' between the Government, employers and trades unions. These usually set agreed pay rises for three-year periods. Social Partnership is the term used for the tripartite, triennial national wage agreements reached in the Republic of Ireland. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ...


Ireland joined in launching the Euro currency system in January 1999 (leaving behind the Irish pound) along with eleven other EU nations. The 1995 to 2000 period of high economic growth led many to call the country the Celtic Tiger. The economy felt the impact of the global economic slowdown in 2001, particularly in the high-tech export sector — the growth rate in that area was cut by nearly half. GDP growth continued to be relatively robust, with a rate of about 6% in 2001 and 2002. Growth for 2004 was over 4%, and for 2005 was 4.7%. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... For the coin of the same value, see Irish one pound coin. ... For the Irish dance show, see Celtic Tiger Live. ...


With high growth came high levels of inflation, particularly in the capital city. Prices in Dublin, where nearly 30% of Ireland's population lives, are considerably higher than elsewhere in the country,[22] especially in the property market. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The property market in the Republic of Ireland in 2007 is controversially described by some as the Irish Property Bubble. ...


Measuring Ireland's level of income per capita is a complicated issue. Ireland possesses the second highest GDP (PPP) per capita in the world (US$43,600 as of 2006), behind Luxembourg, and the fifth highest Human Development Index, which is calculated partially on the basis of GDP per capita. However, many economists feel that GDP per capita is an inappropriate measure of national income for Ireland, as it neglects the fact that much income generated in Ireland belongs to multinational companies and eventually goes offshore.[23] Another measure, Gross National Income per head, takes account of this and therefore many economists feel it is a superior measure of income in the country. In 2005, the World Bank measured Ireland's GNI per head at $41,140 - the seventh highest in the world, sixth highest in Western Europe, and the third highest of any EU member state. Also, a study by The Economist found Ireland to have the best quality of life in the world.[24] This study employed GDP per capita as a measure of income rather than GNI per capita. GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people. ...


The positive reports and economic statistics mask several underlying imbalances. The construction sector, which is inherently cyclical in nature, now accounts for a significant component of Ireland's GDP. A recent downturn in residential property market sentiment has highlighted the over-exposure of the Irish economy to construction, which now presents a threat to economic growth.[25][26][27] Several successive years of economic growth have led to an increase in inequality [28] in Irish society (see Economy of Ireland - Recent developments) and a decrease in poverty.[29] Irelands's Gini co-efficient is 30.4, slightly below the OECD average of 30.7.[30] Figures show that 6.8% of Ireland's population suffer "consistent poverty".[31] The economy of Ireland is modern and trade-dependent with growth averaging a robust 10% in 1995–2000. ...


However, after a construction boom in the last decade, economic growth is now slowing. There has been a significant fall in house prices and the cost of living is rising. It is said the Irish economy is rebalancing itself. The ESRI predicts that the Irish economy wil not grow this year at all and may retract by -0.5% in 2008, down hugely from 4.7% growth in 2007, but expects economic growth to near 2% again in 2009 and near 4% in 2010.[32] The huge reduction in construction has caused Irelands massive economic downturn, if construction was not included in the economic outlook Ireland would still grow by about 2.5% however this is the first time in over 2 decades that the ESRI has applied the term recession to the Irish economy. Ireland now has the second-highest level of household debt in the world, at 190% of household income.[33] The Economic and Social Research Institute in Ireland produces research focusing on Irelands economic and social development in order to inform policy-making and societal understanding. ...


Currency

The currency in the Republic of Ireland is the Euro (ISO currency code EUR) . Euro banknotes are issued in €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500 denominations. Euro Banknotes are common across across Europe, however Ireland has its own unique signature on Euro coins[34] The Government in Ireland decided on a single national design for all Irish coin denominations. They show the Celtic harp, a traditional symbol of Ireland, decorated with the year of issue and the word "Éire".


Military

Main article: Irish Defence Forces

Ireland's armed forces are organised under the Irish Defence Forces (Óglaigh na hÉireann). The Irish Army is relatively small compared to other neighbouring armies in the region, but is well equipped, with 8,500 full-time military personnel (13,000 in the reserve army).[35] This is principally due to Ireland's policy of neutrality,[36] and its "triple-lock" rules governing participation in conflicts whereby approval must be given by the UN, the Government and the Dáil before any Irish troops are deployed into a conflict zone.[37] Deployments of Irish soldiers cover UN peace-keeping duties, protection of Ireland's territorial waters (in the case of the Irish Naval Service) and Aid to Civil Power operations in the state. See Irish neutrality. The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... The only true Óglaigh na hÉireann is the Irish Republican Army, which is under the direction of the Continuity Army Council. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... UN redirects here. ... The Irish Naval Service (in Irish: Seirbhís Chabhlaigh na hÉireann or just An tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh for the Naval Service) is the navy of the Republic of Ireland and is one of the three standing branches of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... Irish neutrality has been a policy of the Irish Free State and its successor, Ireland, since independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1922. ...


There is also an Irish Air Corps and Reserve Defence Forces (Irish Army Reserve and Naval Service Reserve) under the Defence Forces. The Irish Army Rangers is a special forces branch which operates under the aegis of the army. The Irish Air Corps (in Irish: Aer Chór na hÉireann) provides the air defence function of Oglaigh na hÉireann (the Irish Defence Forces), in support of the Army and Naval Service, together with such other roles as may be assigned by the Government (e. ... The Reserve Defence Forces is the title given to the reserve components of the Irish Defence Forces. ... The Army Reserve (Irish: Cúltaca an Airm), formerly known as An Fórsa Cosanta Áitiúil (FCÁ), is the reserve force of the Irish Army. ... Naval Service Reserve (NSR) (or Cúltaca Na Seirbhíse Cabhlaigh in Irish) is the second line reserve of the Irish Naval Service. ... The Irish Army Ranger Wing (or Sciathán Fiannóglach na hAirm in Irish) is the special forces unit of the Irish Defence Forces. ...


Over 40,000 Irish servicemen have served in UN peacekeeping missions around the world.


The Republic's air facilities were used by the U.S. military for the delivery of military personnel involved in the 2003 invasion of Iraq through Shannon Airport; previously the airport had been used for the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, as well as the First Gulf War.[38] This is part of a longer history of use of Shannon for controversial military transport, under Irish military policy which, while ostensibly neutral, was biased towards NATO during the Cold War.[39] During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Seán Lemass authorised the search of Cuban and Czech aircraft passing through Shannon and passed the information to the CIA.[40] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Shannon International Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish is one of Irelands primary three airports (along with Dublin Airport and Cork Airport). ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


During the Second World War, although officially neutral, Ireland supplied similar, though more extensive, support for the Allied Forces (see Irish neutrality during World War II). Since 1999, Ireland has been a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program.[41][42] Marking to alert aircraft to neutral Ireland (Éire) during WWII on Malin Head, Co Donegal The Irish policy of neutrality during the Second World War has variously been described as cowardice and duplicity and much writing on the subject has concentrated on the unduly negative aspects of it, preferring to... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ...


Demographics

International rankings
Indicator Rank Measure
Economy
GDP (PPP) per capita 2nd $44,087
GNP 7th $41,140
Unemployment rate 28th 4.30%
CO2 emissions 30th 10.3 t
Electricity consumption 61st 22.79 GWh
Economic Freedom 3rd 1.58
Politics
Human Development Index 5th 0.959
Political freedom 1st* 1
Press freedom 8th* 2.00
Corruption (A higher score means less (perceived) corruption.) ↓17th 7.5
Global Peace Index 4th 1.396
Democracy Index 11th 9.01
Failed States Index ↓ 4th 19.5
Henley Visa Restrictions Index 2nd 129
Society
Literacy rate 18th* 99.0%
Quality-of-life index 1st 8.333 (out of 10)
Broadband penetration 22.9%
Mobile phone penetration 121%
Alcohol consumption 2nd 13.7 L
3.0 imp gal
3.6 US gal
Beer consumption 2nd 131.1 L
28.8 imp gal
34.6 US gal
International Property Rights Index 14th 7.4
Health
Life expectancy 78.4
Birth rate 15.2
Fertility rate 133rd 1.96††
Infant mortality 172th 4.9‡‡
Death rate 6.5
Suicide rate 48th ♂ 16.3†‡
♀ 3.2†‡
HIV/AIDS rate 123rd 0.10%
Notes
↓ indicates rank is in reverse order (e.g. 1st is lowest)
* joint with one or more other countries
per capita
per 1000 people
†† per woman
‡‡ per 1000 live births
†‡per 100,000 people
♂ indicates males, ♀ indicates females

Genetic research suggests that the first settlers of Ireland, and parts of North-Western Europe, came through migrations from Iberia following the end of the most recent ice age.[43] After the Mesolithic, the Neolithic and Bronze Age migrants introduced Celtic culture and languages to Ireland. These later migrants from the Neolithic to Bronze Age still represent a minority of the genetic heritage of Irish people. ("Origins of the British", Stephen Oppenheimer, 2006)[44] Culture spread throughout the island, and the Gaelic tradition became the dominant form in Ireland. Today, Irish people are mainly of Gaelic ancestry, and although some of the population is also of Norse, Anglo-Norman, English, Scottish, French and Welsh ancestry, these groups have been assimilated and do not form distinct minority groups. Gaelic culture and language forms an important part of national identity. In the UK, Irish Travellers are a recognised ethnic minority group, politically (but not ethnically) linked with mainland European Roma and Gypsy groups,[45] although in Ireland, they are not, instead they are classified as a "social group".[46] The international dollar is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power that the U.S. dollar has in the United States at a given point in time. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here CO2 emission per capita per year per country This is a list of countriesafsdafdasfsdfsfsdfafsafsdafsadfs by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2003. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... The watt-hour (symbol W·h) is a unit of energy. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... Democracy index map. ... Failed state is a term intended to mean a weak state in which the central government has little practical control over much of its territory. ... World literacy rates by country, based on The World Factbook. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Mobile phone penetration in Europe  120% >  100-120%  80-100%  < 80%  No data // The country has 2. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... This article is about post-1824 imperial units, see also English unit, U.S. customary units or Avoirdupois. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ... This is a list of countries ordered by per-capita consumption of beer, as of 2004. ... International Property Rights Index is an organization that investigate and ranks the individuals rights and ability to own property in countries worldwide. ... This article is under construction. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... This is a list of countries by infant mortality rate, based on The World Factbook, 2005 estimates. ... World map of suicide rates per 100,000. ... People living with HIV/AIDS by country The adult HIV prevalence at the end of 2004 This is a list of countries and territories by people living with HIV/AIDS and the prevalence rate among adults, based on data from various sources, such as the The CIA World Factbook [1... Population (in millions) from 1841 - 2006 The initial, ancient settlers of Ireland were migrants from tribes in modern-day Iberia and southern France [1]. Modern-day Irish people are mainly of Gaelic ancestry, and although some of the population is also of English, Scottish (also often Gaelic), Anglo-Norman, Viking... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article is about the European people. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... “Minority” redirects here. ...


Ireland, as of 2007, contains the fastest growing population in Europe. The growth rate in 2006 was 2.5%, the third year in a row it has been above 2%. This rapid growth can be said to be due to falling death rates, rising birth rates and high immigration rates. [47] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Languages

Main articles: Languages of Ireland, Irish language, Hiberno-English, and Mid Ulster English

The official languages are Irish and English. Teaching of the Irish and English languages is compulsory in the primary and secondary level schools that receive money and recognition from the state. Some students may be exempt from the requirement to receive instruction in either language. English is by far the predominant language spoken throughout the country. People living in predominantly Irish-speaking communities, Gaeltacht regions, are limited to the low tens of thousands in isolated pockets largely on the western seaboard. Road signs are usually bilingual, except in Gaeltacht regions, where they are in Irish only. The legal status of place names has recently been the subject of controversy, with an order made in 2005 under the Official Languages Act changing the official name of certain locations from English back to Irish (e.g. Dingle had its name changed to An Daingean despite local opposition and a local plebiscite requesting that the name be changed to a bilingual version: Dingle Daingean Ui Chuis. Most public notices are only in English, as are most of the print media. Most Government publications and forms are available in both English and Irish, and citizens have the right to deal with the state in Irish if they so wish. National media in Irish exist on TV (TG4), radio (e.g. Raidió na Gaeltachta), and in print (e.g. Lá Nua and Foinse). This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mid Ulster English (Ulster Anglo-Irish) is the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... The Official Languages Act 2003 is a Act of the Oireachtas of the Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference Q445012 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2006) 1,920  John Street, Dingle Dingle (Irish: or ) is a town in County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland, on the Atlantic coast some 50 km west-south-west of Tralee and 80 km west-north... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... TG4 (Irish: TG Ceathair or TG a Ceathair; IPA: /tiː dÊ’iː kʲahəɾʲ/) is a television channel in Ireland, aimed at Irish-language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann on 31 October 1996. ... RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (RnaG; Irish for Gaeltacht Radio) is the Irish-language radio service of Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ) in Ireland, and is available on 92-94FM in Ireland and via the Internet. ... Lá Nua (meaning New Day) is an Irish language daily newspaper based in Belfast. ... Foinse is the biggest Irish language newspaper in Ireland. ...


According to the 2006 census, 1,656,790 people (or 39%) in the Republic regard themselves as competent in Irish; though no figures are available for English-speakers, it is thought to be almost 100%.


The Polish language is one of the most widely-spoken languages in Ireland after English and Irish: there are over 63,000 Poles resident in Ireland according to the 2006 census. Other languages spoken in Ireland include Shelta, spoken by the Irish Traveller population and a dialect of Scots is spoken by the descendents of Scottish settlers in Ulster. Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Shelta is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ...


Most students at second level choose one or two foreign languages to learn. Languages available for the Junior Certificate and the Leaving Certificate include French, German, Italian and Spanish; Leaving Certificate students can also study Arabic, Japanese and Russian. Some schools also offer Ancient Greek, Hebrew Studies and Latin at second level. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Statement of Provisional Results is issued in the September after the examination, a final certificate is issued at a later date. ... The Leaving Certificate (Irish: Ardteistiméireacht), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the final course in the Irish secondary school system and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Recent population growth

Ireland's population has increased significantly in recent years. Much of this population growth can be attributed to the arrival of immigrants and the return of Irish people (often with their foreign-born children) who emigrated in large numbers in earlier years during periods of high unemployment. In addition the birth rate in Ireland is currently over double the death rate, which is highly unusual among Western European countries.[48] Approximately 10% of Ireland's population is now made up of foreign citizens.

Non-national groups with populations in Ireland of 10,000 or more in 2006. Non-European Union nationals are shown exploded.
Non-national groups with populations in Ireland of 10,000 or more in 2006. Non-European Union nationals are shown exploded.

The CSO has published preliminary findings based on the 2006 Census of Population. These indicate: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 729 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (889 × 731 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) A pie chart of non-national population of the Republic of Ireland (for nationalities >10,000 persons). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 729 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (889 × 731 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) A pie chart of non-national population of the Republic of Ireland (for nationalities >10,000 persons). ... The Central Statistics Office (CSO) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions in the Republic of Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years. ...

  • The total population of Ireland on Census Day, April 23, 2006, was 4,234,925, an increase of 317,722, or 8.1% since 2002
  • Allowing for the incidence of births (245,000) and deaths (114,000), the derived net immigration of people to Ireland between 2002 and 2006 was 186,000.
  • The total number of non-nationals (foreign citizens) resident in Ireland is 419,733, or around 10% (plus 1,318 people with 'no nationality' and 44,279 people whose nationality is not stated).
  • The single largest group of immigrants comes from the United Kingdom (112,548) followed by Poland (63,267), Lithuania (24,628), Nigeria (16,300), Latvia (13,319), the United States (12,475), China (11,161), and Germany (10,289).
  • 94.8% of the population was recorded as having a 'White' ethnic or cultural background. 1.1% of the population had a 'Black or Black Irish' background, 1.3% had an 'Asian or Asian Irish' background and 1.7% of the population's ethnic or cultural background was 'not stated'.
  • The average annual rate of increase, 2%, is the highest on record – compared to 1.3% between 1996 and 2002 and 1.5% between 1971 and 1979.
  • The 2006 population was last exceeded in the 1861 Census when the population then was 4.4 million The lowest population of Ireland was recorded in the 1961 Census – 2.8 million.
  • All provinces of Ireland recorded population growth. The population of Leinster grew by 8.9%; Munster by 6.5%; and the long-term population decline of the Connacht-Ulster[49] Region has stopped.
  • The ratio of males to females has declined in each of the four provinces between 1979 and 2006. Leinster is the only province where the number of females exceeds the number of males. Males predominate in rural counties such as Cavan, Leitrim, and Roscommon while there are more females in cities and urban areas.

A more detailed breakdown of these figures is available online. Census 2006 Principal Demographic ResultsPDF (894 KiB) is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Look up Cavan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County seat: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² (613 sq mi) Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... Roscommon (Ros Comáin in Irish) is the county town of County Roscommon in the Republic of Ireland. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Detailed statistics into the population of Ireland since 1841 are available at Irish Population Analysis. Motto: none Anthem: Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldiers Song) Capital Dublin Largest city Dublin Official language(s) Irish, English Government Republic  - President Mary McAleese  - Taoiseach Bertie Ahern Independence From United Kingdom   - Declared 21 January 1919   - Recognised 6 December 1922  Accession to EU January 1, 1973 Area    - Total 70...


Religion

A pie chart showing the proportion of followers of each religion (and none) in Ireland in 2006.
A pie chart showing the proportion of followers of each religion (and none) in Ireland in 2006.
St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland (part of the Anglican Communion).
St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland (part of the Anglican Communion).

Ireland is officially a secular state, and the constitution states that the state is forbidden from endowing any particular religion. Approximately 86.8% of the population are Roman Catholic,[50] and the country has one of the highest rates of regular and weekly church attendance in the Western World.[51] However, there has been a major decline in this attendance among Irish Catholics in the course of the past 30 years. Between 1996 and 2001, regular Mass attendance, declined further from 60% to 48%[52] (it had been above 90% before 1973), and all but two of its sacerdotal seminaries have closed (St Patrick's College, Maynooth and St Malachy's College, Belfast). A number of theological colleges continue to educate both ordained and lay people. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 622 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (791 × 762 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) A pie chart showing the proportion of religions in Ireland in 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 622 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (791 × 762 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) A pie chart showing the proportion of religions in Ireland in 2006. ... Download high resolution version (533x800, 190 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (533x800, 190 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Occident redirects here. ... Irish Catholics are persons of predominantly Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... This article discusses the Mass as part of Christian liturgy, in particular the form it has taken in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church. ...


The second largest Christian denomination, the Church of Ireland (Anglican), was declining in number for most of the twentieth century, but has more recently experienced an increase in membership, according to the 2002 census, as have other small Christian denominations, as well as Hinduism. Other large Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, followed by the Methodist Church in Ireland. The very small Jewish community in Ireland also recorded a marginal increase (see History of the Jews in Ireland) in the same period. The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... // Indians first arrived in Northern Ireland in the 1920s. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... Modern logo of the Methodist Church in Ireland The Methodist Church in Ireland has approximately 80,000 members across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grave of an unknown Jewish person in Castletroy, Limerick. ...


The patron saints of Ireland are Saint Patrick and Saint Bridget. St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... Saint Brigid redirects here. ...


According to the 2006 census, the number of people who described themselves as having "no religion" was 186,318 (4.4%). An additional 1,515 people described themselves as agnostic and 929 as atheist instead of ticking the "no religion" box. This brings the total nonreligious within the state to 4.5% of the population. A further 70,322 (1.7%) did not state a religion.[53]


Religion and politics

Constitution

The 1937 Constitution of Ireland gave the Catholic Church a "special position" as the church of the majority, but also recognised other Christian denominations and Judaism. As with other predominantly Catholic European states (e.g., Italy), the Irish state underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In 1972, the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups, including the Catholic Church, was deleted by the fifth amendment of the constitution in a referendum. The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, removed from the constitution a controversial reference to the special position of the Roman Catholic Church as well as recognition of certain other named religious denominations. ...


Article 44 remains in the Constitution. It begins:

The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion.

The article also establishes freedom of religion (for belief, practice, and organisation without undue interference from the state), prohibits endowment of any particular religion, prohibits the state from religious discrimination, and requires the state to treat religious and non-religious schools in a non-prejudicial manner.


Abortion and divorce

Catholic doctrine prohibits abortion in all circumstances, putting it in conflict with the pro-choice movement. In 1983, the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland recognised "the right to life of the unborn", subject to qualifications concerning the "equal right to life" of the mother. The case of Attorney General v. X prompted passage of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, guaranteeing the right to travel abroad to have an abortion performed, and the right of citizens to learn about "services" that are illegal in Ireland but legal outside the country (see Abortion in Ireland). Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, introduced the controversial constitutional ban on abortion. ... Attorney General v. ... The Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland specifies that the prohibition of abortion would not limit freedom of travel from Ireland to other countries where a person might legally obtain an abortion. ... The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland was passed on December 23, 1992. ... Abortion in Ireland has had a controversial history and remains a disputed subject today. ...


Catholic and Protestant attitudes in 1937 also disapproved of divorce, which was prohibited by the original Constitution. It was not until 1995 that the Fifteenth Amendment repealed this ban. The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, repealed the constitutional prohibition of divorce. ...


Sex abuse scandals

See also: Roman Catholic sex abuse cases

The Catholic Church was hit in the 1990s by a series of sexual abuse scandals and cover-up charges against its hierarchy. In 2005, a major inquiry was made into child sexual abuse allegations. The Ferns report, published on 25 October 2005, revealed that more than 100 cases of child sexual abuse, between 1962 and 2002, by 21 priests, had taken place in the Diocese of Ferns alone. The report criticised the Gardaí and the health authorities, who failed to protect the children to the best of their abilities; and in the case of the Garda before 1988, no file was ever recorded on sexual abuse complaints. The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Garda Síochána na hÉireann (pronounced ; Irish for Peace Guard of Ireland, often rendered[1] as The Guardians of the Peace of Ireland) is the police force of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Education

Despite a large number of schools in Ireland being run by religious organisations, a general trend of secularism is occurring within the Irish population, particularly in the younger generations.[54] Many efforts have been made by secular groups, to eliminate the rigorous study in the second and sixth classes, to prepare for the sacraments of Holy Communion and confirmation in Catholic schools - parents can ask for their children to be excluded from religious study if they wish. However, religious studies as a subject was introduced into the state administered Junior Certificate in 2001, although it is not compulsory and deals with aspects of different religions, not focusing on one particular religion. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... confirmed redirects here. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... A Statement of Provisional Results is issued in the September after the examination, a final certificate is issued at a later date. ...


Schools run by religious organisations, but receive public money and recognition, are not allowed to discriminate against pupils based upon religion (or lack of).


Contraception and gay rights

See also: LGBT culture in Ireland and LGBT rights in the Republic of Ireland

In the past, Ireland has historically favoured conservative legislation regarding sexuality. For example, contraception was illegal in Ireland until 1979.[55] Another example is the legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was not repealed until 1993 although it was generally only enforced when dealing with underage sex.[56][57] However, Ireland has taken steps to change its policies in regards to these issues; for instance, discrimination based on sexual preference is illegal. The Irish government published same-sex civil partnerships legislation in June 2008, which is expected to be law within a year. A poll carried out in 2008, showed that 84% of Irish people supported civil marriage or civil partnerships for gay and lesbian couples, with 58% supporting full marriage rights in registry offices.[58] Government recognition of LGBT rights in the Republic of Ireland has expanded greatly over the past two decades. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The Republic of Ireland has made significant progress in protecting the human rights of its LGBT citizens. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Ireland

The island of Ireland has produced the Book of Kells, and writers such as George Berkeley, Sheridan le Fanu, Jonathan Swift, James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Oliver Goldsmith, Oscar Wilde, W.B. Yeats, Patrick Kavanagh, Samuel Beckett, Brian O'Nolan, who published as Flann O'Brien, John Millington Synge, Seán O'Casey, Seamus Heaney, Bram Stoker, Elizabeth Bowen, Kate O'Brien, Seán Ó Faoláin, Frank O'Connor, William Trevor and others. Shaw, Yeats, Beckett and Heaney are Nobel Literature laureates. Other prominent writers include John Banville, Roddy Doyle, Pádraic Ó Conaire, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Séamus Ó Grianna, Dermot Bolger, Maeve Binchy, Frank McCourt, Edna O'Brien, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill, Paul Muldoon, Thomas McCarthy, Joseph O'Connor, Eoin Colfer, John McGahern and Colm Tóibín. A page from the Book of Kells. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Sheridan Le Fanu Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (August 28, 1814 – February 7, 1873) was an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... This article is about the writer and poet. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Patrick Kavanagh (Irish: ) (21 October 1904 - 30 November 1967) was an Irish poet. ... This article is about the Irish writer. ... Flann OBrien (October 5, 1911, Strabane, County Tyrone Ireland – April 1, 1966 Dublin) is a pseudonym of the twentieth century Irish novelist and satirist Brian ONolan (in Irish Brian Ó Nuallain), best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Swim-Two-Birds and The Third Policeman. ... Edmund John Millington Synge (IPA: ) (April 16, 1871 – March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... Sean OCasey Sean OCasey (March 30, 1880 - September 18, 1964) was a major Irish dramatist and memorist. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish writer of novels and short stories, who is best known today for his 1897 horror novel Dracula. ... Elizabeth Dorothea Cole Bowen (7 June 1899 – 22 February 1973) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer. ... Irish stamp on the occasion of Kate OBriens birth centenary Kate OBrien (December 3, 1897 - August 13, 1974), was an Irish novelist and playwright. ... Seán Proinsias Ó Faoláin (the Irish name of John Francis Whelan; February 22, 1900 - April 20, 1991) was an Irish short story writer. ... For the actor, husband of Ayn Rand, see Frank OConnor (actor). ... William Trevor, KBE (born May 24, 1928) is a short story writer, novelist and playwright of Irish origin, later living in Devon in England. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... John Banville (born 8 December 1945) is an Irish novelist and journalist. ... Roddy Doyle (Irish: , born May 8, 1958 in Dublin) is an Irish novelist, dramatist and screenwriter. ... Pádraic Ó Conaire (February 28, 1882 – October 6, 1928) was an Irish writer and journalist whose production was primarily in the Irish language. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dermot Bolger (born 1959) is an Irish novelist, playwright and poet born in Finglas, a suburb of Dublin. ... Maeve Binchy (born May 28, 1940, Dalkey, Ireland) is a popular Irish novelist and newspaper columnist. ... Frank McCourt Colum McCann, unknown, Christopher Cahill and Frank McCourt Francis Frank McCourt (born August 19, 1930) is an Irish-American teacher and author. ... Edna OBrien (born December 15, 1930) is an Irish novelist and short story writer whose works often revolve around the inner feelings of women, and their problems in relating to men. ... Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (1952-) is an Irish poet. ... Paul Muldoon (b. ... Thomas McCarthy (b. ... Joseph Victor OConnor (born September 20, 1963) is an Irish novelist and brother of singer Sinéad OConnor. ... Eoin Colfer (pronounced Owen, IPA: )(born May 14, 1965) is an Irish author. ... John McGahern (November 12, 1934 – March 30, 2006) was an Irish writer (in English). ... Colm Tóibín Colm Tóibín (pronounced ) (born 1955 in Enniscorthy, County Wexford, Ireland) is an Irish novelist and critic. ...


Prominent Irish artists include Nathaniel Hone, James Arthur O'Connor, Roderick O'Conor, Jack Yeats, William Orpen, Mainie Jellett, Louis le Brocquy, Anne Madden, Robert Ballagh, James Coleman, Dorothy Cross and John Gerrard.


Ireland is known for its Irish traditional music, but has produced many other internationally influential artists in other musical genres, such as U2, Thin Lizzy, The Pogues, the alternative rock group The Cranberries, Blues guitarist Rory Gallagher, folk singer Christy Moore, Celtic Woman, The Chieftains and singer Sinéad O'Connor. This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Thin Lizzy are a hard rock band who formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... The Cranberries are an Irish alternative rock band that rose to mainstream popularity in the 1990s. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Rory Gallagher (2 March 1948–14 June 1995) was an Irish blues/rock guitarist, born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, grew up in Cork City in the south of Ireland. ... Christopher Andrew Christy Moore (born on May 7, 1945, in Newbridge, County Kildare) is a very popular Irish folk singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Celtic Woman is a musical ensemble comprised of five Irish and one New Zealand female artists: vocalists Chloë Agnew, Órla Fallon, Lisa Kelly, Méav Ní Mhaolchatha and Hayley Westenra, and violinist Máiréad Nesbitt. ... The Chieftains are a Grammy-winning Irish musical group founded in 1963, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... Sinéad Marie Bernadette OConnor (pronounced [1]) (born December 8, 1966) is a Grammy Award winning Irish singer and songwriter. ...


In classical music, the island of Ireland was also the birthplace of the notable composers Turlough O'Carolan, John Field (inventor of the Nocturne), Gerald Barry, Michael William Balfe, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford and Charles Wood. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Turlough OCarolan (Irish name Toirdhealbhach Ó Cearbhalláin, 1670 - March 25, 1738) was a blind, itinerant Irish harper and composer whose great fame is due to his gifts for composition and verse. ... John Field John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... For the ancient form of Christian night prayer, see Nocturns. ... Gerald Barry (born April 28, 1952) is an Irish composer. ... Michael William Balfe (May 15, 1808 - October 20, 1870), was an Irish composer, best known today for his opera The Bohemian Girl. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... Charles Wood (15 June 1866-12 July 1926)was an Irish composer and teacher. ...


Robert Boyle was a seventeenth-century physicist and discovered Boyle's Law. Ernest Walton of Trinity College Dublin shared the 1951 Nobel Prize in Physics for "splitting the atom". William Rowan Hamilton was a significant mathematician. The Irish philosopher and theologian Eriugena, was considered one of the leading intellectuals of his era. For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws and basis of derivation for the ideal gas law, which describes the relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature and moles remain at a fixed... Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (October 6, 1903 – June 25, 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with atom-smashing experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s. ... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... For other persons named William Hamilton, see William Hamilton (disambiguation). ... Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ...


Architecture

The architecture of Ireland is one of the most visible features in the Irish countryside - with remains from all eras since the stone age abounding. Ireland is famous for its ruined and intact Norman and Anglo-Irish castles, small whitewashed thatched cottages and Georgian urban buildings. What are unaccountably somewhat less famous are the great, still complete palladian and rococo country houses which can be favourably compared to anything similar in northern Europe, and the country's many mighty Gothic and neo-Gothic cathedrals and buildings. Despite the ofttimes significant British and European influence, the fashion and trends of architecture have been adapted to suit the peculiarities of the particular location. In the late 20th century a new economic climate resulted in a renaissance of Irish culture and design, placing some of Ireland's cities, once again, at the cutting edge of modern architecture. Christ Church Cathedral founded c. ...


Entertainment

Successful entertainment exports in the late twentieth century include acts such as U2, Thin Lizzy, The Pogues, My Bloody Valentine, Rory Gallagher, Sinéad O'Connor, Boomtown Rats, The Corrs, Horslips, Boyzone, Ronan Keating, The Cranberries, Clannad, Gilbert O'Sullivan, Westlife and Enya, and the internationally acclaimed dance shows Riverdance and Lord of the Dance. This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Thin Lizzy are a hard rock band who formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ... This article is about the music group. ... Rory Gallagher (2 March 1948–14 June 1995) was an Irish blues/rock guitarist, born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, grew up in Cork City in the south of Ireland. ... Sinéad Marie Bernadette OConnor (pronounced [1]) (born December 8, 1966) is a Grammy Award winning Irish singer and songwriter. ... The Boomtown Rats The Boomtown Rats (1975-1985) were a punk rock/new wave group headed by Bob Geldof, who was later known for organizing charity rock concerts such as Band Aid (intended to help famine victims in Ethiopia), Live Aid, Live 8, and Hands Across America (intended to help... The Corrs are a multi-platinum, Grammy-nominated Celtic folk-rock and pop rock group from Dundalk, Republic of Ireland. ... Horslips were a 1970s Irish rock band that composed, arranged and performed their own Celtic rock songs and music based on traditional Irish jigs and reels. ... Boyzone are a popular Irish boy band of the 1990s. ... Ronan Keating (born March 3, 1977 in Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish pop singer who has had hits with boyband Boyzone and as a solo artist. ... The Cranberries are an Irish alternative rock band that rose to mainstream popularity in the 1990s. ... This article is about the Irish musical group. ... Gilbert OSullivan Raymond Edward OSullivan, known professionally as Gilbert OSullivan (born 1 December 1946, Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland) is an Irish singer-songwriter, best known for his early 1970s hits Alone Again (Naturally), Clair and Get Down. // Early in his life, his family moved to Swindon, Wiltshire... Westlife is an Irish pop band that was formed on July 3, 1998. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... Riverdance Promotional Poster Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting of traditional Irish step dancing, notable for its rapid leg movements while body and arms are kept largely stationary. ... Michael Flatleys Lord of the Dance - Current Poster. ...


In the early twenty-first century, Damien Rice and The Thrills rose to international fame. The Frames are a popular band in Ireland who are on the rise world-wide, although their status as possibly the best-liked live band in Ireland is under threat from newer bands like Bell X1. Damien Rice (born December 7, 1973) is an Irish folk singer. ... The Thrills are an Irish indie/rock band, formed in 2001 in Dublin. ... The Frames is an influential Irish band based mainly in Dublin. ... Bell X1 are an Irish rock band from North County Kildare in Ireland. ...

U2, the most successful Irish band of all time and one of the biggest bands internationally since the 1980s.
U2, the most successful Irish band of all time and one of the biggest bands internationally since the 1980s.

Notable Hollywood actors from the Republic of Ireland include Maureen O'Hara, Barry Fitzgerald, George Brent, Arthur Shields, Maureen O'Sullivan, Richard Harris, Peter O'Toole, Pierce Brosnan, Gabriel Byrne, Brendan Gleeson, Daniel Day Lewis (by citizenship), Colm Meaney, Colin Farrell, Brenda Fricker, Jonathan Rhys-Meyers, Stuart Townsend and Cillian Murphy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1473x901, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Republic of Ireland Ireland (state) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1473x901, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Republic of Ireland Ireland (state) ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Maureen OHara Maureen OHara (born Maureen FitzSimons) on August 17, 1920 is an Irish film actress. ... Barry Fitzgerald (March 10, 1888 – January 14, 1961) was an Irish actor. ... Brent (right) in Experiment Perilous George Brent (March 15, 1904 - May 26, 1979 was an actor in American cinema. ... Arthur Shields (February 15, 1896 -April 27, 1970) was an Irish stage and film actor. ... Maureen O’Sullivan (17 May 1911 – 23 June 1998) was an Irish actress and is considered Irelands first film star. ... For other persons named Richard Harris, see Richard Harris (disambiguation). ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Pierce Brendan Brosnan,The most gorgeous man on the planet OBE[1] (born May 16, 1953) is an Irish actor and producer best known for portraying James Bond in four films from 1995 to 2002: GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough and Die Another Day. ... Gabriel Byrne (born 12 May 1950) is an Irish actor. ... Gleeson as Professor Mad-Eye Moody in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ... Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born April 29, 1957) is a British actor. ... Colm J. Meaney ( or [1], Irish for dove); (born May 30, 1953 in Dublin) is an Irish actor widely known for his role as Miles OBrien in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. ... Colin James Farrell (born May 31, 1976) is an Irish actor who has appeared in several high-profile Hollywood films including Daredevil, Miami Vice, Minority Report, Phone Booth, Alexander, In Bruges. ... Brenda Fricker (born February 17, 1945 in Dublin, Ireland) is an Academy Award-winning Irish actress. ... Jonathan Rhys-Meyers (born Jonathan Michael Francis OKeeffe on 27 July 1977) is an Irish actor and Golden Globe winner. ... Stuart Townsend (born on December 15, 1972 in Howth, County Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish actor. ... Cillian Murphy[1] (born 25 May 1976) is an Irish film and theatre actor. ...


The flourishing Irish film industry, state-supported by Bord Scannán na hÉireann, helped launched the careers of directors Neil Jordan and Jim Sheridan, and supported Irish films such as John Crowley's Intermission, Neil Jordan's Breakfast on Pluto, and others. A policy of tax breaks and other incentives has also attracted international film to Ireland, including Mel Gibson's Braveheart and Steven Spielberg's Saving Private Ryan. Neil Jordan (born February 25, 1950) is an Academy Award-winning Irish filmmaker and novelist. ... Jim Sheridan (born February 6, 1949) is a film director who was born in Dublin, Ireland, and educated by the Irish Christian Brothers. ... John Crowley is an Irish theatre and film director who has received critical acclaim in both mediums and has had huge success on both sides of the Atlantic with his theatre work. ... Intermission is a 2003 motion picture directed by John Crowley which tells a story of a young couple and people surrounding them. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson, AO (born January 3, 1956) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American-Australian actor, director, producer and screenwriter. ... For the moshing term Braveheart, see Wall of death (moshing). ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... Saving Private Ryan is an eleven-time Academy Award nominated 1998 war film. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in Ireland

The national sports, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, are Gaelic football and hurling, arguably the world's fastest field team sport in terms of game play. Handball is also administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Notable former Gaelic Athletic Association players include the now retired pair of DJ Carey and Peter Canavan. The former Taoiseach Jack Lynch was a noted hurler and All-Ireland winner before entering politics. Well-known current players include Henry Shefflin, Sean Cavanagh and Colm Cooper. Sport on the island of Ireland is popular and widespread. ... For other uses, see GAA (disambiguation). ... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Gaelic handball (Irish: Liathróid Láimhe) (also known as handball, Irish handball, court handball or wall handball) is a sport similar to racquetball and squash in that it is one of the four Gaelic Games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. ... For other uses, see GAA (disambiguation). ... Denis Joseph D.J. Carey (born November 1970) is a forward for Kilkenny in the sport of hurling. ... Peter Canavan (born April 9, 1971) is an Irish Gaelic football player for his native Tyrone. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... John (Jack) Mary Lynch (15 August 1917—20 October 1999), was the fourth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; 1966 to 1973 and 1977 to 1979. ... Henry Shefflin (born 1 November 1979) is an Irish sportsperson. ... Sean Cavanagh is a Tyrone Gaelic Footballer. ... Colm Cooper (born June 3, 1983) is a Gaelic Footballer from County Kerry in Ireland. ...


Ireland has produced a number of talented sportsmen and women. In association football, former players include Roy Keane, Johnny Giles, Liam Brady, Denis Irwin, Packie Bonner, Niall Quinn and Paul McGrath, while players whose careers are ongoing include Lee Carsley, Steve Finnan, Shay Given, Damien Duff, and Robbie Keane. In rugby, Ireland has produced Brian O'Driscoll, Ronan O'Gara, Paul O'Connell, David Wallace and Keith Wood. Roy Maurice Keane (born 10 August 1971 in Mayfield, Cork City, Ireland) is an Irish former professional footballer and the current manager of English Premier League club Sunderland. ... Johnny Giles (born November 6, 1940 in Dublin) was the all-round midfield general who was at the heart of the great Leeds United team of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Liam Brady (born February 13, 1956 in Dublin, Ireland) is a former footballer, who is now a coach and television pundit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Patrick Joseph (Packie) Bonner was born on May 24, 1960, in Cloughglass, near the town of Burtonport in County Donegal, part of the Province of Ulster in Ireland. ... Niall John Quinn (Honorary) MBE (b. ... For other persons of the same name, see Paul McGrath. ... Lee Carsley (born February 28, 1974 in Birmingham, England) is a professional football player for Everton, and who represents the Republic of Ireland internationally (his grandmother is from Dunmanway, Co. ... Stephen John Finnan (born 24 April 1976 in Limerick) is an Irish football player, who currently plays for Liverpool. ... Séamus John James Shay Given (born 20 April 1976 in Lifford, County Donegal) is an Irish football goalkeeper who currently plays for Newcastle United and the Republic of Ireland, and is regarded as one of the finest and most reliable keepers in the English game. ... Damien Anthony Duff (born March 2, 1979 in Ballyboden, Dublin) is an Irish footballer. ... Robert David Robbie Keane (born 8 July 1980 in Tallaght, Dublin) is an Irish footballer, who currently plays as a striker for Tottenham Hotspur . ... Brian Gerald ODriscoll (born 21 January 1979) is an Irish professional rugby union player. ... Ronan John Ross OGara (born 7 March 1977, San Diego, California, U.S.) is an Irish rugby union footballer, occupying the fly-half position (usually called out half in Ireland and first five-eighths in New Zealand) for both Munster and Ireland. ... Paul OConnell (born 20 October 1979 in Limerick [1] ) is an Irish rugby union player who plays lock for Munster and Ireland. ... David Wallace or Dave Wallace can mean: David Wallace (governor) (1799-1859), American politician Dave Wallace (baseball) (born 1947), coach and player David Wallace (physicist) (born 1945), British David Wallace (actor) (born 1957), American David Foster Wallace (born 1962), American novelist Dave Wallace (musician) (fl. ... Keith Wood (born 27 January 1972 in Killaloe) is a former international rugby union footballer who played hooker for Ireland, the Lions, Harlequins and Munster. ...


In athletics, Sonia O'Sullivan, Eamonn Coghlan, Catherina McKiernan, Ronnie Delaney, John Treacy, David Gillick, and Derval O'Rourke have won medals at international events. Sonia OSullivan (born November 28, 1969) is an Irish runner from Cobh, County Cork. ... Eamon Coghlan (born November 21, 1952) is an Irish 4-time Olympian and retired runner. ... Catherina McKiernan (born: November 30, 1969) Cornafean, County Cavan, Ireland is a marathon, 10,000 metre and cross country athlete. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Treacy is an Irish Olympic athlete. ... David Gillick (born July 9, 1983 in Dublin) is Irish international track and field athlete. ... Derval ORourke (born 28th May, 1981, in Cork, Republic of Ireland) is an Irish sprint hurdles athlete. ...


In Cricket, the Ireland cricket team is an all Ireland team representing both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Ireland played in the 2007 World Cricket League and earlier managed to qualify for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. In their first match of the tournament they tied with Zimbabwe and in the second match they caused the biggest ever World Cup upset by beating Pakistan and eliminating them from the tournament. Many Irish players have played in England's county system and some in the Indian Cricket League. Notable Irish Cricketers include Ed Joyce the English batsman. The Ireland cricket team is the cricket team representing all Ireland (i. ... The ICC World Cricket League is a series of international one-day cricket tournaments for national teams without Test status, administered by the International Cricket Council. ... The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One Day International (ODI) cricket. ... The Indian Cricket League (ICL) is a private cricket league that runs parallel to the existing cricket league managed by BCCI. At the moment, matches in the ICL follow the Twenty20 format. ... Edmund Christopher Ed Joyce, born 22 September 1978 is an Irish[1] cricketer who has played in the England cricket team, and is a member of the England squad in the 2006-07 Ashes series. ...


Ken Doherty is a former World Champion (1997) snooker player. Ken Doherty (born September 17, 1969) is an Irish professional snooker player. ... Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a large baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. ...


John L. Sullivan, born 1858 in the United States to Irish immigrant parents, was the first modern world heavyweight champion. Barry McGuigan and Steve Collins were also world champion boxers, while Bernard Dunne was a European super bantamweight champion and Michael Carruth an Olympic gold medallist. Current prospects in the middleweight division are the undefeated John Duddy, and Andy Lee who has one defeat. Both fighters are aiming for world championship fights. For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ... Finbar Patrick Barry McGuigan MBE (born February 28, 1961 in Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland), nicknamed The Clones Cyclone, is a former professional boxer who became a world Featherweight champion. ... Steve Collins, nicknamed The Celtic Warrior, is a former world boxing Champion. ... Bernard Ben Dunne (born February 6, 1980 in Dublin, Ireland) is a professional boxer. ... Michael Carruth (born July 9, 1967) is a left-handed Irish Olympic boxer, who won the welterweight gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. ...


In motorsport, during the 1990s Jordan Grand Prix became the only independent team to win multiple Formula One races. Rallying also has a measure of popularity as a spectator sport, and in 2007 the Rally of Ireland (which was held in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) became a qualifying round of the FIA World Rally Championship and attracted an estimated attendance of some 200,000 spectators.[59] Eddie Jordan, founder and owner of Jordan Grand Prix, greets the fans in Montreal in 1996 Jordan Grand Prix was a Formula One constructor that competed from 1991 to 2005. ... F1 redirects here. ... Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event. ... Rally Ireland was a new addition to the FIA World Rally Championship (WRC) calendar in 2007. ... The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. ...


In cycling, Ireland produced Stephen Roche, the first and only Irishman to win the Tour de France in 1987, and the prolific Seán Kelly. Stephen Roche (Irish: Stiofán de Róiste) was born November 28, 1959 in Dundrum near Dublin, Ireland and is a retired professional cyclist. ... Seán Kelly (Irish: Seán Ó Ceallaigh) (born May 21, 1956) is a former professional road bicycle racer. ...


In golf, the current British Open champion is Irishman Pádraig Harrington. This article is about the game. ... “British Open” redirects here. ... Pádraig Harrington (born 31 August 1971) is an Irish professional golfer who is currently ranked world No. ...


Professional wrestler, Prince Devitt, was born in Dublin, and has made a large impact in the last few years on the independent circuit in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Fergal Devitt (born July 25, 1981) is an Irish professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Prince Devitt. ...


In 2002, Dermott Lennon became the first Irish rider to win a Show Jumping World Championship gold medal.


Transport

LUAS
LUAS
See also: Transport in Ireland, Rail transport in Ireland, and Roads in Ireland

The Republic of Ireland has three main international airports (Dublin, Shannon, and Cork) that serve a wide variety of European and intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights. The national airline is Aer Lingus, although low cost airline Ryanair is the largest airline. The route between London and Dublin is the busiest international air route in Europe, with 4.5 million people flying between the two cities in 2006.[60][61] Download high resolution version (1635x1200, 750 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... Download high resolution version (1635x1200, 750 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... Most of the transport system in Ireland rests in public hands, both north and south of the border. ... Rail services in Ireland are provided by Iarnród Éireann in the Republic of Ireland and by Northern Ireland Railways in Northern Ireland. ... A directional road sign in the Republic of Ireland on an other road (not a national road) at Portlaoise, County Laois, including patches for national roads and advance warning of bridge height restrictions. ... ... Private spiral ramp access to the main terminal building of Dublin (Áth Cliath) Airport Dublin Airport (IATA: DUB, ICAO: EIDW), or Aerfort Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish, is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority plc. ... Shannon International Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish is one of Irelands primary three airports (along with Dublin Airport and Cork Airport). ... Cork Airport, (Irish: Aerfort Chorcaí) (IATA: ORK, ICAO: EICK) is one of the three principal international airports in the Republic of Ireland (along with Dublin and Shannon). ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland. ... For the unrelated U.S. carrier, see Ryan International Airlines. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


Railways services are provided by Iarnród Éireann. Dublin is the centre of the network, with two main stations (Heuston and Connolly) linking to the main towns and cities. The Enterprise service, run jointly with Northern Ireland Railways, connects Dublin with Belfast. Dublin has a steadily improving public transport network of varying quality including the DART, LUAS, Bus service and an expanding rail network. Current Iarnród Eireann (Irish Rail) intercity rail network An IÉ commuter train at Tara Street Station, Dublin, 2006 IÉ no. ... Dublin Heuston, commonly called Heuston station, is located in Dublin, Ireland is one of the countrys main railway stations, serving the south, southwest and west of Ireland. ... Dublin Connolly railway station. ... Enterprise service in Dublin, 1980 Belfast Central Botanic Lisburn Lurgan Portadown Newry UK / Ireland border Dundalk Drogheda Dublin Connolly Enterprise is the name of the cross-border inter-city train service between Dublin Connolly and Belfast Central in Ireland and is jointly operated by Iarnród Éireann (IE) and Northern... 1906 reference Rail Map Northern Ireland Railways (NIR or NI Railways) – formerly, and very briefly, known as Ulster Transport Railways (UTR) – is the railway operator in Northern Ireland. ... The Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART), (Irish: ), is part of the suburban railway network in Ireland, running mainly along the coastline of Dublin Bay on the Trans-Dublin route, from Greystones in County Wicklow, through Dublin to Howth and Malahide in County Dublin. ... Luas [l̪ˠuː(É™)s̪ˠ] (Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... Dublin Bus (Irish: ) is a public transport operator in the Republic of Ireland. ...


The motorways and major trunk roads are managed by the National Roads Authority. The rest of the road network is managed by the local authorities in each of their areas. Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... A trunk road or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting one or more cities, ports, airports etc, which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic. ... The National Roads Authority (NRA) (Irish: An tÚdarás um Bóithre Náisiúnta) is a State body in the Republic of Ireland, responsible for the national road network. ...


Regular ferry services operate between the Republic of Ireland and Great Britain, the Isle of Man and France. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ...


See also

The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This is a list of famous Irish people. ... This is a list of flags which have been, or are still today, in the Republic of Ireland. ... First international Irish Free State 1 - 0  Bulgaria (Stade Olympique, Colombes, France; May 28, 1924) Biggest win Republic of Ireland 8 - 0 Malta (Dalymount Park, Republic of Ireland; 16 November 1983) Biggest defeat Brazil 7 - 0 Republic of Ireland (Uberlândia, Brazil; 27 May 1982) World Cup Appearances 3 (First...

References

  1. ^ CSO 2006 Census - Volume 5 - Ethnic or Cultural Background (including the Irish Traveller Community)
  2. ^ CSO Ireland - April 2007 Population Estimates
  3. ^ Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland and Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.
  4. ^ a b c "EU: Causes of Growth differentials in Europe", WAWFA think tank
  5. ^ List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
  6. ^ The wording of Article 4 has been criticised. Most recently, in its report, the Constitution Review Groupin 1996 stated that that Article 4 was unnecessarily complicated and should be amended to read ”The name of the state is Ireland” with an equivalent change in the Irish text.
  7. ^ Ireland joined the EU (then EEC) in 1973 under a treaty drawn up in several languages including Irish and English. Since then, its two names have been official in the EU. Irish became an official working language of the European Union on 1 January 2007 and consequently both names are now used on nameplates. This did not change the name of Ireland in EU law. For further consideration of the practice applied by the European Union, see Clause 7.1.1 of the Inter Institutional Style Guide.
  8. ^ Northern Ireland Parliamentary Report, 7 December 1922
  9. ^ Mokyr, Joel (1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History 1700-1850". Irish Economic and Social History xi: 101–121. 
  10. ^ Department of the Taoiseach - Irish Soldiers in the First World War
  11. ^ and the Governor-General's office was finally abolished under the Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1937 with effect from December 1936
  12. ^ a b c d e "How Ireland became the Celtic Tiger", Sean Dorgan, the Chief Executive of IDA. June 23, 2006
  13. ^ O'Toole, Francis; Warrington. Taxations And savings in Ireland. Trinity Economic Papers Series page 19. Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  14. ^ The Myth of the Scandinavian Model | The Brussels Journal
  15. ^ Article 15.2 of the Constitution of Ireland.
  16. ^ "Ireland Rejects Lisbon Treaty", RTE News. Retrieved on 2008-06-13. 
  17. ^ a b Land cover and land use, Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, <http://www.epa.ie/whatwedo/assessment/land/>. Retrieved on 30 July 2007 
  18. ^ World Factbook - Ireland, CIA, 2007, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ei.html>. Retrieved on 7 August 2007 
  19. ^ a b CAP reform - a long-term perspective for sustainable agriculture, European Commission, <http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/capreform/index_en.htm>. Retrieved on 30 July 2007 
  20. ^ Roche, Dick (2006-11-08), National Parks, vol. 185, Seanad Éireann, <http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0185/S.0185.200611080008.html>. Retrieved on 30 July 2007  Seanad Debate involving Former Minister for Environment Heritage and Local Government
  21. ^ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf
  22. ^ Consumer Prices Bi-annual Average Price Analysis Dublin and Outside Dublin: 1 May 2006PDF (170 KiB) - CSO
  23. ^ Forfas National Competitiveness Report, 2006, Fig 2.02 http://www.forfas.ie/ncc/reports/ncc_annual_06/ch02/ch02_01.html#fn2
  24. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality-of-life indexPDF (67.1 KiB) - The Economist
  25. ^ Economic Survey of Ireland 2006: Keeping public finances on track, OECD, 2006, <http://www.oecd.org/document/50/0,3343,en_33873108_33873500_36173106_1_1_1_1,00.html>. Retrieved on 30 July 2007 
  26. ^ House slowdown sharper than expected, RTÉ, 2007-08-03, <http://www.rte.ie/business/2007/0803/economy1.html>. Retrieved on 6 August 2007 
  27. ^ Latest Report: Latest edition of permanent tsb / ESRI House price index - May 2007, Permanent TSB, ESRI, <http://www.permanenttsb.ie/house-price-index/>. Retrieved on 10 August 2007 
  28. ^ NCC: 2.1 Income
  29. ^ Income Distribution and Poverty in the OECD Area, Chapter 10 in "Combating Poverty in Europe"
  30. ^ NCC: 2.1 Income
  31. ^ EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC)PDF (161 KiB) CSO, 2004.
  32. ^ http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/frontpage/2008/0624/1214257072258.html Coverage of ESRI report]
  33. ^ Ambrose Evans-Pritchard. "Irish banks may need life-support as property prices crash", The Daily Telegraph, 13 March 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. 
  34. ^ Design for Irish coin denominations
  35. ^ Irish Defence Forces, Army (accessed 15 June 2006)
  36. ^ See Gilland, Karin. "Ireland: Neutrality and the International Use of Force", p. 143, in Philip P. Everts and Pierangelo Isernia, Public Opinion and the International Use of Force, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0415218047.
  37. ^ Minister for Defence, Mr. Willie O’Dea TD secures formal Cabinet approval today for Ireland’s participation in an EU Battlegroup. Department of Defense. Retrieved on 2008-08-26.
  38. ^ Private Members' Business. - Foreign Conflicts: Motion (Resumed). Government of Ireland (2003-01-30). Retrieved on 2007-10-10. - Tony Gregory speaking in Dáil Éireann
  39. ^ Kennedy, Michael (204-10-08). Ireland's Role in Post-War Transatlantic Aviation and Its Implications for the Defence of the North Atlantic Area. Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  40. ^ Irish Times, 28 Dec 2007 p. 1.
  41. ^ Patrick Smyth. "State joins Partnership for Peace on Budget day", The Irish Times, 29 November 1999. Retrieved on 2008-05-06. 
  42. ^ Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document. NATO website (21 April 2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
  43. ^ Myths of British ancestry - Prospect Magazine
  44. ^ The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe - PUBMED
  45. ^ Commission for Racial Equality: Gypsies and Irish Travellers: The facts
  46. ^ Irish Travellers Movement: Traveller Legal Resource Pack 2 - Traveller Culture
  47. ^ BreakingNews.ie - Ireland's population still fastest-growing in EU
  48. ^ Irish Independent - Boom in births as new arrivals double on death rates
  49. ^ Donegal, Cavan, Monaghan only. Remaining Ulster counties are in Northern Ireland
  50. ^ Final Principal Demographic Results 2006PDF (894 KiB)
  51. ^ Weekly Mass Attendance of Catholics in Nations with Large Catholic Populations, 1980-2000 - World Values Survey (WVS)
  52. ^ Irish Mass attendance below 50% - Catholic World News June 1, 2006
  53. ^ Final Principal Demographic Results 2006
  54. ^ Among many examples:
    John Daniszewski, April 17, 2005, Catholicism Losing Ground in Ireland, LA Times
    Irish poll shows parents no longer want to force religion on to children from secularism.org.uk
    Phil Lawler, 17 September 2007, Ireland threatened by secularism, Pope tells new envoy, Catholic World News
  55. ^ Health (Family Planning) Act, 1979. Office of the Attorney General (1979-07-23). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  56. ^ NORRIS v. IRELAND - 10581/83 [1988 ECHR 22]. European Court of Human Rights (2007-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  57. ^ Though Senator David Norris took his successful case to the European Court of Human Rights in 1988, the Irish Government did not legislate to rectify the issue until 1993.
  58. ^ "Increased support for gay marriage - Survey", BreakingNews.ie, March 31, 2008. 
  59. ^ Jerry Williams, Fans unite as top drivers battle it out, Daily Mail, 14th November 2007
  60. ^ Seán McCárthaigh, Dublin–London busiest air traffic route within EU, Irish Examiner, March 31, 2003
  61. ^ Mark Frary (19 March 2007). Heathrow dominates top 20. The Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.

The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Possible meanings: European Economic Community, the former name of the European Community European Energy Community Extended Error Correction, see RAM parity Energy Efficiency Centre Energy Efficiency in Construction Engineering Education Centre Eurocontrol Experimental Centre European Egg Consortium Ford Electronic Engine Control Eurasian Economic Community English Electric Computers English Electric Company... Joel Mokyr (PhD Yale, 1974) is the Robert H. Strotz Professor of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern University. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tony Gregory (born December, 1947) is an Irish Independent politician and a Teachta Dála (TD) for Dublin Central. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named David Norris, see David Norris (disambiguation). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography and further reading

  • Bunreacht na hÉireann (the 1937 constitution) (PDF versionPDF)
  • The Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922
  • J. Anthony Foley and Stephen Lalor (ed), Gill & Macmillan Annotated Constitution of Ireland (Gill & Macmillan, 1995) (ISBN 0-7171-2276-X)
  • FSL Lyons, Ireland Since the Famine
  • Alan J. Ward, The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland 1782–1992 (Irish Academic Press, 1994) (ISBN 0-7165-2528-3)
  • Some of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.
  • OECD Information Technology Outlook 2004

“PDF” redirects here. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

External links

Find more about Ireland on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
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Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Ireland Portal
  • Áras an Uachtaráin — Official presidential site
  • Irish genes from Spain
  • Information on the Irish State — Governmental portal
  • Ireland Story — History, geography and current affairs
  • Chief Herald of Ireland — Flags, Seals, Titles
  • Myths of British ancestry
  • Taoiseach — Official prime ministerial site
  • Tithe an Oireachtais — Houses of Parliament, official parliamentary site
  • 2004 Presidency of the Council of the European Union


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