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Encyclopedia > Republic of Hawaii
ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaiʻi.

The Republic of Hawaiʻi was the formal name of Hawaii from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaiʻi which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands Resolution in Congress in which the Republic was annexed to the United States and became the Territory of Hawaiʻi on July 7, 1898. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (967x743, 119 KB) Summary Taken by User:Jiang on December 23, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (967x743, 119 KB) Summary Taken by User:Jiang on December 23, 2005. ... Iolani Palace was the official residence of King David Kalakaua and Queen Julia Kapiolani and then Queen Liliuokalani and Prince Consort John Owen Dominis. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Seal of the Congress. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The administration of the Republic of Hawaiʻi was multiracial. It included men of European stock, like Sanford B. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston, who were both native-born subjects of the Hawaiian kingdom and fluent speakers of the Hawaiian language. Dole had previously been an elected member of the Kingdom legislature from Koloa, Kaua'i and a Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court. Thurston had served as Minister of Interior under King Kalakaua. The Speaker of the House of the Republic of Hawai'i was native Hawaiian John Kaulukou who had previously been a Royalist opposing annexation. Former advisor to Queen LiliÊ»uokalani and justice of the HawaiÊ»i judiciary, Sanford B. Dole assumed the role of President of the Republic of HawaiÊ»i. ... Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1893. ...

Contents


Bayonet Constitution of 1887

King David Kalākaua
King David Kalākaua

In 1887, the Bayonet Constitution was drafted by Lorrin A. Thurston, Minister of Interior under King David Kalākaua. The constitution was proclaimed by the king after a mass meeting of 3,000 residents, including an armed militia, demanded he either sign it or be deposed. The document created a constitutional monarchy like Great Britain, stripping the King of most of his personal authority, empowering the Legislature, and establishing cabinet government. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Queen Liliuokalanis protest of the Bayonet Constitution, which her brother was forced to promulgate at gunpoint, led to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii by a committee of American citizens. ... Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1893. ... David Kalākaua was elected by the legislature to assume the throne of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i upon the death of William Charles Lunalilo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...


The Bayonet Constitution empowered the citizenry to elect members of the House of Nobles (who had previously been appointed by the King). It increased the value of property a citizen must own to be eligible to vote, above what the previous Constitution of 1864 had required. One result was to deny voting rights to poor native Hawaiians and Europeans who previously could vote. It guaranteed a voting monopoly by native Hawaiians and Europeans, by denying voting rights to Asians who comprised a large proportion of the population (A few Japanese and some Chinese had previously become naturalized as subjects of the Kingdom and now lost voting rights they had previously enjoyed.) Americans and other Europeans in Hawaiʻi were also given full voting rights without the need for Hawaiian citizenship. The Bayonet Constitution continued allowing the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature. House of Nobles can mean: House of Nobles - a political institution in the Kingdom of Hawaii House of Nobles - an alternate name for the House of Knights, a corporation of the Swedish nobility This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the continent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asian people. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... See subject (grammar) for the linguistic definition of subject. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a state) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


Liliʻuokalani's Constitution

Queen Liliʻuokalani
Queen Liliʻuokalani

In 1891, Kalakaua died and his sister Liliʻuokalani assumed the throne. She came into power in the middle of an economic crisis. The McKinley Act had crippled the Hawaiian sugar industry by reducing duties on imports from other countries, eliminating the previous Hawaiian advantage due to the Reciprocity Treaty of 1874. Many Hawaiian citizens were feeling the pressures of the loss of revenue. Liliʻuokalani proposed a lottery system to raise money for her government. Her ministers, and even her closest friends, were sorely disappointed at the thought and tried to stop her from pursuing the bill. The lottery bill came to be used against her in the brewing constitutional crisis she was heading into. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Her Majesty Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia Kamakaeha, also known as Lydia Kamakaeha Paki, with the chosen royal name of Liliuokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ...


Liliʻuokalani's chief desire was to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the Constitution she had sworn to uphold. The queen launched a campaign resulting in a petition from some Hawaiian subjects to proclaim a new Constitution. When she informed her cabinet of her plans, they refused to support her.


Those citizens and residents who in 1887 had forced Kalakaua to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" became alarmed that the queen was planning to unilaterally proclaim her new Constitution. About 1500 armed local people under the leadership of the Honolulu Rifles and the Committee of Safety took over government buildings, disarmed the Royal Guard, and declared a Provisional Government. As these events were unfolding, American citizens living in Honolulu expressed concern for their safety and property. About 150 sailors and Marines from a U.S. Navy ship in Honolulu harbor came ashore with rifles and gatling guns to maintain order in the streets and to guard American property. As United States Marines marched past ʻIolani Palace on their way to their peacekeeping stations, they dipped their U.S. flag while passing by, as a sign of respect to the Queen. The sailors and Marines never entered the Palace grounds, never fired a shot, and did not participate in the takeover of any buildings. Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii through the Committee of Safety in 1893. ... United States Marine Corps seal The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military, which along with the U.S. Navy, is under the United States Department of the Navy. ...

President Grover Cleveland
President Grover Cleveland

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1732x2572, 411 KB) U.S. President Grover Cleveland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1732x2572, 411 KB) U.S. President Grover Cleveland. ...

Blount Investigation

The first order of business for the Provisional Government after the successful overthrow of Liliʻuokalani was to form an interim government while Lorrin A. Thurston was in Washington, DC to negotiate annexation with Congress. One group proposed the assumption of power of Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani while a body formed by the Committee of Safety could act as a regency government. With the physical absence of the princess from the islands, the proposal was immediately struck down.


The Provisional Government was dealt a huge blow when President Benjamin Harrison, an avowed imperialist who sought the annexation of Hawaiʻi was voted out of the White House. Grover Cleveland, an anti-imperialist, assumed the presidency and right away worked to rectify the Hawaiian crisis. Just a month before becoming president, Lorrin A. Thurston had struck a deal with Congress as it prepared to ratify a treaty of annexation. Cleveland, having heard the appeals of Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani on behalf of her imprisoned aunt, withdrew the treaty and launched an investigation of the matter. The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ...


Cleveland appointed James Henderson Blount of Macon, Georgia as Commissioner Paramount and Minister to Hawaiʻi. His chief mission was to investigate the overthrow of Liliʻuokalani's government. Blount concluded in his report that the revolution had utilised the aid of the United States Minister to Hawaiʻi who ordered the landing of troops from the USS Boston. Disturbed by the revelation, Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis of Kentucky to Honolulu as Minister to Hawaiʻi with secret instructions. Willis, initially rebuffed by the queen, obtained Liliʻuokalani's promise to grant an amnesty after a considerable delay. After securing that promise, Willis made a formal demand for the dissolution of the Provisional Government and complete restoration of the monarchy, although unbeknownst to him by that time it was too late since Cleveland had already referred the matter to Congress. Taking the demand at face value, on December 23, 1893, Sanford B. Dole sent a reply to Willis declining to surrender the authority of the Provisional Government to the deposed queen. James Henderson Blount led an investigation into the alleged American involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... Macon is a city located in Bibb County, Georgia, USA. It lies near the geographic center of Georgia, approximately 80 miles (129 km) south of Atlanta, hence the citys nickname as the Heart of Georgia. ... The fifth USS Boston, a protected cruiser, was launched 4 December 1884 by John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pennsylvania, and commissioned 2 May 1887, Captain F. M. Ramsey in command. ... Albert Sydney Willis was Minister to Hawai‘i in the administration of President of the United States Grover Cleveland. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Morgan Investigation

In response to Cleveland's referral of the matter, the Senate passed a resolution empowering its Foreign Relations Committee to hold public hearings under oath, and cross-examine witnesses, to investigate U.S. involvement in the revolution and also to investigate whether it had been proper for President Cleveland to appoint Blount and give him extraordinary powers to represent the U.S. and intervene in Hawai'i without Senate confirmation. Senator John Tyler Morgan chaired this investigation.


The findings of the Morgan Report thoroughly repudiated the assertions earlier made by Blount and Cleveland, and on February 26, 1894 was submitted. It clearly established that the U.S. troops had remained completely neutral during the overthrow, exonerated Minister Stevens in landing troops, and established Blount's appointment and investigation without congressional approval as constitutional.


Following the Morgan Report, and the Turpie Resolution on May 31, 1894 in which Congress declared against any further intervention against the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Cleveland completely reversed himself, rebuffed the Queen's further requests for help in recapturing the throne, officially recognized the Provisonal Government and considered the Republic of Hawaii the legitimate successor of the Kingdom. May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ...

Robert William Wilcox
Robert William Wilcox

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Establishment of the Republic

The Provisional Government feared that Grover Cleveland might continue interfering in the internal affairs of Hawai'i by trying to restore the monarchy. The Provisional Government also realized there would be no annexation until Grover Cleveland's term of office ended; and they wanted to establish a more permanent government for the continuing independent nation of Hawai'i. Therefore the Provisional Government called to order a Constitutional Convention on May 30, 1894. The Constitutional Convention drafted a constitution for a Republic of Hawaiʻi. The Republic of Hawaiʻi was proclaimed on 4 July 1894 at Aliʻiolani Hale. Sanford Dole became president. May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Aliiolani Hale is today the home of the Hawaii State Supreme Court and the statue of Kamehameha the Great. ... Former advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani and justice of the Hawai‘i judiciary, Sanford B. Dole assumed the role of President of the Republic of Hawai‘i. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Wilcox Rebellion of 1895

Main article: Wilcox rebellions Wilcox Rebellions The first organized factions of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement were established even before the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. ...


Hawaiian revolutionary Robert William Wilcox had led several rebellions in pursuit of the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy. His first was in 1888 in response to the Bayonet Constitution. He led an army of 150 Hawaiians, Europeans and Chinese in a second attempt in 1889. Both times, Wilcox was brought to trial but released as juries refused to find him guilty of wrong doing. In 1895, Wilcox participated in a third attempt, this time to overthrow the Republic of Hawaiʻi and to restore Liliʻuokalani to power. Royalist supporters landed a cargo of arms and ammunition from San Francisco, California in a secret Honolulu location. At the location on January 6, 1895, a company of royalists met to draft plans to capture the government buildings by surprise. A premature encounter with a squad of police alarmed Honolulu and the plans were abandoned as the royalists were quickly routed. Wilcox spent several days in hiding in the mountains before being captured. The son of one pro-annexationist was killed. Several other skirmishes occurred during the following week resulting in the capture of the leading conspirators and their followers. The government found arms and ammunition and a number of incriminating documents on the premises of Washington Place, Liliʻuokalani's private residence implicating her in the plot. Robert William Wilcox led unsuccessful rebellions to restore the monarchy. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: The City by the Bay; The City That Knows How; Golden Mountain (historic Chinese name) Location Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates , Government City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Geographical characteristics Area     City 600. ... Honolulu redirects here. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Washington Place is the former residence of Queen Liliuokalani. ...


Liliʻuokalani's Trial

The deposed queen was forced to defend herself in a trial. The prosecution proved that Liliʻuokalani had committed "misprision of treason," because she knew that guns and bombs for the Wilcox attempted counter-revolution had been hidden in the flower bed of her personal residence at Washington Place. She was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment at hard labor and a fine of $10,000. But the imprisonment was actually served in a large bedroom at 'Iolani Palace where she had a full-time maid-servant, and her "hard labor" consisted of composing songs and sewing a protest quilt containing symbols of the monarchy. After 8 months she was parolled to her Washington Place home by President Sanford B. Dole. A year later she was granted a full pardon, including the right to travel; and President Dole gave her a passport to travel to Washington D.C. "to visit friends." However, she used that opportunity to lobby the U.S. Senate in 1897 against annexation. Portrait of Princess Victoria Kaiulani is an unlicensed, historical artifact released into the public domain for educational use. ... Portrait of Princess Victoria Kaiulani is an unlicensed, historical artifact released into the public domain for educational use. ... Princess Kaiulani, a member of the Kalakāua Dynasty and descendant of the Kamehameha Dynasty, was in line to become Queen of Hawai‘i when her kingdom was overthrown. ...

Sanford B. Dole, former advisor to Queen Liliʻuokalani, President and then Governor of Hawaiʻi
Sanford B. Dole, former advisor to Queen Liliʻuokalani, President and then Governor of Hawaiʻi

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Dissolution of the Republic

Upon the inauguration of the more imperialist William McKinley as President of the United States on March 4, 1897, the Republic of Hawaiʻi resumed negotiations for annexation. From the President's perspective the islands had gained a new strategic relevance in the wake of the Spanish-American War. On June 16 of that year, a new treaty of annexation was signed. As the Senate appeared uncertain to ratify the treaty, its supporters took extreme measures by passing the Newlands Resolution through which the cession was accepted, ratified and confirmed by a vote of 42 to 21. The House of Representatives accepted the Newlands Resolution by a vote of 209 to 91. McKinley signed the bill on July 7, 1898. The formal transfer of sovereignty took place on August 12, 1898 with the hoisting of the flag of the United States over ʻIolani Palace. William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Revolutionaries Spain Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher though undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is, along with the United States Senate, one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


References

  • Allen, Helena G. Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaii's Only President, 1844-1926 (1998).
  • Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson. Hawai'i: A History, from Polynesian Kingdom to American State (2003)
  • Schweizer, Niklaus R. His Hawaiian Excellency: The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Annexation of Hawaiʻi (1994).

External links


History of Hawaii

Ancient Hawaii | Kingdom of Hawaii | Provisional Government of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii | Territory of Hawaii | State of Hawaii The history of Hawaii involves phases of early Polynesian settlement, Euro-American and Asian immigration, takeover of control by immigrants whose economic interests seemed likely to advance under US control, and formal integration by stages into the United States. ... Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Princess Kaiulani, a member of the Kalākaua Dynasty, was in line to become Queen of Hawaii when her kingdom was overthrown by a small group of Hawaiian citizens (primarily of European descent) and United States citizens. ... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
POST OFFICE IN PARADISE - Pictorial Issue (1404 words)
The Republic of Hawaii was established July 4, 1894.
Nonetheless, the Pictorial Issue often is associated with the Republic of Hawaii (and the issue sometimes is called The Republic Issue), and four pictorial issue stamps were issued during the life of the Republic (July 4, 1894 to June 13, 1900).
However, the Republic of Hawaii continued to exist as a United States possession until territorial status was established on June 14, 1900.
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