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Encyclopedia > Republic of China
中華民國
Jhonghuá Mínguó
Republic of China
Flag of Taiwan National Emblem of Taiwan
Flag National Emblem
Anthem
National Anthem of the Republic of China
Capital Taipei[1]
25°02′N, 121°38′E
Largest city Taipei[1]
Official languages Standard Mandarin (Guóyǔ)[2]
Demonym Taiwanese or Chinese*
Government Semi-presidential system
 -  President Chen Shui-bian
 -  Vice President Annette Lu
 -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung
Establishment Xinhai Revolution 
 -  Start of Xinhai Revolution October 10, 1911 
 -  Republic established January 1, 1912 
 -  Relocated to
   Taiwan
December 7, 1949 
Area
 -  Total 36,188 km² (137th)
13,975 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 10.34
Population
 -  2007 estimate 22,911,292[3] (47th)
 -  Density 633.12/km² (14th)
1,639.43 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $668.3 billion[3] (16th)
 -  Per capita $30,084 (23rd)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $355.708 billion (22th)
 -  Per capita $15,482 (37th)
HDI (2004) 0.925 (high) (24th if ranked)
Currency New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Internet TLD .tw
Calling code +886
* Due to the goverment's relocation after 1949, those who were nationals before 1949 are likely to be identified as "Chinese". After 1949, due to the controversial political status of Taiwan, those supporting Chinese reunification may refer to themselves as "Chinese" in addition or in place of "Taiwanese." Those favoring Taiwan Independence tend to refer to themselves as "Taiwanese" only.

The Republic of China (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhonghuá Mínguó; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo) is a country in East Asia. It was one of the victorious powers of World War II and a founding member of the United Nations. Historically, it encompassed all of mainland China before the Kuomintang (KMT) lost control of the mainland to the Communist Party of China at the ceasefire of major hostilities of the Chinese Civil War in 1950. Since then, its authority has been limited to the island groups of Taiwan (Formosa), the Pescadores, Kinmen, and the Matsu Islands. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has been commonly referred to as "Taiwan", and since the late 1970s the name "China" is commonly used to refer to the People's Republic of China (PRC). Because of diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) is commonly referred to as "Chinese Taipei" in international organizations. Its capital city is Taipei[1]. Roc may refer to: Roc Books, a paperback science fiction and fantasy imprint of Penguin Group Roc (mythology), a mythical giant bird Roc (musician), the Indian American singer-songwriter guitarist Roc (song), the second single release from Nâdiyas eponymous album. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Republic_of_China_National_Emblem. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of the Republic of China is red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Blue Sky with a White Sun flag is the Kuomintang party flag and the ROC naval jack. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Manuscript of the speech at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy, handwriting by Dr. Sun Yat-sen National Anthem of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國國歌, Simplified Chinese: 中华民国国歌, Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Míngúo gúogÄ“), is the current national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Modern Standard Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and is one of the four official languages of Singapore. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... The Office of the President of the Republic of China, located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City, also houses the office of the Vice President. ... Hsiu-lien Annette Lu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born June 7, 1944) is the incumbent vice president of the Republic of China and member of the Democratic Progressive Party. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... Chang Chun-hsiung (Chinese: 張俊雄; pinyin: Zhāng Jùnxióng) (born March 23, 1938) is a politician in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... China, with its large territory, spans across the longitude of five time zones. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tw is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Taiwan ( Republic of China). ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 886 International Call Prefix: 002 ((0)2):Taipei, Keelung, ((0)3):Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Ilan, ((0)4):Taichung, ((0)7):Kaohsiung, (0)9xx:Mobile Categories: | ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ... The Pescadores Islands (Traditional Chinese: 澎湖群島; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Taiwanese POJ: Phêⁿ-ô·-kōan, from Portuguese, fishermen, pron. ... Kinmen (Traditional Chinese: 金門; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«nmén; Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén; Wade-Giles: Chin-men; POJ: Kim-mnÌ‚g; also romanized Quemoy from Southern Min (in early Spanish romanization); literally Golden Door or Golden Gate), located at 24. ... The Matsu Islands (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ...


The Republic of China was established in 1912, replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. It is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. The Republic of China on mainland China went through periods of warlordism, Japanese invasion, and civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communists. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The following is a timeline of the history of China: For a summary table of the dynasties in Chinese history and their dates, check here. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Starting in 1928, the Republic of China was ruled by the Kuomintang as an authoritarian one-party state. In the 1950s and 1960s, the KMT went through wide restructuring and decreased corruption and implemented land reform. There followed a period of great economic growth, the Republic of China became one of the Four Asian Tigers, despite the constant threat of war and civil unrest. In the 1980s and 1990s the government peacefully transitioned to a democratic system, with the first direct presidential election in 1996 and the 2000 election of Chen Shui-bian, the first non-KMT president of the ROC. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... -1... Map of Four Asian Tigers  Hong Kong  Taiwan  Singapore  South Korea Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong The skyline of Singapores Central Business District (CBD) at evening. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... The Election for the 9th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第九任中華民國總統 、副總統選舉), the first ever direct elections for President and Vice President of the Republic of China on Taiwan, occurred on March 23, 1996. ... The Election for the 10th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第十任中華民國總統、副總統選舉), the second ever direct elections for President and Vice President of the Republic of China on Taiwan and the 10th under the 1947 Constitution, were held on March 18, 2000. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ...

Contents

Political status

The political status of the Republic of China is a contentious issue. The PRC claims that the ROC government is illegitimate, referring to it as the "Taiwan Authority", while the ROC views itself as an independent sovereign state.[6] The ROC actively claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China since its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 until the lift of martial law in 1987. Although the administration of pro-independence President Chen Shui-bian does not actively claim jurisdiction over all of China, the national boundaries of the ROC have not been redrawn and its outstanding territorial claims from the late 1940s have not been revised.[citation needed] Thus, the claimed area of the ROC continue to include Mainland China, several off-shore islands, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia, northern Myanmar, and Tuva (now Russian territory). Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi Měnggǔ) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should overt actions toward independence or reunification be taken. It is the policy of the People's Republic of China to use force to ensure reunification if peaceful reunification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law, and there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast for this reason.[7] As a result of Cold War politics, the United States has provided military training and sold arms to the ROC armed forces.[8] However, the current status quo, as defined by the US, is supported on a quid pro quo basis between both Chinese states. The PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of cross-strait relations." Both are to refrain from performing actions or espousing statements "that would unilaterally alter Taiwan's status."[9] Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something [1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ... Taiwan Strait Cross-Strait relations, or relations across the Taiwan Strait, deals with the complex relationship and interactions between the mainland nation of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) (which sits on the west of Taiwan Strait) and the island nation of the Republic of China (Taiwan), commonly known... Taiwan Strait Area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...


Within the ROC, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition of parties. The Kuomintang, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public. Ma Ying-Jeou, former chairman of the KMT and frontrunner for the 2008 presidential election, has set out democracy, economic development to a level near that of the ROC, and equitable wealth distribution as the conditions that the mainland must fulfill for reunification to occur. The DPP, the largest Pan-Green party, also supports the status quo because the risk of provoking the PRC is unacceptable to its members. However, President Chen Shui-Bian of the DPP has stated that no matter what, any decision should be decided through a public referendum of the people of the ROC. Both parties' current foreign policy positions support actively advocating ROC participation in international organizations, but the KMT accepts the "One-China" principle and the DPP encourages economic ties with countries other than the PRC for security reasons. The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ... China Pig Ma Ying-Jeou (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ma Ying-chiu) (born July 13, 1950 in Hong Kong, China) is a politician in the Republic of Taiwan (Taiwan), a former Justice Minister, former Mayor of Taipei, and former Chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT... The Election for the 12th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ) will be held 22 March 2008. ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: MínjìndÇŽng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... The One-China policy (Chinese: 一個中國) is the principle that there is one China and both mainland China and Taiwan are part of that China. ...


For its part, the People's Republic of China appears to find the retention of the name "Republic of China" far more acceptable than the declaration of a de-jure independent Taiwan. However, with the rise of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly more often on the island itself. The PRC has stated that any effort in Taiwan to formally abolish the ROC and replace it with a Republic of Taiwan would result in a strong and possibly military reaction. The current position of the United States is that the Taiwan issue must be resolved peacefully and unilateral action by either side is condemned; neither an unprovoked invasion by the PRC or a formal declaration of independence by Taiwan would be acceptable.[10] A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...


Citing its One-China policy, the PRC requires other countries to give no official recognition to the ROC as a condition of maintaining diplomatic relations. As a result, there are only 24 countries that have official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. However, most countries have unofficial representative offices in the ROC. The United States maintains unofficial relations with the ROC through the instrumentality of the American Institute in Taiwan.[11] The ROC maintains similar de-facto embassies and consulates in most countries, called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices" (TECRO), with branch offices called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices" (TECO). Both TECRO and TECO are "unofficial commercial entities" of the ROC in charge of maintaining diplomatic relations, providing consular services (i.e. Visa applications), and serving the national interests of the ROC in other countries in basically the same way as an Embassy or Consulate.[12] The One-China policy (Traditional Chinese: 一個中國; Simplified Chinese: 一个中国; pinyin: yÄ« gè Zhōngguó) is a principle that there is one China and that mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are all part of that China. ... The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) serves as the de facto embassy of the United States in Taiwan. ... Look up De facto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The term Consulate can refer to: the office or the period in office of a consul a diplomatic consulate the French Consulate which governed between 1799 and 1804 a brand of menthol cigarettes Consulate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO), sometimes known as a Taipei Representative Office, is a representative office , established by the Republic of China on Taiwan, in countries that have diplomatic relations, with the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO), sometimes known as Taipei Representative Offices, are de facto embassies and consulates of the Republic of China (Taiwan) in countries that do not have official relations with the ROC because of relations with the Peoples Republic of China, but have nevertheless... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ...


Also due to its One-China policy, the PRC only participates in international organizations where the ROC is not recognized as a sovereign country. In 1945, the ROC, as representative of all the territory of China, was one of the founding nations and Security Council member of the United Nations; however, in 1971, with the passage of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, it was replaced by the PRC. Each year since 1992, the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry but has been unsuccessful. Most member states, including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC. However, both the US and Japan publicly support the ROC's bid for membership in the World Health Organization as an observer.[13] However, though the ROC has applied for WHO membership every year since 1997 under various denominations, their efforts have consistently been blocked by PRC. Also, the Republic of China is pressured to use the politically neutral name "Chinese Taipei" in international events such as the Olympic Games when the PRC is also a party. The ROC is typically barred from using its national anthem and national flag in international events due to PRC pressure; ROC spectators attending events such as the Olympics are often barred from bringing ROC flags into venues.[14] The ROC is able to participate as "China" in organizations that the PRC does not participate in, such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 adopted October 25, 1971 replaced the UN seat of the Republic of China with that of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... “WHO” redirects here. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) is the supranational organization which governs most national Scout Movements, with 28 million members. ...


The relationship with the PRC and the related issues of Taiwan independence and Chinese reunification continue to dominate ROC politics.[15] For any particular resolution public favor shifts greatly with small changes in wording, illustrating the complexity of public opinion on the topic.[16]


History

Main articles: History of the Republic of China and Timeline of Republic of China history

‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... This is a timeline of the History of the Republic of China on mainland China (1912-1949). ...

1911–27

Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with two different flags representing the early Republic.
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with two different flags representing the early Republic.

In 1911, after over two thousand years of Imperial rule, China overthrew its dynastic system in favor of a republic. The Qing Dynasty was weak, China having just experienced a century of instability, suffering from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The Neo-Confucian principles that had, to that time, sustained the dynastic system were now called into question and a loss of cultural self-confidence was blamed for an alarming total of 40 million Chinese consumers of opium by 1900 (roughly 10% of the population).[17] By the time of its embarrassing defeat by an expeditionary force led by the world's major powers in 1900 during the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, the Qing Dynasty was already in its final throes, with only the lack of an alternative regime in sight prolonging its existence until 1912.[18] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x660, 161 KB)A poster that commemorates the the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x660, 161 KB)A poster that commemorates the the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... This article is about the drug. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100...


The establishment of Republican China developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing on October 10, 1911. The Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912, with Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. As part of the agreement to have the last emperor Puyi abdicate, Yuan Shikai was officially elected president in 1913. However, Yuan dissolved the ruling KMT, ignored the provisional Constitution by asserting presidential power, and ultimately declared himself Emperor of China in 1915. The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: Wǔchāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Yuan's supporters deserted him, and many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Yuan Shikai died of natural causes in 1916. This thrust China into a decade of warlordism. Sun Yat-sen, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province with the help of southern warlords in 1917 and 1920, and set up successive rival governments. Sun re-established the KMT in October, 1919. Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...


The central power in Beijing struggled to hold on to power. An open and wide-ranging debate evolved regarding how China should confront the West. After the Treaty of Versailles, on May 4, a student protest led to a nationwide uprising and gave the movement its name. “Peking” redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Chinese anarchism, specifically anarchist communism, had been the one of the most prominent forms of revolutionary socialism even before the Wuchang Uprising. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the influence of Marxism spread and became more popular. Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu led the Marxist-Leninist movement in the beginning. The Communist Party of China was founded in July, 1921. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chinese Anarchism. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Li Dazhao (李大釗, Wades-Giles: Li Ta-chao) (October 29, 1888 - April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who cofounded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu in 1921. ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...


1927–49

Chiang Kai-shek , who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925
Chiang Kai-shek , who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925

After Sun's death in March 1925, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of the KMT. Chiang had led the successful Northern Expedition which, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the warlords and nominally united China under the KMT. Soviet advisors had provided training, propaganda, popular agitation, and arms. However, Chiang soon dismissed his Soviet advisors, and purged communists and leftists from the KMT, leading to the Chinese Civil War. The Communists were pushed into the interior as Chiang Kai-shek sought to destroy them. Chiang consolidated his rule, establishing a Nationalist Government in Nanjing in 1928. Efforts were made to establish a modern civil society, by creating the Academia Sinica, the Bank of China, and other agencies. Chiang Kai-Shek from http://www. ... Chiang Kai-Shek from http://www. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... The Academia Sinica (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), headquartered in the Nan-kang district () of Taipei, is the national academy for Taiwan. ... Bank of China Limited (BOC) SEHK: 3988 (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; often abbreviated as 中行) is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Stability was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, from 1937 to 1945. In 1945, Japan surrendered and the Republic of China became one of the founding members of the United Nations. It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime...


The Chinese civil war between the Communists and the Nationalists resumed and intensified. Despite numerical superiority and American aid, the Nationalists succumbed to the Communists in 1949.


1945 to present

The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City, Republic of China, in remembrance of the late President Chiang Kai-shek.

After the defeat of Japan during World War II, Taiwan was surrendered to the Allies, with ROC troops accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison. Taiwan was pronounced "retroceded" to the ROC on October 25, 1945, although proponents of Taiwan independence dispute the validity of the proclamation, arguing that the proclamation was made without a peace treaty formally transferring sovereignty. The ROC began to govern Taiwan under a corrupt military administration, which led to widespread unrest and increasing tensions between Taiwanese and mainlanders.[19] The arrest of a cigarette vendor and the shooting of a bystander on February 28, 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was then suppressed with military force in what is now called the 228 Incident. Mainstream estimates of casualties range from 10,000 to 30,000, mainly Taiwanese elites. The administration declared martial law in 1948.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 88 KB) Summary Description: Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China Author: User:Ruthless4Life Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 88 KB) Summary Description: Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China Author: User:Ruthless4Life Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Memorial Hall The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ) is a monument erected in memory of Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China, in Taipei, Taiwan. ... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... The 228 Monument located near the Presidential Office in Taipei The 228 Incident (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Peh-ōe-jÄ«: JÄ«-jÄ«-pat sÅ«-kiāⁿ) also known as the 228 Massacre (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was an uprising in Taiwan that began on February 28, 1947 and was suppressed by the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After the defeat of the KMT in 1949, Chiang Kai-shek evacuated the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of China. Accompanying his retreat were some two million refugees from mainland China, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million.[21] Temporary capital (Lithuanian Laikinoji sostinė) was the official designation of the city of Kaunas in Lithuania during the interwar period. ...


Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Straits to "neutralize" the Straits.[22] In the San Francisco Peace Treaty, which came into force on April 28, 1952, and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force on August 5, 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Formosa (Taiwan) and the Pescadores (Peng-hu), and renounced all treaties signed with China before 1942. Both treaties remained silent about who would take control of the island, in part to avoid taking sides in the Chinese Civil War. Advocates of Taiwan independence have used this omission to call into question the PRC and ROC claims on Taiwan, arguing that the future of Taiwan should be decided by self-determination. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Japanese: 日華平和条約, Chinese: 中日和平條約), commonly known as the Treaty of Taipei as it was signed in Taipei, was a peace treaty between Japan and the Republic of China (ROC) concluded on April 28, 1952. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC began to develop into a prosperous, and high-tech industrialized developed country, while maintaining an authoritarian, single-party government. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s, when most nations began switching recognition to the PRC. High tech refers to technology that is at the cutting-edge—the most advanced technology currently available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


Government

Republican China

The first national government of the Chinese Republic was established on January 1, 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, and they later also formed the first parliament. The power of this national government was both limited and short-lived, with generals controlling both central and northern provinces of China. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan currently administers two historical provinces of China (one completely and a small part of another one) and centrally administers two direct-controlled municipalities: Taiwan Province; consists of the island of Taiwan, except the two municipalities, plus Penghu county (Pescadores Islands) and a number...


Shortly after the rise of Yuan Shikai, the parliament's authority became nominal; violations of the Constitution by Yuan were met with half-hearted motions of censure, and Kuomintang members of the parliament that gave up their membership in the KMT were offered 1,000 pounds. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those already in power. Foreign powers came to recognize Yuan's power as well: when Japan came to China with 21 demands, it was Yuan who submitted to them, on May 25, 1915. For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ...


When Yuan died, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders, forming the warlord period. The impotent government still had its use; when World War I began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on Germany, in order to liquidate German holdings. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Present

The Presidential Building in Taipei has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China since 1950.
The Presidential Building in Taipei has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China since 1950.

The head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control Yuan, Examination Yuan, Executive Yuan, Judicial Yuan and Legislative Yuan. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 894 KB) Summary Description: Office of the President (總統府), Taipei, Republic of China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 894 KB) Summary Description: Office of the President (總統府), Taipei, Republic of China. ... Taiwan Governor-Generals Office in 1937 during Japanese rule. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Control Yuan building The Control Yuan main entrance The Control Yuan (監察院; pinyin: Jiānchá Yùan), one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei, is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the government. ... The Examination Yuan (考試院) is one of five government branches of the Republic of China and is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ...


The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with two hundred and twenty-five seats. One hundred and sixty-eight are elected by popular vote; forty-one are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties. Eight are elected from overseas Chinese constituencies and eight are for the aboriginal populations based on the same principle. Members serve three-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums. A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... Constitutional convention may refer to: Constitutional convention (political meeting), a meeting of delegates to adopt a new constitution or revise an existing constitution Philadelphia Convention, of 1787, resulted in the United States Constitution Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63), Missouris provisional government during American Civil War Constitutional Convention (Australia), four... An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The Judicial Yuan is Taiwan's highest judiciary. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Judicial Yuan (司法院) is one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei and serves as the highest judicial organ in Taiwan. ... Supreme Court of the Republic of China is the court of last resort in the Republic of China. ... A Constitutional Court is a high court found in many countries which deals primary with constitutional law. ... Trial by Jury is a comic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta in one act (the only single-act Savoy Opera). ...


The ROC's political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. In fact, since the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in 2000 and the continued control of the Legislative Yuan by the pan-Blue majority, legislation has repeatedly stalled, as the two sides have been deadlocked. There is another curiosity of the ROC system; because the ROC was previously dominated by strongman single party politics, real power in the system shifted from one position to another, depending on what position was currently occupied by the leader of the state. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier.


The term ruling party was previously applied to the Kuomintang, as it was the authoritarian party that controlled all aspects of government (ruling party may also be applied to the majority party in a parliamentary system). The Soviets, who had trained Chiang and the KMT and the Communists, left a lasting mark on the practices of the KMT, and under a Leninist style one party state, there was little difference between the ROC government, the KMT, and the army. Today, however, the term "ruling party" has a specific, peculiar use in Taiwan and is used to describe the party holding the Presidency. This is not entirely accurate since Taiwan does not have a parliamentary system, where the executive branch is occupied by the same party or coalition that holds a majority in the legislature. This term is currently used because the Premier is appointed by the President, thus executive powers tend to be dominated by the party holding the Presidency. The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the party or coalition of the majority in parliament. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...

See also: Constitution of the Republic of China

The Constitution of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ) is currently the basic governing document for the areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC) , namely all of Taiwan Province, Taipei and Kaohsiung municipalities, and Kinmen county and part of...

Political divisions

According to the 1947 Constitution, written before the ROC government retreated to Taiwan, the highest level administrative division is the province, which includes special administrative regions, regions, and centrally-administered municipalities. However, in 1998 the only provincial government to remain fully functional under ROC jurisdiction, Taiwan Province, was streamlined, with most responsibility assumed by the central government and the county-level governments (the other existing provincial government, Fuchien, was streamlined much earlier). The ROC currently administers two provinces and two provincial level cities. The Republic of China (ROC) currently administers two historical provinces of China (one completely and one for a small part) and centrally administers two municipalities: Taiwan Province; consists of the island of Taiwan, except the two municipalities, plus Penghu county (Pescadores Islands) and a number of outlying islands Sixteen counties... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shěng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... Here is the list of the 31 province-level divisions of the Peoples Republic of China grouped by its former administrative areas since 1949 to 1952, which are now known as traditional regions. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Taiwan Province (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) is one of the two administrative divisions, referred to as provinces, under effective control of the Republic of China, after the relocation of its government to the national capital of Taipei following the Chinese Civil War. ...

The Republic of China also controls the Dongsha Islands (Dong-Sha) and Taiping Island, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung City after the retreat to Taiwan.[23] Taiwan Province (Traditional Chinese: ) is one of the two provinces under effective control of the Republic of China (ROC), after the relocation of its government to Taipei following the Chinese Civil War. ... The Pescadores Islands (Traditional Chinese: 澎湖群島; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Taiwanese POJ: Phêⁿ-ô·-kōan, from Portuguese, fishermen, pron. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently administers two historical provinces of China (one completely and one for a small part) and centrally administers two municipalities: Taiwan Province; consists of the Taiwanese main island, except the two municipalities, plus Penghu county (Pescadores Islands) Sixteen counties Five provincial cities Fukien (Fuchien) Province... Provincial cities (省轄市 or 省管市), sometimes translated provincial municipalities, are cities lesser in rank than direct-controlled municipalities of the Republic of China. ... Fujian Province (Tongyong Pinyin spelling; Fu-chien according to Wades-Giles and Fukien according to Postal System Pinyin; Chinese: 福建省) is a province on the coast of southeastern China. ... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ... Kinmen (Traditional Chinese: 金門; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«nmén; Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén; Wade-Giles: Chin-men; POJ: Kim-mnÌ‚g; also romanized Quemoy from Southern Min (in early Spanish romanization); literally Golden Door or Golden Gate), located at 24. ... The Taiwan Strait. ... Lianjiang (連江; 连江; Liánjiāng; Lien²-chiang¹) is a county on the coast of Fujian Province, China. ... The Matsu Islands (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ... Dongyin (Chinese: 東引) is an island in the Taiwan Strait off the coast of Fujian. ... The Sizang people are mainly the descendants of Pu Suantak and related clans, and their adopted sons and daughters. ... Jyuguang (莒光鄉 Pinyin: Jǔguāng Wade-Giles: Chü³-kuang²) is a township of Lienchiang County, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... Nickname: Coordinates: Country Region Southern Taiwan Capital Lingya Dist (苓雅區) Government  - Mayor Chen Chu (陳菊) Area  - City 154 km²  (59. ... The Pratas Islands (or Dongsha Islands) are located in the middle of the South China Sea (see South China Sea Islands). ... Taiping (Traditional Chinese: 太平島), also known as Itu Aba, is the largest of the Nansha Islands (Spratly Islands) in the South China Sea. ... The South China Sea Islands (or Nanhai Islands, simplified: 南海诸岛, traditional: 南海諸島, pinyin: NánhÇŽi ZhÅ«dÇŽo) is an archipelago of over 250 around 1-km² islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars in the South China Sea, most of which have no indigenous people. ...


Taichung is currently under consideration for elevation to central municipality status. Also, Taipei County and Kaohsiung County are considering mergers with their respective cities. Taichung (Chinese: ; pinyin: Táizhōng; Wade-Giles: Tai-chung; POJ: Tâi-tiong) is a city located in west-central Taiwan with a population of just over one million people, making it the third largest city on the island, after Taipei and Kaohsiung. ...

Constitutional administrative division of the Republic of China.
Constitutional administrative division of the Republic of China.

The ROC has not constitutionally renounced sovereignty over Mainland China and Outer Mongolia, but President Lee Teng-hui announced in 1991 that his government does not dispute the fact that the Communist Party rules Mainland China. In practice, citizens of the People's Republic of China are treated as foreigners in some respects; for example, they are required to apply for a Republic of China visa when entering ROC territory. The DPP government under Chen Shui-bian has established a representative office in Mongolia's capital, Ulan Bator. Offices established to create the appearance of domestic governance of those regions, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission[24], lie dormant.[25] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (847x674, 184 KB) Made by Pryaltonian 21:57, 22 September 2006 (UTC), adapted from http://en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (847x674, 184 KB) Made by Pryaltonian 21:57, 22 September 2006 (UTC), adapted from http://en. ... ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A foreigner, or an alien, is a natural person who is not a citizen of the State in question. ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: MínjìndÇŽng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... Coordinates: , Established as Örgöö 1639 current location 1778 Ulaanbaatar 1924 Area  - City 4,704. ...


ROC official boundaries continue to show thirty-five provinces, fourteen municipalities, one special administrative region and two regions, instead of the twenty-three provinces, four municipalities, two special administrative regions and five autonomous regions shown on PRC maps. The ruling DPP government has dropped regulations that require ROC map makers to depict the official boundaries.


Politics

The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ...

1911–49

The original founding of the Republic centered on the Three Principles of the People (san min zhuyi): Nationalism, Democracy, and People's Livelihood (also translated "Socialism"). "Nationalism" meant standing up to Japanese and European interference, "democracy" represented elected rule modeled after Japan's parliament, and the "people's livelihood" meant government regulation of the means of production. Another subordinate principle was "Five Races Under One Union" (五族共和), which emphasized the harmony of the five major ethnic groups in China (Han, Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans, and Uyghurs), represented by the colored stripes of the original Five-Colored Flag of the Republic. The Five Races Under One Union principle and the five-colored flag were abandoned in 1927. Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The National Diet of Japan (国会; Kokkai) is Japans legislature. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (or Mínzú, 民族), within China. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Flag of Taiwan redirects here. ...


The Three Principles were not realized. Republican China was riven by warlordism, foreign invasion, and civil war. There were elected legislators, but Republican China was largely a one-party dictatorship,[26] with some minor parties, such as the Chinese Youth Party,[27] the National Socialist Party, and the Rural Reconstruction Party.[28] Within the KMT, there was suppression of dissent by the Communists. The central government was weak and unable to implement land reform or wealth redistribution. Politics of this era consisted primarily of political and military struggle between the KMT and the CPC between periods of military resistance against Japanese invasion. The Young China Party, also known as the Chinese Youth Party, (Traditional Chinese: 中國青年黨) is a minor political party in the Republic of China. ...


1949–2005

The constitution of the Republic of China was drafted before the fall of Mainland China to the Communists. It was created for the purpose of forming a coalition government between the Nationalists and the Communists for ruling all of China, including Taiwan. However, the CPC boycotted the National Assembly, and the Taiwanese representatives were not elected. The constitution went into effect December 25, 1947. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Taiwan remained under martial law from 1948 until 1987 and much of the constitution was not in effect. Political reforms beginning in the late 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s liberalized the ROC from an authoritarian one-party state into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, removing legacy components that were originally meant for the governing of mainland China. Many legacy components that remain are nonfunctional. This process of amendment continues. In 2000, the KMT's monopoly on power ended after the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) won the ROC presidency. In May 2005, a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms. These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.[29] The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: Mínjìndǎng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ...


Present

Major camps

The political scene in the ROC is divided into two camps, with the pro-unification and center-right KMT, People First Party (PFP), and New Party forming the Pan-Blue Coalition, and the pro-independence and center-left Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) and centrist Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) forming the Pan-Green Coalition. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The People First Party (親民黨, pinyin: QÄ«nmíndÇŽng) is a conservative political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The New Party (新黨, xīndăng), formerly the Chinese New Party (CNP; 中華新黨, zhōnghúa xīndăng), is a political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: MínjìndÇŽng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) (Traditional Chinese: 台灣團結聯盟, pinyin: Táiwān túanjíe líanméng) is a political party in Taiwan (Republic of China) which advocates Taiwan independence. ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ...


Separate identity resolution


On September 30, 2007, Taiwan's ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country" . It called also for general use of "Taiwan" as the island's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China. [30] is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: Mínjìndǎng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... The word resolution has several meanings, depending on context. ...


The Pan-Green camp tends to favor emphasizing the Republic of China as being a distinct country from the People's Republic of China. Many Pan-Green supporters seek formally declaring Taiwan independence and to drop the title of the Republic of China. Many members of the coalition, such as current President Chen Shui-bian, have moderated their views and claim that it is unnecessary to proclaim independence because Taiwan is already "an independent, sovereign country" and the Republic of China is the same as Taiwan. A small minority claim that the ROC is nonexistent and call for the establishment of an independent Republic of Taiwan. Supporters of this idea have issued self-made "passports" for their Republic of Taiwan. Attempts to use these "passports" however have been currently stopped by officials at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (IATA: TPE, ICAO: RCTP) (Traditional Chinese: or ; Simplified Chinese: ; Tongyong Pinyin: Táiwan Táoyuán Gúojì JichÇŽng, Pinyin: Táiwān Táoyuán Gúojì JÄ«chÇŽng), formerly Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongjhèng...


Some Pan-Blue members, especially former leaders from the older generation, support the concept of the Republic of China, which remains an important symbol of their links with China. During his visit to mainland China in April 2005, former KMT Party Chairman Lien Chan reiterated his party's belief in the "One China" policy, which states that there is only one China controlled by two governments and that Taiwan is a part of China. PFP Party Chair James Soong expressed the same sentiments during his visit in May. The more mainstream Pan-Blue position is to lift investment restrictions and pursue negotiations with the PRC to immediately open direct transportation links. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while being open to negotiations for unification. March 28, 2005, Kuomintang vice chairman Chiang Pin-kung led a delegation in the first official visit to Mainland China by the highest Kuomintang leader in 60 years. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Dr. Lien Chan Lien Chan (連戰, in pinyin: Lián Zhàn) (born August 27, 1936, in Xian) is a Taiwanese politician. ... The One-China policy (Chinese: 一個中國) is the principle that there is one China and both mainland China and Taiwan are part of that China. ... The People First Party (親民黨, pinyin: QÄ«nmíndÇŽng) is a conservative political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... James Chu-yu Soong (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sung Chu-yü; born March 16, 1942) is a politician in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ...


Current political issues

The dominant political issue in the ROC is its relationship with the PRC. Some people in the ROC desire the opening of direct transportation links with the People's Republic of China (PRC), including direct flights. This would aid many ROC businesses that have opened factories or branches in the PRC. The current DPP administration fears that such links will lead to tighter economic and political integration with the PRC, and in the 2006 Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links.


Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in 2001, and the establishment of a National Communications Commission to take over from the Government Information Office, whose advertising budget exercised great control over ROC media.


Banking reform, including consumer finance (limiting rates on credit cards) and bank mergers, is a major issue. The ROC's financial sector is unwieldy, with over forty-eight banks, none with a market share over 10%.[citation needed] The government controls 50% to 60% of Taiwan's banking assets.[citation needed] The ultimate goal is to create large financial institutions that can compete internationally.


The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues. Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. The KMT was once the richest political party in the world[citation needed] and KMT assets continue to be an issue. In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a Pan-Red camp led by Ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-te which believe the President should resign than stay in disgrace; forming a 3 side standoff. Nearing the end of 2006, KMT's chairman Ma Ying-jeou was also hit by a corruption scandal. Shih Ming-te (Chinese: ; pinyin: , a. ... China Pig Ma Ying-Jeou (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ma Ying-chiu) (born July 13, 1950 in Hong Kong, China) is a politician in the Republic of Taiwan (Taiwan), a former Justice Minister, former Mayor of Taipei, and former Chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT...


The merger of the KMT and PFP was thought to be certain, but a string of defections from the PFP to the KMT have increased tensions within the Pan-Blue camp. There has been talk from both camps of amending the constitution to finally resolve whether the Republic of China should have a presidential system or a parliamentary system.


Foreign relations

The Republic of China (ROC) , now only constituting the island of Taiwan and a few smaller islands, is currently recognized by 24 states, including the Holy See of Vatican City. ...

1911–49

The foreign relations of Republican China were complicated by a lack of internal unity. Competing centers of power all claimed legitimacy. There was also foreign interference and invasion. Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany, Russia, and other major powers all made claims to various parts of China during this time. During the early years of the Republic, almost all foreign powers recognized the "warlord" government controlled by Yuan Shi-kai in Beijing as the legitimate government of China. In return for recognition, the Republic had to give up control of Outer Mongolia and Tibet. China would remain suzerain, but Russia would be allowed to influence Mongolia while the British would be allowed in Tibet. It was also this government that sent representatives to sign the Treaty of Versailles over protests by students in the May Fourth Movement. File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, 11/25/1943. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


After the defeat of the Beiyang government in Beijing by the Kuomintang (Nationalists) and the purging of Communists from the party, the 1928 Nanjing Nationalist Government received widespread diplomatic recognition. This recognition lasted throughout the Chinese Civil War and World War II (though Japan established a rival puppet government during the invasion that received some recognition from the Axis Powers). Having fought on the side of the Allied Powers during World War II, the Republic of China became one of the founding members of the UN and held one of the five permanent seats on the UN Security Council. National flag 1912-1928 The Beiyang government (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


Despite Chiang's failures as an administrator and military strategist, he is today recognized for several diplomatic successes. In the 1930s, he was able to moderate Japanese advances by negotiating aid from Nazi Germany. Immediately prior to World War II, he was able to secure aid from his former patrons, the Soviets. During World War II and immediately afterwards, he was able to obtain large amounts of support from the US, including lend-lease supplies. Huge infusions of military assistance, equipment, advice, and cash continued even after he evacuated the KMT to Taiwan.[31][32]


1949–present

After the KMT retreat to Taiwan, most countries, notably the countries in the Western bloc, continued to maintain relations with the ROC. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the 1970s. There are now only twenty-four countries[33] that maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC. NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...


The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations that it has diplomatic relations with to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan. In practice most major nations maintain unofficial relations with the ROC and the statement required by the PRC is ambiguously worded. The ROC maintains unofficial relations via Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices or "Taipei Representative Offices" that take on most of the functions of an official embassy, such as issuing visas. Similarly, most nations maintain corresponding trade and economic offices in the ROC, such as the American Institute in Taiwan, which is the de facto embassy of the United States in the ROC. A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO), sometimes known as a Taipei Representative Office, is a representative office , established by the Republic of China on Taiwan, in countries that have diplomatic relations, with the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) serves as the de facto embassy of the United States in Taiwan. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations and held China's seat on the Security Council until 1971, when it was expelled by General Assembly Resolution 2758 and replaced in all UN organs with the PRC. Multiple attempts by the ROC to rejoin the UN have not made it past committee. (See China and the United Nations) UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, adopted October 25, 1971, replaced the UN seat of the Republic of China with that of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ...


Besides the dispute with the PRC over the mainland, the ROC also has a controversial relationship with Mongolia. Until 1945, the ROC claimed jurisdiction over Greater Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure, it recognized Mongolian independence. Shortly thereafter, it repudiated this recognition and continued to claim jurisdiction over Mongolia until recently. Since the late 1990s, the relationship with Mongolia has become a controversial topic. Any move to renounce sovereignty over Mongolia is controversial because the PRC claims that it is a prelude to Taiwanese independence. This article is about the region. ... Taiwan independence (台灣獨立, pinyin: Táiwān dúlì, Taiwanese Church Romanization: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is — depending on ones interpretation...


The ROC is required to use the name Chinese Taipei in many circumstances, due to the One-China Policy. Among organizations that have this requirement are international sports federations, including the International Olympic Committee. The One-China policy (Traditional Chinese: 一個中國; Simplified Chinese: 一个中国; pinyin: yī gè Zhōngguó) is a principle that there is one China and that mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are all part of that China. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ...


Military

The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) maintains a large military establishment, which accounted for 16. ...

1911–49

Several armies were associated with this era, including those of the various warlords, the KMT, and the CPC. There were two armies regarded as the "National army": the Beiyang Army of the Warlord government and later the National Revolutionary Army of the Nationalist Government. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (Chinese: 國民革命軍; pinyin: guo2 min2 ge2 ming4 jun1) was the national army of the Republic of China. ...


The founding of the Republic was made possible by mutiny within the Qing New Army. When Yuan Shikai took over as president, he was already commander of the Beiyang Army, which controlled North China. However, with Yuan's death in 1916, numerous factions within the Beiyang Army broke loose, and the leading generals of the Beiyang Army became warlords, ruling huge fiefdoms in the following decade. Regulars in these warlord armies often did not wear uniforms and the distinction between bandit and soldier was blurred. The New Armies (Simplified Chinese: 新军) were the modernized Qing armies trained and equipped according to western standards. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


With the help of the Comintern, Sun Yat-sen established the National Revolutionary Army in 1925 in Guangdong with a goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. To this end, it initially fought against the warlords who had fractured China, successfully unifying China, and later against the Communist Red Army. A minor Sino-Soviet conflict in 1929 was fought over the administration of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. The National Revolutionary Army also fought against Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1931 and 1937–45), which became a part of the larger World War II. Leadership of the military during this time empowered political leadership. Following the principles of Leninism the distinctions among party, state, and army were blurred. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... For other uses, see Peoples Liberation Army (disambiguation) The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 was a minor armed conflict between the Soviet Union and the Republic of China over the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...


When the People's Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War, much of the National Revolutionary Army retreated to Taiwan along with the government. It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army. Units which surrendered and remained in China were either disbanded or incorporated into the PLA. For other uses, see Peoples Liberation Army (disambiguation) The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Republic of China Army (中華民國陸軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn) is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


Present

ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise (ROC Ministry of National Defense).
ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise (ROC Ministry of National Defense).

Today, the Republic of China maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defense against the constant threat of invasion by the PRC under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China.[34] From 1949 to the 1970s the military's primary mission was to "retake the mainland." As this mission has shifted to defense, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant army to the air force and navy. Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. As the ROC military shares historical roots with the KMT, the older generation of high ranking officers tends to have Pan-Blue sympathies.[35] However, many have retired and there are many more non-Mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan. The Republic of China Army (中華民國陸軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó LùjÅ«n) is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The Republic of China Air Force (中華民國空軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó KōngjÅ«n) is the aviation branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is often viewed as one of the most professional and capable branches of the Republic of Chinas armed forces. ... The Republic of China Navy (中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó HÇŽijÅ«n) is the maritime branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1783x1227, 382 KB) Summary ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1783x1227, 382 KB) Summary ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise. ... Unlike military police in many other countries, the Republic of China Military Police (中華民國憲兵; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó XiànbÄ«ng) are a separate branch of the ROC Armed Forces. ... The Republic of China Army (中華民國陸軍) is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The Ministry of National Defense (中華民國國防部, or MND) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is a cabinet level agency under the Executive Yuan responsible for all defense affairs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Republic of China Air Force (中華民國空軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó KōngjÅ«n) is the aviation branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is often viewed as one of the most professional and capable branches of the Republic of Chinas armed forces. ... The Republic of China Navy (中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó HÇŽijÅ«n) is the maritime branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China. ...


The ROC's armed forces number approximately 300,000, with nominal reserves totaling 3,870,000. The ROC began a force reduction program to scale down its military from a level of 430,000 in the 1990s which is drawing to a close by 2005. Conscription remains universal for qualified males reaching age eighteen, but as a part of the reduction effort many are given the opportunity to fulfill their draft requirement through alternative service and are redirected to government agencies or defense related industries. Current plans call for a transition to a predominantly professional army over the next decade. Conscription periods will decrease by two months each year, with a final result of three months.


The armed forces' primary concern at this time is the possibility of an attack by the PRC, consisting of a naval blockade, airborne assault and/or missile bombardment. Four upgraded Kidd-class destroyers were recently purchased from the United States, significantly upgrading Taiwan's air defense and submarine hunting abilities.[36] The Ministry of National Defense planned to purchase diesel-powered submarines and Patriot anti-missile batteries from the United States, but its budget has been stalled repeatedly by the opposition-Pan-Blue Coalition controlled legislature. The defense package has been stalled since 2001 and there is now debate about the relevance of the submarines and whether different hardware should be purchased. A significant amount of military hardware has been bought from the United States, and continues to be legally guaranteed today by the Taiwan Relations Act.[37] In the past, the ROC has also purchased military weapons and hardware from France and the Netherlands. USS Scott, a Kidd class destroyer. ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... In relation to the Three Communique signed between Peoples Republic of China and United States of America, The Taiwan Relations Act is oftened viewed as another cornerstone of US position to China and in addition to the concerted area of China. ...


The first line of defense against invasion by the PRC is the ROC's own armed forces. Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the U.S. military responds. A defense pact between the U.S. and Japan signed in 2005 implies that Japan would be involved in any response.[35] Other U.S. allies, such as Australia, could theoretically be involved but this is unlikely in practice.[38] It is also worth noting that there is no guarantee in the Taiwan Relations Act or any other treaty that the United States will attack the PRC, even in the event of invasion.[39]


Economy

1912–49

Bonds that Sun Yat-sen used to raise money for revolutionary cause. (The Republic of China was also once known as the Chunghwa Republic.)
Bonds that Sun Yat-sen used to raise money for revolutionary cause. (The Republic of China was also once known as the Chunghwa Republic.)

During the first half of the twentieth century the economy of the Republic of China was essentially capitalist, with much foreign interference. Progress was impeded by constant war and internal and external strife. Image File history File links The_Chunghwa_Republic_gold_a. ... Image File history File links The_Chunghwa_Republic_gold_a. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ...


The weak national government made some attempts to promote economic activity, such as by establishing the Industrial Bank of China. There was little government control of the economy however, other than causing runaway inflation by overprinting money to finance wars against the Japanese and the Communists. Foreign debts also made the national government susceptible to foreign influence. The Nationalists, like Yuan Shi-kai before them, were propped up through massive economic loans by the United States.


China at the time was largely agrarian, with most of the land, and thus the wealth, concentrated in a wide pyramid structure. Much of the land was owned by a few very wealthy landowners; the general population were tenant farmers who did not own land. The founders of both the Republic of China and the Communist Party had aimed to overturn this inequality. The Henan famine (1943–44) aided the collapse of the Republican government. Labor unions had been crushed in the purge of the Communists from the Kuomintang, leading to more inequality. Many of the wealthiest landowners and business leaders were also ministers and officials of the state and were often corrupt, preventing effective measures from being implemented.


Taiwan Miracle

Main article: Taiwan Miracle

Taiwan's quick industrialization and rapid growth during the latter half of the twentieth century, has been called the "Taiwan Miracle" (台灣奇蹟) or "Taiwan Economic Miracle". As it has developed alongside Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, the ROC is one of the industrialized developed countries known as the "Four Asian Tigers". Taiwans quick industrialization and rapid growth during the latter half of the twentieth century, has been called the Taiwan Miracle (台灣奇蹟 or 臺灣奇蹟, Tongyong Pinyin: ,Hanyu Pinyin: táiwān qíjì) or Taiwan Economic Miracle. As it has developed alongside Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, the ROC is known... Taiwans quick industrialization and rapid growth during the latter half of the twentieth century, has been called the Taiwan Miracle (台灣奇蹟 or 臺灣奇蹟, Tongyong Pinyin: ,Hanyu Pinyin: táiwān qíjì) or Taiwan Economic Miracle. As it has developed alongside Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, the ROC is known... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Map of Four Asian Tigers  Hong Kong  Taiwan  Singapore  South Korea Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong The skyline of Singapores Central Business District (CBD) at evening. ...


Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought forth changes in the public and private sectors of the economy, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island. The Japanese also improved public education and made the system compulsory for all ROC citizens during this time.


When the KMT government fled to Taiwan it brought the entire gold reserve and the foreign currency reserve of mainland China to the island which stabilized prices and reduced hyperinflation. More importantly, as part of its retreat to Taiwan, KMT brought with them the intellectual and business elites from the mainland.[citation needed] This unprecedented influx of monetary and human capital laid the foundation for Taiwan's later dramatic economic development. The KMT government instituted many laws and land reforms that it had never effectively enacted on mainland China. The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution, attempting to produce imported goods domestically. Much of this was made possible through US economic aid, subsidizing the higher cost of domestic production. Native Taiwanese were largely excluded from the mainlander dominated government, so many went into the business world.[citation needed] Import substitution industrialization (also called ISI) is a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a developing country should attempt to substitute products which it imports, mostly finished goods, with locally produced substitutes. ...


In 1962, Taiwan had a per capita gross national product (GNP) of $170, placing the island's economy squarely between Zaire and Congo. By 2005 Taiwan's per capita GNP, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), had soared to $29,000(2006 est.), contributing to a Human Development Index equivalent to that of European countries such as Greece. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


According to economist Paul Krugman, the rapid growth was made possible by increases in capital and labor, but not an increase in efficiency. In other words, the savings rate increased, and work hours were both lengthened and many more people, such as women, entered the work force.[40] Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist. ...


Dwight Perkins and others cite certain methodological flaws in Krugman's (and Alwyn Young's) research, and suggest that much of Taiwan's growth can be attributed to increases in productivity. These productivity boosts were achieved through land reform, structural change (urbanization and industrialization), and an economic policy of export promotion rather than import substitution.


Present

Main article: Economy of Taiwan

Today the Republic of China has a dynamic capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about eight percent during the past three decades. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's third largest. [2] The Republic of China's current GDP per capita (PPP) is equal to the average of EU Countries. Republic of China (ROC) has a dynamiccapitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by the government. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Republic of China has its own currency: the New Taiwan Dollar. ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ...


Agriculture constitutes only two percent of the GDP, down from 35 percent in 1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and with more capital and technology-intensive industries replacing them. The ROC has become a major foreign investor in the PRC, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is estimated that some 50,000 Taiwanese businesses and 1,000,000 businesspeople and their dependents are established in the PRC.[citation needed]


Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, the ROC suffered little compared with many of its neighbors from the Asian financial crisis in 1998–1999. Unlike its neighbors South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium sized businesses, rather than the large business groups. The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy coordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in 2001, the first whole year of negative growth since 1947. Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labor intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the 1970s oil crisis. This became a major issue in the 2004 presidential election. Growth averaged more than 4% in the 2002-2006 period and the unemployment rate fell below 4%. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... In macroeconomics, the definition of recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Elections for the President and Vice President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) were held on March 20, 2004. ...


The ROC often joins international organizations under a politically neutral name. The ROC is a member of governmental trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu since 2002. “WTO” redirects here. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a state that currently administers the island groups of Taiwan, the Pescadores, Quemoy, and the...


Education

Main article: Education in Taiwan

The Republic of China has a twenty-two year comprehensive educational system influenced by the Japanese educational system. The system has been successful in that pupils in the ROC boast some of the highest test scores in the world, especially in mathematics and science[citation needed]; however, it has also been criticized for placing excessive pressure on students and eschewing creativity in favor of rote memorization. Recent educational reforms intended to address these criticisms are a topic of intense debate.[citation needed] Educational oversight Minister of Education Ministry of Education Tu Cheng-sheng National education budget NT$ 608. ... A typical classroom in Japan. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


The literacy rate in 2003 was 96.1%.[41]


Demographics

The population of areas under control of the Republic of China was estimated in July 2006 at 23,036,087[42] spread across a total land area of 35,980 km² making it the twelfth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of 640 people per km². 98% of Taiwan's population is made up of Han Chinese while 2% are Austronesian aborigines. 94% of the population subscribe to a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism while less than 4.5% subscribe to Christianity and Islam. Taiwan is undergoing a decline in birth rates with a population growth of just 0.61% for the year 2006. The official national language is Mandarin Chinese though the majority also speak Taiwanese (deriving from the Min Nan speech of Fujian province) and Hakka. Japanese speakers are becoming rare[citation needed] as the elderly generation who lived under Japanese rule are dying out. Aboriginal languages are becoming extinct as the aborigines have become sinicized and the ROC government has not preserved the Formosan languages. Taiwans population was estimated in July 2006 at 23,036,087 [1] spread across a total land area of 35,980 km², making it the twelfth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of 886 people per km². According to official governmental statistics, 15% of... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Modern Standard Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and is one of the four official languages of Singapore. ... For other uses, see Formosan languages, Taiwanese Mandarin, and Languages of Taiwan. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... The Japanese colonial period, Japanese rule or the Japanese occupation[1], in the context of Taiwans history, refers to the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... The Formosan languages are a group of Austronesian languages spoken 2% of the population of Taiwan, almost exclusively aboriginals. ...


Public health

Healthcare in the ROC is managed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI).[43] Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ...


The current program was implemented in 1995 and is considered a social insurance. The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for employed, impoverished, un-employed citizens and persons of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Taiwan. The 2001 premium for the district population was US$18.88 per person per month.[44] A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.


BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the BNHI and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly peoples.


According to a recently published survey, out of 3,360 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 75.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 20.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 4.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided. [45]


Taiwan has its own Center for Disease Control, and during the SARS outbreak occurring in March of 2003 confirmed 347 cases. During the outbreak the CDC and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas. With full containment in July of 2003, there has not been a case of SARS reported since.[46]


BNHI Facility Contract Distribution facilities total 17,259, including:[47]

Number Subject
16,174 outpatient-only facilities
5,701 dental clinics
2,422 Chinese medicine clinics
1,085 inpatient/outpatient facilities
437 local community hospitals
35 Chinese medicine hospitals
23 academic medical centers

Basic coverage areas of the insurance include:

  • Inpatient care
  • Ambulatory care
  • Laboratory tests
  • Prescription and over-the-counter drugs
  • Dental services
  • Mental Illness
  • Traditional Chinese medicine
  • Home care
  • Preventative services*

* child check-ups, prenatal care, pap smears, adult check-ups


In 2004 the infant mortality rate was 5.3 with 15 physicians and 63 hospital beds per 10,000 people. The life expectancy for males was 73.5 years and 79.7 years for females according the World Health Report. Since the inception of the BNHI in 1995 the aggregate life expectancy increase is 1.6 years for males and 2 years for females, possibly a key indicator for success in the BNHI program considering the relatively stable life expectancy rate prior to the initiative.[48]


Other health related programs in Taiwan are the Center for Disease Control and the Department of Health.


Calendar

Main article: Minguo calendar

Following the imperial tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, official ROC documents use the Republic (Chinese: 民國; pinyin: míngúo; literally "The Country of the People") system of numbering years in which the first year (民國元年) was 1912, the year of the founding of the Republic of China. For example, 2007 is the "96th year of the Republic" (民國九十六年, 民國96年, or simply 96). As Chinese era names are traditionally two characters long, 民國 (Republic) is employed as an abbreviation of 中華民國 (Republic of China). A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. Based on Chinese National Standard CNS 7648: Data Elements and Interchange Formats -- Information Interchange -- Representation of Dates and Times, (similar to ISO 8601), year numbering may use the A.D. system as well as the ROC era. For example, May 3, 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or R.O.C.93-05-03. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Chinese National Standards may mean: The National Standards of the Peoples Republic of China (abbreviated GB) The Taiwan, Quemoy and Matsu (abbreviated CNS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


The ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the numbering used by North Korea because its founder, Kim Il-sung, was born in 1912. The years in Japan's Taishō period (July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926) are also coincident with the ROC era. Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was a North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ...


The use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents. When used to mark expiration dates on products for export, they can be misunderstood as having an expiration date 11 years earlier than intended. Misinterpretation is more likely in the cases when the prefix (R.O.C. or 民國) is omitted.


Traditional Chinese holidays such as the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival, and the Dragon Boat Festival are celebrated regularly. Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Year 2007 Taiwan Lantern Festival in Chiayi, Taiwan The Lantern Festival (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or (Yuanxiao Festival), also known as the Shang Yuan Festival (上元节), is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunar year in the Chinese calendar. ... Dragon Boat Festival is also called Duan Wu or Tuen Ng Festival (端午节/端午節), which is a festival on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar. ...

See also: Chinese calendar, Holidays in the Republic of China, and Public holidays in the Republic of China

The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Taipei Lantern Festival in the Chiang-Kai Shek memorial hall in Taipei, Taiwan. ... Public holidays in the Republic of China: Tomb sweeping day, as celebrated on an individual level in Taiwan, is often varies greatly depending on ancestry. ...

International rankings

Context Organization Rank Year Source
GDP (PPP) International Monetary Fund / CIA 16/181 (IMF)
16/227 (CIA)
2006 IMF
CIA
GDP (PPP) per capita International Monetary Fund / CIA 23/181 (IMF)
35/227 (CIA)
2006 IMF
CIA
Worldwide press freedom index Reporters Without Borders 43/168 2006 [3]
Index of Economic Freedom The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation 26/162 2007 [4]
Economic Freedom of the World The Fraser Institute 24/130 2004 [5]
Ease of Doing Business Index World Bank 50/178 2008 [6]
Global Competitiveness Report World Economic Forum 13/125 2006 - 2007 [7]
Business Competitiveness Index World Economic Forum 21/121 2006 [8]
Worldwide quality-of-life index The Economist 21/111 2005 [9]
Global e-Government Study Brown University 2/198 2006 [10]
Richard Lynn and Tatu
Vanhanen IQ and Global Inequality
Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus
of Psychology at the University of Ulster
5/185 2006 [11]
World Competitiveness Yearbook International Institute for Management Development 18/55 2007 [12]
Network Readiness Index World Economic Forum 13/122 2006 - 2007 [13]
Corruption Perception Index Transparency International 34/163 2006 [14]
Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index World Economic Forum 30/124 2007 [15]
Freedom of the Press Freedom House 20/194 2007 [16]
IT industry competitiveness index Economist Intelligence Unit 6/64 2007 [17]
E-readiness rankings Economist Intelligence Unit 17/69 2007 [18]

“IMF” redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... “IMF” redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ... The Fraser Institute is a libertarian think tank based in Canada. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... The World Bank (the Bank), a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), was formally established on December 27, 1945, following the ratification of the Bretton Woods agreement. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... IQ and the Wealth of Nations IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... Richard Lynn (born 1930) is a British Professor Emeritus of Psychology and a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences,[1] known for his work on intelligence and differential psychology. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Index of perception of corruption ordering the countries of the world according to the level of public perception of corruption of public and political functionaries. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freedom House is a non-profit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. and with field offices in about a dozen countries. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... e-Readiness is the ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop ones economy and to foster ones welfare. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 13. ... The human rights record of Taiwan is generally held to have experienced significant transformation over the last two decades. ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... The Republic of China (ROC) currently administers two historical provinces of China (one completely and one for a small part) and centrally administers two municipalities: Taiwan Province; consists of the island of Taiwan, except the two municipalities, plus Penghu county (Pescadores Islands) and a number of outlying islands Sixteen counties... A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...

Further reading

  • Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0471986771
  • Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815712901
  • Carpenter, T. (2006). America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403968411
  • Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 0415365813
  • Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0275988880
  • Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006). Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning
  • Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815731469
  • Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195306090
  • Tsang, S. (2006). If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 0415407850
  • Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the U.S.-Taiwan-China Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231135645

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Under KMT administration, Nanjing appeared in government-sponsored maps and publications as the official capital while Taipei was labelled as the provisional capital. The current DPP administration has dropped such references.
  2. ^ Tourism Bureau, Republic of China (Taiwan) [W]elcome to Taiwan-Discover Taiwan
  3. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook -- Taiwan
  4. ^ a b Rank based on 2006 figures.
  5. ^ If ranked. Due to its political status, the UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC. However, the ROC government calculated its HDI for 2004 to be 0.925; if included among UN HDI figures, the ROC would rank 24th (high), between Israel and Greece.國情統計通報
  6. ^ The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue. PRC Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information Office of the State Council (2005). Retrieved on 2006-03-06. Section 1: "Since the KMT ruling clique retreated to Taiwan, although its regime has continued to use the designations "Republic of China" and "government of the Republic of China," it has long since completely forfeited its right to exercise state sovereignty on behalf of mainland China and, in reality, has always remained only a separate state on the island of Taiwan."
  7. ^ 2004 National Defense Report (PDF). ROC Ministry of National Defense (2004). Retrieved on 2006-03-05. pages 89-90: "The PRC refusal to renounce using military power against Taiwan, its current emphasis on 'enhancing preparation for military struggle,' its obvious intention of preparing a war against Taiwan reflected in operational deployment, readiness efforts, and annual military exercises in the Southeast China coastal region, and its progress in aerospace operations, information warfare, paralyzation warfare, and non-conventional warfare, all of these factors work together so that the ROC Armed Forces face an increasingly complicated and difficult situation in terms of self-defense and counterattack. These multiple daunting challenges are testing our defense security."
  8. ^ Executive Summary of Report to Congress on implementation of the Taiwan Relations Act. Report to Congress Pursuant to Public Law 106-113. U.S. Department of Defense (2000). Retrieved on 2005-03-05.
  9. ^ U.S. Department of State (2004-04-21). Overview of U.S. Policy Towards Taiwan. Press release.
  10. ^ U.S. Department of State (2004-04-21). Overview of U.S. Policy Towards Taiwan. Press release.
  11. ^ The World Factbook. CIA (2006-05-03).
  12. ^ TECRO Profile & Mission. TECRO in the United States (2006-05-03).
  13. ^ "WHO application: a question of health or politics?", The Taipei Times, 2004-05-19. 
  14. ^ "Taiwan flags in S.L. ruffle a few feelings", The Deseret News, 2002-02-10. 
  15. ^ Mainland Affairs Council, ROC Executive Yuan (2005-03-29). The Official Position of the Republic of China on China’s Passing of the Anti-secession (Anti-Separation) Law. Press release. Section II-2: "'The Republic of China is an independent and sovereign state. Taiwan’s sovereignty belongs to the 23 million people of Taiwan. Only the 23 million citizens of Taiwan may decide on the future of Taiwan.' This statement represents the greatest consensus within Taiwan's society today concerning the issues of national sovereignty and the future of Taiwan. It is also a common position shared by both the ruling and opposition parties in Taiwan. A recent opinion poll shows that more than 90% of the people of Taiwan agree with this position."
  16. ^ Swaine, Michael; James C. Mulvenon [2001]. "3", Taiwan's Foreign and Defense Policies: Features and Determinants (PDF) (in English), RAND Corporation, 30. ISBN 0-8330-3094-9. Retrieved on 2006-03-05. “"Efforts to accurately measure and assess public and group views and interests on these and other issues are fraught with problems, however, such as political bias and the use of unscientific methodologies. A significant number of opinion polls are conducted each year by Taiwan’s political parties, newspapers, and various politically-oriented private groups or foundations on a wide range of subjects. Many such polls arguably produce inaccurate results, either as a result of sampling errors, biased questions, or a subject’s awareness of the highly partisan nature of the polling agency."” 
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica
  18. ^ P. 235. Fairbank and Goldman. China.
  19. ^ ""This Is the Shame"", Time Magazine, 1946-06-10.  (subscription required)
  20. ^ "Snow Red & Moon Angel", Time Magazine, 1947-04-07.  (subscription required) Full version at [1]
  21. ^ Taiwan's Ethnic Composition. Private website. Retrieved on 2006-03-08.
  22. ^ U.S. Department of Defense (1950). "Classified Teletype Conference, dated June 27, 1950, between the Pentagon and General Douglas MacArthur regarding authorization to use naval and air forces in support of South Korea. Papers of Harry S. Truman: Naval Aide Files". Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Page 1: "In addition 7th Fleet will take station so as to prevent invasion of Formosa and to insure that Formosa not be used as base of operations against Chinese mainland." Page 4: "Seventh Fleet is hereby assigned to operational control CINCFE for employment in following task hereby assigned CINCFE: By naval and air action prevent any attack on Formosa, or any air or sea offensive from Formosa against mainland of China."
  23. ^ "World: Asia-Pacific Analysis: Flashpoint Spratly", BBC, 1999-02-14. 
  24. ^ http://www.mtac.gov.tw/pages.php?lang=5
  25. ^ "Taiwan-Mongolia ties move on", The Taipei Times, 2002-09-10. 
  26. ^ Greet the New High Tide of the Chinese Revolution. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. Marxists.org (2005). Retrieved on 2006-03-08.
  27. ^ Chang, Y.F. Bradford. "The Flood of Political Ideas in China During the 1920s". City University of Hong Kong.
  28. ^ "The Formal Establishment of an Anti-Japanese National United Front", PLA Daily, 2005-08-01. 
  29. ^ "Taiwan assembly passes changes", BBC, 2005-06-07. 
  30. ^ AP, Taiwan Party Asserts Separate Identity
  31. ^ U.S. Department of Defense (1950). "Classified Teletype Conference, dated June 27, 1950, between the Pentagon and General Douglas MacArthur regarding authorization to use naval and air forces in support of South Korea. Papers of Harry S. Truman: Naval Aide Files". Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Page 1: "In addition 7th Fleet will take station so as to prevent invasion of Formosa and to insure that Formosa not be used as base of operations against Chinese mainland." Page 4: "Seventh Fleet is hereby assigned to operational control CINCFE for employment in following task hereby assigned CINCFE: By naval and air action prevent any attack on Formosa, or any air or sea offensive from Formosa against mainland of China."
  32. ^ Fairbank and Goldman, 330–37.
  33. ^ BBC. "Costa Rica forges new China ties", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2007-06-06. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. 
  34. ^ 2004 National Defense Report (PDF). ROC Ministry of National Defense (2004). Retrieved on 2006-03-05. Pages 89-90: "The PRC refusal to renounce using military power against Taiwan, its current emphasis on "enhancing preparation for military struggle," its obvious intention of preparing a war against Taiwan reflected in operational deployment, readiness efforts, and annual military exercises in the Southeast China coastal region, and its progress in aerospace operations, information warfare, paralyzation warfare, and non-conventional warfare, all of these factors work together so that the ROC Armed Forces face an increasingly complicated and difficult situation in terms of self-defense and counterattack. These multiple daunting challenges are testing our defense security."
  35. ^ a b Swaine, Michael; James C. Mulvenon [2001]. Tawian's Foreign and Defense Policies: Features and Determinants (PDF) (in English), RAND Corporation. ISBN 0-8330-3094-9. Retrieved on 2006-03-05. 
  36. ^ "Kidd-class warships set sail for Taiwan", The Taipei Times, 2005-10-31. 
  37. ^ Executive Summary of Report to Congress on implementation of the Taiwan Relations Act. Report to Congress Pursuant to Public Law 106-113. U.S. Department of Defense (2000). Retrieved on 2005-03-05.
  38. ^ Tow, William (2005). "ANZUS: Regional versus Global Security in Asia?". International Relations in the Asia-Pacific 5 (2): 197. 
  39. ^ "China Threat to Attack Taiwan Alarms Asia", Associated Press, 2005-03-14. 
  40. ^ Paul Krugman. The Myth of Asia's Miracle: A Cautionary Fable (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-02.
  41. ^ Taiwan. CIA - The World Factbook (December 10, 2006).
  42. ^ Taiwan. CIA - The World Factbook (November 14, 2006).
  43. ^ "Bureau of National Health Insurance", Taiwan BNHI, 2006-07-18. 
  44. ^ "Bureau of National Health Insurance faq", Taiwan BNHI, 2006-07-18. 
  45. ^ "Taiwanese Hospital Public Satisfaction Poll", Taiwan Department of Health, 2004-10. 
  46. ^ "Center for Disease Control", Taiwan CDC, 2006-07-18. 
  47. ^ "Bureau of National Health Insurance Full Summary", Taiwan BNHI, July 18, 2006. 
  48. ^ "Taiwan Department of Health Full Summary", Taiwan Department of Health, 2006-07-18. 
  1. Feuerwerker, Albert. 1968. The Chinese Economy, 1912-1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Temporary capital (Lithuanian Laikinoji sostinė) was the official designation of the city of Kaunas in Lithuania during the interwar period. ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: MínjìndÇŽng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... Taiwan Strait Area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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