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Encyclopedia > Republic (Plato)
This article is part of the series:
The Dialogues of Plato
Early dialogues:
Apology - Charmides - Crito
Euthyphro - First Alcibiades
Hippias Major - Hippias Minor
Ion - Laches - Lysis
Transitional & middle dialogues:
Cratylus - Euthydemus - Gorgias
Menexenus - Meno - Phaedo
Protagoras - Symposium
Later middle dialogues:
The Republic - Phaedrus
Parmenides - Theaetetus
Late dialogues:
Timaeus - Critias
The SophistThe Statesman
Philebus - Laws
Of doubtful authenticity:
ClitophonEpinomis
Epistles - Hipparchus
Minos - Rival Lovers
Second Alcibiades - Theages

The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the... The Charmides (Greek: ) is a dialogue of Plato, discussing the nature and utility of temperance. ... The Crito (IPA [kriːtɔːn]; in English usually [ˈkɹiːtɘʊː]) is a short but important dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher, Plato. ... Euthyphro is one of Platos known early dialogues. ... The First Alcibiades or Alcibiades I is a dialogue featuring Alcibiades in conversation with Socrates, ascribed to Plato, but his authorship is doubtful, though probably written by someone within a century or two of Platos other works. ... Hippias Major (or What is Beauty) is one of the dialogues of Plato. ... Hippias Minor (or On Lying) is one of Platos early dialogues, written while the author was still young, although the exact date has not been established. ... Platos Ion aims to give an account of poetry in dialogue form. ... Laches, also known as Courage, is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato, and concerns the topic of courage. ... Lysis is one of the socratic dialogues written by Plato and discusses the nature of friendship. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an... Euthydemus (Euthydemos), written 380 BCE, is dialogue by Plato which satirizes the logical fallacies of the Sophists. ... Gorgias refers to the last dialogue that Plato wrote before leaving Athens. ... The Menexenus is a Socratic dialogue of Plato, traditionally included in the seventh tetralogy along with the Greater and Lesser Hippias and the Ion. ... Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ... Protagoras is the title of one of Platos dialogues. ... The Symposium is a dialogue by Plato, written soon after 385 BCE. It is a philosophical discussion on the nature of love, taking the form of a series of speeches, both satirical and serious, given by a group of men at a symposion or drinking party at the house of... Platos Phaedrus is a dialogue between Socrates and Phaedrus. ... Parmenides is one of the dialogues of Plato. ... The Theætetus (Θεαιτητος) is one of Platos great dialogues. ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Critias, a dialogue of Platos, speaks about a variety of subjects. ... The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much more lately than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC.After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms... The Statesman, or Politikos in Greek and Politicus in Latin, is a four part dialogue contained within the work of Plato. ... Philebus is among the last of the late Socratic dialogues of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ... The Clitophon, a dialogue generally ascribed to Plato, is significant for focusing on Socrates role as an exhorter of other people to engage in philosophic inquiry. ... The Epinomis is a dialogue in the style of Plato, but today considered spurious by most scholars. ... The Epistles of Plato are a series of thirteen letters traditionally included in the Platonic corpus. ... The Hipparchus is a dialogue attributed to the classical Greek philosopher and writer Plato. ... Minos is one of the dialogues of Plato, featuring Socrates and a Companion. ... Rival Lovers (Greek: ) is a Socratic dialogue included in the traditional corpus of Platos works, though its authenticity has been doubted. ... The Second Alcibiades or Alcibiades II is a dialogue ascribed to Plato, featring Alcibiades conversing with Socrates, but there is a general consensus amongst scholars that this text is spurious, though again probably written by someone within a century or two of Platos other works. ... Theages is one of the dialogues of Plato, featuring Demodocus, Socrates and Theages. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 365 BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357... Socratic dialogue (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος), is a prose literary form developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems. ...

Contents

Translation of the title

The original title of the work is the Greek word πολιτεία (see: politeia). "The Republic", which is the traditional English translation of the title, is somewhat of a misnomer, taken from Cicero's Latin (See also De re publica). Politeia (πολιτεία) is an Ancient Greek word with no single English translation. ... De re publica is a work by Cicero, written in six books 54-51 BC, in the format of a Socratic dialogue, that is to say: Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born) takes the role of wise old man, that is an obligatory...


The Greek title Politeia is derived from the word "polis", which can roughly correspond to the modern term "city", or rather "city-state". Reflecting this, many languages translate Politeia as (The) State, including Dutch (De staat) and German (Der Staat). An ancient Greek politeia was considered to be a way of life; so in actuality a proper translation would be 'how we live as people' (for a better understanding see Aristotle's Politics). A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) — plural: poleis (πόλεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... From the Greek word polis(state-city), the Politics or Ta Politika of Aristotle is the second half of a single treatise of which his Ethics is the first. ...


Within the work, Plato appears to use the word "politeia" more specifically in the meaning of form of government, at least according to Liddell and Scott in their Greek-English Lexicon.[1] This meaning of "politeia" is not normally used for referring to the title of the work. A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community. ... Henry George Liddell (1811‑1898)was a British historian and academic, editor at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford, of which in 1855 he became Dean. ... Robert Scott (January 26, 1811 - December 2, 1877) was a 19th-century British academic philologist and a Fellow (later Master) of Balliol College, Oxford University. ... A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ...


Sometimes Affairs of the Polis is offered as a literal translation of the title.


Setting and dramatis personae

The main characters in The Republic are:

  • Socrates
  • Glaucon, an older brother of Plato
  • Adeimantus, another older brother of Plato
  • Other, minor, characters are Cephalus, an elderly arms manufacturer [2]; Polemarchus, son of Cephalus; Thrasymachus, a sophist; his friend Cleitophon; Charmantides, another son of Cephalus
  • There are three silent characters: Lysias and Euthydemus, sons of Cephalus, and Niceratus.

The scene of the dialogue is the house of Cephalus at Piraeus, a city-port beyond the walls of ancient Athens; it was the port of entry and exit for trade into the city. Socrates was not known to venture outside of Athens regularly. The whole dialogue is narrated by Socrates the day after it actually took place, to Timaeus, Hermocrates, and Critias, among others.[3] Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Glaucon (bef. ... Adeimantus of Collytus was the name of Platos brother and his brothers son. ... Thrasymachus (c 459-400 BCE) was a sophist of Ancient Greece best known as a character in Platos Republic. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Lysias (d. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... View of Piraeus A night ferry about to leave the port of Piraeus for the Dodecanese Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιάς Peiraiás or Pireás, Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ... Timaeus of Locres or Timaeus of Locris or Timaeus of Locri or, in Latin, Timaeus Locrus was a Pythagorean philosopher living in the 5th century BC. He features in Platos Timaeus dialogue, where he is said to come from Locri in Italy. ... Hermocrates (Ancient Greek: ) was a general of Syracuse during the Athenians Sicilian Expedition. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ...


Content

Reference to the Republic is normally made by book number, Stephanus pagination, and (more rarely) by book number and chapter number. Stephanus pagination is the system of reference and organisation used in the works of Plato. ...


Structure

Three interpretations, or summaries, of the dialogue follow. They are not, by any measure, an exhaustive representation, but represent accepted contemporary English language views on the work.


Bertrand Russell

In his History of Western Philosophy (1945), Bertrand Russell sees three parts in Plato's Republic[4]: Bertrand Russells A History of Western Philosophy : And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day has the ambitious goal of tracing Western philosophy from the earliest times to Russells modern day, which was the nineteen sixties. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ...

  1. Book I-V: the Utopia part, portraying the ideal community, starting from an attempt to define justice;
  2. Book VI-VII: since philosophers are seen as the ideal rulers of such community, this part of the text concentrates on defining what a philosopher is;
  3. Book VIII-X: discusses several practical forms of government, their pros and cons.

The core of the second part is discussed in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, and articles related to Plato's theory of (ideal) forms. The third part, concentrating also on education, is also strongly related to Plato's dialogue The Laws. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community. ... Illustration of Platos cave Platos allegory of the cave is perhaps the best-known of his many metaphors, allegories, and myths. ... Platonism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ...


Cornford, Hildebrandt and Voegelin subdivisions

Francis Cornford, Kurt Hildebrandt and Eric Voegelin contributed to an establishment of subdivisions marked by special formulae in Greek: Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874-1943) was an English classical scholar and poet. ... Eric Voegelin, born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin, (January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a political philosopher. ...

Prologue 
I.1. 327a—328b. Descent to the Piraeus
I.2—I.5. 328b—331d. Cephalus. Justice of the Older Generation
I.6—1.9. 331e—336a. Polemarchus. Justice of the Middle Generation
I.10—1.24. 336b—354c. Thrasymachus. Justice of the Sophist
Introduction 
II.1—II.10. 357a—369b. The Question: Is Justice Better than Injustice?
Part I: Genesis and Order of the Polis 
II.11—II.16. 369b—376e. Genesis of the Polis
II.1—III.18. 376e—412b. Education of the Guardians
III.19—IV.5. 412b—427c. Constitution of the Polis
IV.6—IV.I9. 427c—445e. Justice in the Polis
Part II: Embodiment of the Idea
V.1—V.16. 449a—471c. Somatic Unit of Polis and Hellenes
V.17—VI.14. 471c—502c. Rule of the Philosophers
VI.19—VII.5. 502c—521c. The Idea of the Agathon
VII.6—VII.18. 521c—541b. Education of the Philosophers
Part III: Decline of the Polis
VIII.1—VIII.5. 543a—550c. Timocracy
VIII.6—VIII.9. 550c—555b. Oligarchy
VIII.10—VIII.13. 555b—562a. Democracy
VIII.I4—IX-3. 562a—576b. Tyranny
Conclusion 
IX.4—IX.13. 576b—592b Answer: Justice is Better than Injustice
Epilogue 
X.1—X.8. 595a—608b. Rejection of Mimetic Art
X.9—X.11. 608c—612a. Immortality of the Soul
X.12. 612a—613e. Rewards of Justice in Life
X.13—X.16. 613e—631d. Judgment of the Dead

The paradigm of the city - the idea of the Good, of the Agathon - has for Plato a manifold of historical embodiments. The embodiment must be undertaken by those who have seen the Agathon and are ordered through the vision. Hence, in the centre piece of the Republic, Part II, 2-3, Plato deals with the rule of the philosopher and the vision of the Agathon in the famous allegory of the cave, with which Plato clarifies his theory of forms. The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Look up good in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Agathon (c. ... Platos Allegory of the Cave is perhaps the best known of his many allegories, metaphors, and parables. ... Theory of Forms typically refers to Platos belief that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only a shadow of the real world. ...


That center piece is preceded and followed by the discussion of the means that will secure a well-ordered polis. Part II, 1 deals with marriage, the community of people and goods for the guardians, and the restraints on warfare among the Hellenes. It has been incorrectly described as a communistic utopia, a word that is not even extant in classical Greek. Part II, 4 deals with the philosophical education of the rulers who will preserve the order.


The central Part II, the Embodiment of the Idea, is preceded by the building of economic and social of order for a polis in Part I; and is followed by an analysis in Part III, of the decline through which the right order will have to pass. The three parts form the main body of the dialogue, with their discussion of paradigm , its embodiment, its genesis, and its decline.


That main body is framed by an Introduction and a Conclusion. The discussion of right order was occasioned by a question whether justice is better than injustice, or whether unjust man will not fare better than the just man. The introductory question is balanced by the concluding answer that justice is preferable to injustice.


The main body of the dialogue, together with its Introduction and Conclusion, finally, is framed by the Prologue of Book I and the Epilogue of Book X. The prologue is a short dialogue in itself and it portrays the common opinions doxai about justice. The Epilogue is not grounded in reason but in faith. It describes the new arts and the immortality of the soul.


Leo Strauss

Leo Strauss sees a four-part structure of the dialogue: he looks at the entire dialogue as a drama played out between particular characters, each with particular points of view and levels of comprehension: Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ...

  1. Book I: Socrates is compelled by force to Cephalus's home. Three definitions of justice are presented, and all three are found lacking.
  2. Books II-V: Socrates is challenged by Glaucon and Adeimantus to prove why a perfectly just person, who is seen by the entire world as unjust, would be happier than the perfectly unjust person, who hides his injustice from view and is seen by the entire world as just. This stark challenge is the engine and drive of the dialogue; it is only with this 'charge' that we begin to witness how Socrates actually conducted himself with the young men of Athens he was convicted of corrupting. Because a definition of justice is assumed by Glaucon and Adeimantus, Socrates makes a detour; he forces the group to try to uncover justice, and then to answer the question posed to him about the intrinsic value of the just life.
  3. Books V-VI: The 'Just City in Speech' is now built from the earlier books, and three waves or critiques of the city are encountered. According to Leo Strauss and his student Allan Bloom they are: communism, communism of wives and children, and the rule of philosophers. The 'Just City in Speech’ stands or falls by these complications.
  4. Books VII-X: Socrates has 'escaped' his capturers, for he has convinced them, at least for the moment, that the just man is the happy man. He then spends much time reinforcing their prejudices. He displays a rationale for political decay, and he ends the dialogue recounting a myth, The Myth of Er, or everyman, which acts as a consolation for non-philosophers who fear death.

Glaucon (bef. ... Adeimantus of Collytus was the name of Platos brother and his brothers son. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... The Myth of Er is an analogy used in Platos Republic. ... In literature and drama, the term everyman has come to mean an ordinary individual, with whom the audience or reader is supposed to be able to identify, and who is often placed in extraordinary circumstances. ...

Topics

Definition of justice

The question The Republic sets out to define is "what is justice?". Given the difficulty of this task, Socrates and his interlocutors are led into a discussion of justice in the city, which Socrates suggests may help them see justice in the person, but on a grander (and therefore easier to discuss) scale ("suppose that a short-sighted person had been asked by some one to read small letters from a distance; and it occurred to some one else that they might be found in another place which was larger and in which the letters were larger," 368, trans. Jowett). Some critics (such as Julia Annas) have adhered to this premise that the dialogue's entire political construct exists to serve as an analogy for the individual soul, in which there are also various potentially competing or conflicting "members" that might be integrated and orchestrated under a just and productive "government." Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Julia Annas (Ph. ...


Justice is never defined satisfactorily to all participants throughout the dialogue. After Book V, the dialogue concentrates on convincing Glaucon and Adeimantus of Socrates' view of justice; the other characters remain silent throughout these books.


In the first book, three versions of justice come to be proposed and deemed inadequate. The rhetoritician Thrasymachus states that justice is nothing but the power of the stronger. This seems counter-intuitive to Socrates, who begins to explore this concept of justice. Thrasymachus believes that the law of a polis, or justice, is nothing but the will of the ruler(s). Thrasymachus is aggressive in advancing this view, he says justice is the advantage of the man who is cunning enough to take power and institute his will upon the people. As a result of this, those who break the law become powerful, eventually rising to the position of rulers in society. Socrates accepts this view, but asks whether the ruler who makes a mistake to his advantage, institutes a law or policy that lessens his well-being, is still a ruler according to the sophist's definition. Rhetoriticians made their living in Greece by teaching young men how to rule successfully, and thus Socrates exploits this fact, indirectly undermining Thrasymachus' own definition of justice. This results in a turning point in the dialogue, for Thrasymachus blushes; afterwards, he is silent, as Socrates begins to teach the young men. Thrasymachus (c 459-400 BCE) was a sophist of Ancient Greece best known as a character in Platos Republic. ...


Beginning in Book II, a definition of justice is furthered as the working of a person in the role for which you are best suited, and for not interfering in the work of others. This conception of justice, striking to the modern reader, is closely linked to the Greek conception of dike, the just order. This definition of justice leads to a social structure radically different from most previous and subsequent states. Nevertheless, a reader must always be aware that Plato is writing a dialogue in which the dramatic quality has a weight. Socrates, in fact, proceeds in a very different manner than in Book I, where he attacks Thrasymachus's view of justice directly. In response to the two views of injustice and justice presented by Glaucon and Adeimantus, he claims incompetence, but feels it would be impious to leave justice in such doubt. In Greek mythology, the Horae (hours) were the three goddesses controlling orderly life. ...


The argument that is advanced by Glaucon is based on the legend of Gyges who discovered a ring that gave him the power to become invisible.Glaucon uses this story to argue for the thesis that no man would be just if he had the opportunity of doing injustice with impunity. With the power to become invisible, Gyges is able to enter the royal court unobserved, seduce the queen, murder the king, and take over the kingdom. Glaucon argues that the just as well as the unjust man would do the same if they had the power to get away with injustice exempt from punishment. The only reason that men are just and praise justice is out of fear of being punished for injustice. The law is a product of compromise between individuals that agree not to do injustice to others if others will not do injustice to them. Glaucon says that if they had the power to do injustice without fear of punishment they would be mad to enter into such an agreement. Glaucon uses this argument to challenge Socrates to defend the position that the just life is better than the unjust life. Socrates says that there is no better topic to debate. In fact, Socrates (368a-c) does not challenge the arguments, but proposes to create a thought-experiment to better define and thus defend justice. Much of the Republic is a response to Glaucon’s argument.


Socrates defines justice as "working at that which he is naturally best suited," and "to do one's own business and not to be a busybody" (433a5-433b) and goes on to say that justice sustains and perfects the other three cardinal virtues, Temperance, Wisdom, and Courage and that justice is the cause and condition of their existence. A result of this conception of justice separates people into three types; that of the soldier, that of the producer, and that of a ruler. If a ruler can create just laws, and if the warriors can carry out the orders of the rulers, and if the producers can obey this authority, then a society will be just. In the Christian church, there are four cardinal virtues. ...


In terms of why it is best to be just rather than unjust for the individual, Plato prepares an answer in Book IV consisting of three main arguments. Plato says that a tyrant's nature will leave him with "horrid pains and pangs" and that the typical tyrant engages in a lifestyle that will be physically and mentally exacting on such a ruler. Such a disposition is in contrast to the truth-loving philosopher king, and a tyrant "never tastes of true freedom or friendship". The second argument proposes that of all the different types of person, only the Philosopher is able to judge which type of ruler is best since only he can see the Form of the Good. Thirdly, Plato argues, "Pleasures which are approved of by the lover of wisdom and reason are the truest". In sum, Plato argues that philosophical pleasure is the only true pleasure since other pleasures experienced by others are simply a neutral state free of pain. Plato describes The Form of the Good in his book, The Republic, using Socrates as his mouth piece. ...


The form of government

Socrates points out the human tendency to corruption by power and thus the road from timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny: ruling should be left to philosophers, the most just and therefore least susceptible to corruption. That "good city" is depicted as being governed by philosopher-kings; disinterested persons who rule not for their personal enjoyment but for the good of the city-state (polis). The paradigmatic society which stands behind every historical society is hierarchical, but social classes have a marginal permeability; there are no slaves, no discrimination between men and women. In addition to the ruling class of guardians (phulakes) which abolished riches there is a class of private producers (demiourgoi) be they rich or poor. A number of provisions aim to avoid making the people weak: the substitution for debilitating music, poetry and theatre of a universal educational system for men and women -- a startling departure from Greek society. These provisions apply to all classes, and the restrictions placed on the philosopher-kings chosen from the warrior class and the warriors are much more severe than those placed on the producers, because the rulers must be kept away from any source of corruption. This warrior ruled society was based on the ancient Greek society in Sparta. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from what was written about him by Plato. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where in order to participate in government one must own property; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) — plural: poleis (πόλεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ...


In Books V-VI the abolishment of riches among the guardian class (not unlike Max Weber's bureaucracy) leads controversially to the abandonment of the typical family, and as such no child may know his or her parents and the parents may not know their own children. Socrates tells a tale which is the "allegory of the good government". No nepotism, no private goods. The rulers assemble couples for reproduction, based on breeding criteria. Thus, stable population is achieved through eugenism and social cohesion is projected to be high because familial links are extended towards everyone in the City. Also the education of the youth is such that they are taught of only works of writing that encourage them to improve themselves for the state's good, and envision (the) god(s) as entirely good, just, and the author(s) of only that which is good. Maximilian Weber (IPA: ) (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


In Books VII-X stand Plato's criticism of the forms of government. It begins with the dismissal of timocracy, a sort of authoritarian regime, not unlike a military dictatorship. Plato offers a psychoanalytical explanation of the "timocrat" as one who saw his father humiliated by his mother and wants to vindicate "manliness". The third worst regime is oligarchy, the rule of a small band of rich people, millionaires that only respect money. Then comes the democratic form of government, and its susceptibility to being ruled by unfit "sectarians" demagogues. Finally the worst regime is tyranny, where the whimsical desires of the ruler became law and there is no check upon arbitrariness. Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... ...


Theory of universals

See also Problem of universals, Plato's allegory of the cave and The Forms

The Republic contains Plato's Allegory of the cave with which he explains his concept of The Forms as an answer to the problem of universals. The problem of universals is a phrase used to refer to a nest of intertwined problems about universals within the philosophy of language, cognitive psychology, epistemology, and ontology. ... Illustration of Platos cave Platos allegory of the cave is perhaps the best-known of his many metaphors, allegories, and myths. ... Plato spoke of forms (sometimes capitalized: The Forms) in formulating his solution to the problem of universals. ... Illustration of Platos cave Platos allegory of the cave is perhaps the best-known of his many metaphors, allegories, and myths. ... Plato spoke of forms (sometimes capitalized: The Forms) in formulating his solution to the problem of universals. ... The problem of universals is a phrase used to refer to a nest of intertwined problems about universals within the philosophy of language, cognitive psychology, epistemology, and ontology. ...


The allegory of the cave is an attempt to justify the philosopher's place in society as king. Plato imagines a group of people who have lived in a cave all of their lives, chained to a wall in the subterrane so they cannot see outside nor look behind them. Behind these prisoners is a constant flame that illuminates various statues that are moved by others, which cause shadows to flicker around the cave. When the people of the cave see these shadows they realise how imitative they are of human life, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows such as either "dog" or "cat". The shadows are as close as the prisoners get to seeing reality, according to Plato.


Plato then goes on to explain how the philosopher is a former prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall are not constituitive of reality at all. He sees that the fire and the statues which cause the shadows are indeed more real than the shadows themselves, and therefore apprehends how the prisoners are so easily deceived. Plato then imagines that the freedman is taken outside of the cave and into the real world. The prisoner is initially blinded by the light. However when he adjusts to the brightness, he eventually understands that all of the real objects around him are illuminated by the sun (which represents the Form of the Good, the form which has caused the brightness). He also realises it is the sun to which he is indebted to for being able to see the beauty and goodness in the objects around him. The freedman is finally cognisant that the fire and statues in the cave were just copies of the real objects in the world. Plato describes The Form of the Good in his book, The Republic, using Socrates as his mouth piece. ...


The prisoner's stages of understanding correlate with the levels on the divided line that Plato imagines. The line is divided into what is the visible world, and what the intelligible world is, with the divider being the Sun. When the prisoner is in the cave, he is obviously in the visible realm that receives no sunlight, and outside he comes to be in the intelligible realm. Plato, in The Republic Book VI (509d-513e), uses the literary device of a divided line to teach his basic views about four levels of existence (especially the intelligible world of the forms, universals, and the visible world we see around us) and the corresponding ways we come to know...


The shadows in the cave that the prisoners can see correspond to the lowest level on Plato's line, that of imagination and conjecture. Once the prisoner is freed and spots the fire's reflection onto the statues which causes the shadows in the cave, he reaches the second stage on the divided line, and that is the stage of belief, as the freedman comes to believe that the statues in the cave are real as can be. On leaving the cave however the prisoner comes to see objects more real than the statues inside of the cave, and this correlates with the third stage on Plato's line as being understanding. The prisoner is therefore able to ascribe Forms to objects as they exist outside of the cave. Lastly, the prisoner turns to the sun which he grasps as the source of truth, or the Form of the Good, and this last stage, named as dialectic, is the highest possible stage on the line. The prisoner, as a result of the Form of the Good, can begin to understand all other forms in reality.


Allegorically, Plato reasons that the freedman is the philosopher, who is the only person able to discern the Form of the Good, and thus absolute goodness and truth. Since the philosopher is the only one able to recognise what is truly good, and only he can reach the last stage on the divided line, only he is fit to rule society according to Plato.


Reception and interpretation

Ancient Greece

The idea of writing treatises on systems of government was followed some decades later by Plato's most prominent pupil Aristotle. He wrote a treatise for which he used another Greek word "politika" in the title. The title of Aristotle's work is conventionally translated to "politics": see Politics (Aristotle). Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Politika/Политика is a Serbian newspaper. ... From the Greek word polis(state-city), the Politics or Ta Politika of Aristotle is the second half of a single treatise of which his Ethics is the first. ...


Aristotle's treatise was not written in dialogue format: it systematises many of the concepts brought forward by Plato in his Republic, in some cases leading the author to a different conclusion as to what options are the most preferable.


It has been suggested that Isocrates parodies the Republic in his work Busiris by showing Callipolis' similarity to the Egyptian state founded by a king of that name.[5] Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Busiris is the Greek name of a place in Egypt, which in Egyptian, was named djed (also spelt djedu). ...


Ancient Rome

Cicero

The English translation of the title of Plato's dialogue is derived from Cicero's De re publica, a dialogue written some three centuries later. Cicero's dialogue imitates the style of the Platonic dialogues, and treats many of the topics touched upon in Plato's Republic. Scipio Africanus, the main character of Cicero's dialogue expresses his esteem for Plato and Socrates when they are talking about the "Res publica". "Res publica" is not an exact translation of the Greek word "politeia" that Plato used in the title of his dialogue: "politeia" is a general term indicating the various forms of government that could be used and were used in a Polis or city-state. Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Latin pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... De re publica is a work by Cicero, written in six books 54-51 BC, in the format of a Socratic dialogue, that is to say: Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born) takes the role of wise old man, that is an obligatory... Storybook illustration depicting Scipio as the reluctant servant of the Senate as he orchestrated the genocide of the Carthaginians. ... Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form...


While in Plato's Republic Socrates and his friends discuss the nature of the city and are engaged in providing the foundations of every state they are living in (which was Athenian democracy, oligarchy or tyranny - in Cicero's De re publica all comments, are more parochial about (the improvement of) the organisation of the state the participants live in, which was the Roman Republic in its final stages. The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


Critique

In antiquity, Plato's works were largely acclaimed, still, some commentators had another view. Tacitus, not mentioning Plato or The Republic nominally in this passage (so his critique extends, to a certain degree, to Cicero's Republic and Aristotle's Politics as well, to name only a few), noted the following (Ann. IV, 33): Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... From the Greek word polis(state-city), the Politics or Ta Politika of Aristotle is the second half of a single treatise of which his Ethics is the first. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ...

  Nam cunctas nationes et urbes populus aut primores aut singuli regunt: delecta ex iis (his) et consociata (constituta) rei publicae forma laudari facilius quam evenire, vel si evenit, haud diuturna esse potest.   Indeed, a nation or city is ruled by the people, or by an upper class, or by a monarch. A government system that is invented from a choice of these same components is sooner idealised than realised; and even if realised, there'll be no future for it.

The point Tacitus develops in the paragraphs immediately preceding and following that quote is that the minute analysis and description of how a real state was governed, as he does in his Annals, however boring the related facts might be (...if, for example, the regnants refuse to declench a spectacular war,...), has more practical lessons about good vs. bad governance, than philosophical treatises on the ideal form of government have.[6] Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy. ...


Augustine

In the pivotal era of Rome's move from its ancient polytheist religion to Christianity, Augustine wrote his magnum opus The City of God: again, the references to Plato, Aristotle and Cicero and their visions of the ideal state were legion: Augustinus equally described a model of the "ideal city", in his case the eternal Jerusalem, using a visionary language not unlike that of the preceding philosophers. Polytheism is belief in, or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ...


Thomas More's Utopia

Thomas More, when writing his Utopia, invented the technique of using the portrayal of a "utopia" as the carrier of his thoughts about the ideal society. In Thomas More's Utopia, the island Utopia is also similar to Plato's Republic in some aspects, among them common property and the lack of privacy. There are also several institutions named Thomas More College. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ...


20th Century

Most 20th century commentators of Plato's Republic advise against reading it as a (would-be) manual for good governance: most forms of government discussed in The Republic bear little resemblance to more recent state organisations like (modern) republics or constitutional monarchies. Also, the concepts of democracy and of Utopia as depicted in The Republic are tied to the city-states of ancient Greece and their relevance to modern states is questionable. For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ...


Gadamer

In his 1934 Plato und die Dichter (Plato and the Poets), as well as several other works, Hans-Georg Gadamer describes the utopic city of The Republic as a heuristic utopia that should not be pursued or even be used as an orientation-point for political development. Rather, its purpose is said to be to show how things would have to be connected, and how one thing would lead to another — often with highly problematic results — if one would opt for certain principles and carry them through rigorously. This interpretation argues that large passages in Plato's writing are ironic. Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Look up Heuristic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... Irony, from the Greek εἴρων (iron), is a literary or rhetorical device made of iron, in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ...


Popper

The city portrayed in The Republic struck some critics as unduly harsh, rigid, and unfree; indeed, as a kind of precursor to modern totalitarianism. Karl Popper gave a voice to that view in his 1945 book The Open Society and its Enemies. Popper singled out Plato's state as a utopia which was argued by Plato to be the destiny of man. In particular, Popper thought Plato's envisioned state had totalitarian features as it advocated a government not elected by its citizens, with the identification of the ruling class' interests as being the fate and direction of the state. In addition, Plato's state aimed at autarky, and advocated censorship according to Popper.[7] Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ... An autarky is an economy that does no trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from its outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


Voegelin

Eric Voegelin in Plato and Aristotle, Baton Rouge, 1957, gave meaning to the concept of ‘Just City in Speech’ (Books II-V). For instance, there is evidence in the dialogue that Socrates himself would not be a member of his 'ideal' state. His life was almost solely dedicated to the private pursuit of knowledge. More practically, Socrates suggests that members of the lower classes could rise to the higher ruling class, and vice versa, if they had ‘gold’ in their veins. It is a crude version of the concept of social mobility. The exercise of power is built on the ‘Noble Lie’ that all men are brothers, philadelphia born of the earth, yet there is a clear hierarchy and class divisions. There is a tri-partite explanation of human psychology that is extrapolated to the city, the relation among peoples. There is no family among the guardians, another crude version of Max Weber's concept of bureaucracy as the state non-private concern. Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Social mobility or intergenerational mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of his or her life, or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Cradle of Liberty, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701  - Mayor... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Maximilian Weber (IPA: ) (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ...


Strauss, Bloom

Some of Plato’s proposals have led philosophers like Leo Strauss and Allan Bloom to ask readers to consider the possibility that Socrates was creating not a blueprint for a real city, but a learning exercise for the young men in the dialogue. The ruling class will have ‘sacred’ marriages because these are the result of manipulating and drugging couples into predetermined intercourse with the aim of eugenically breeding guardian-warriors. In turn, Plato has immortalized this ‘learning exercise’ in The Republic. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Leo Strauss's approach developed out a belief that Plato wrote esoterically, an insight which although presently accepted by many North American academics, is still rather poorly conceived. The basic acceptance of the exoteric-esoteric distinction revolves around whether Plato really wanted to see “The Just City in Speech” of Books V-VI come to pass, or whether it is just an allegory. Strauss never regarded this as the crucial issue. In fact, Strauss undermines the justice found in “The Just City in Speech” by implying the city is not natural, it is man made abstraction, and hence ironic. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Exoteric knowledge is knowledge that is publicly available, in contrast with esoteric knowledge, which is kept from everyone except the initiated. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ...


An argument that has been used against these less dismissive interpretations is that Plato's academy has produced a number of tyrants, despite being well-versed in Greek and having direct contact with Plato himself. Among his direct students were Klearchos, tyrant of Heraklia, Chairon, tyrant of Pellene, Eurostatos and Choriskos, tyrants of Skepsis, Hermias of Atarneus and Assos, and Kallipos, tyrant of Syracuse. Against this, it can be argued, first, that the question is whether these men became "tyrants" through studying in the Academy (rather that it was an elite student body, part of which would wind up in the seats of power, that was sent to study there), and, second, that it is by no means obvious that they were tyrants in the modern, or any totalitarian, sense. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Irakleia (Ηράκλεια) may refer to several places in Greece: Irakleia, Arta, a municipality in Arta Prefecture Irakleia, Elis, a village in Elis, part of Olympia, Greece Irakleia, Cyclades, an island in the Cyclades Irakleia, Serres, a municipality in Serres Prefecture Irakleia, Phthiotis, a village in Phthiotis, part of Gorgopotamos See also... Hermias of Atarneus was Aristotles father-in-law. ... Assos (Behramkale) - located in Turkey Aristotle lived here and St Paul visited, but today visitors go to Assos as a tranquil Aegean-coast seaside retreat amid ancient ruins. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ...


Practicality

All these 20th century views have something in common: in spite of the near-impossibility of grasping the meanings of the ancient Greek for modern readers, the pedagogical value of The Republic is much greater than its practical value. It is a theoretical work, not a set of guidelines for good governance. Plato scholars see it as their task to provide the background knowledge that is needed to gain a fair understanding of what was meant by the author of The Republic. Then the uniqueness of The Republic shows up in the way it clarifies genuine connections of political causes and effects in real life, precisely by providing them with a heuristically rich context.


Nonetheless Bertrand Russell argues that at least in intent, and all in all not so far from what was possible in ancient Greek city-states, the form of government portrayed in The Republic was meant as a practical one by Plato.[8] Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ...


Similarities in literature

Aristophanes

Around the same time that The Republic was being composed, the playwright Aristophanes produced the play Assemblywomen. The state formed by the women in this play bears many similarities to the ideal government described by Plato. It is unsure which was released first; most likely Aristophanes had heard an early form of The Republic before it was completed and used it as the basis for Assemblywomen. Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , c. ... Aristophanes Assemblywomen (or in Greek Ecclesiazousae ) is a play similar in theme to Lysistrata in that a large portion of the comedy comes from women involving themselves in politics. ...


Utopias

See above, Thomas More.


Dystopias

The form of government described in the Republic has been adapted in several modern dystopic novels and stories. The separation of people by professional class, assignment of profession and purpose by the state, and the absence of traditional family units, replaced by state-organized breeding, was included by authors in descriptions of totalitarian dystopic governments. Government which bears resemblance to Plato's Republic is found in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Lois Lowry's The Giver. A dystopia (alternatively, cacotopia[1], kakotopia or anti-utopia) is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia. ... Brave New World is a dystopian novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1932. ... The Giver is a soft science fiction novel written by Lois Lowry and published on April 16, 1993. ...


The Orwellian dystopia depicted in the novel 1984 had many characteristics in common with Plato's description of the allegory of the Cave as Winston Smith strives to liberate himself from it. Orwellian describes a situation, idea, or condition that George Orwell identified as being inimical to the welfare of a free-society. ... A dystopia (alternatively, cacotopia[1], kakotopia or anti-utopia) is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (commonly written as 1984) is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell, published in 1949. ... Platos Allegory of the Cave is perhaps the best known of his many allegories, metaphors, and parables. ...


Heinlein

A more positive view of an Platonic style government would be Robert A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers. His citizen can be compared to a Platonic Guardian, without the communal breeding and property, but still having a militaristic base. Although there are significant differences in the specifics of the system, Heinlein and Plato both endorse systems of limited franchise, with a political class that has earned their power and wisely governs the whole. Republic is specifically attacked in Starship Troopers. Indeed, the arachnids can be seen as much closer to a Republic society than the humans. Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (abridged) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ...


Artistic creations based on Plato's Republic

In the early 1970s the Dutch composer Louis Andriessen composed a vocal work called De Staat, based on the text of Plato's Republic.[9] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ...


The Film The Matrix models Plato's Allegory of the cave. The Matrix is a science fiction/action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano and Hugo Weaving. ... Platos Allegory of the Cave is perhaps the best known of his many allegories, metaphors, and parables. ...


See also

Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy. ... The Myth of Er is an analogy used in Platos Republic. ... Philosopher-kings are the hypothetical rulers of Platos utopian Kallipolis. ... In The Republic by Plato, The Spindle of Necessity is mentioned in Book 10, Myth of Er. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See "Politeia" entry in Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon at the Perseus website - in this entry the meaning of "form of government" is specifically mentioned for occurrences of πολιτεία in Republic 562a and 544b
  2. ^ Cephalus' profession is not mentioned in The Republic, but his shield factory, in which some hundred and twenty slaves worked, is discussed in the speech Against Eratosthenes by his son Lysias.
  3. ^ See Benjamin Jowett's introduction to his translation of Plato's Republic
  4. ^ Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, begin of Book I, part 2, ch. 14.
  5. ^ Most recently, Niall Livingstone, A Commentary on Isocrates' Busiris. Mnemosyne Supplement 223. Leiden: Brill, 2001 (see review by David C. Mirhady in Bryn Mawr Classical Review). For earlier consideration of the similarities, see H. Thesleff, Studies in Platonic Chronology, Helsinki 1982, pp. 105f., and C. Eucken, Isokrates, Berlin 1983, pp. 172 ff. Both Thesleff and Eucken entertain the possibility that Isocrates was responding to an earlier version of Republic than the final version we possess.
  6. ^ This text by Tacitus also mirrors the first paragraphs of Polybius' Histories: Tacitus clearly sides with Polybius who also touts the importance of studying real history for improving knowledge on good governance - However Polybius can boast in these same opening paragraphs his story is about glorious facts and warfare; Tacitus argues the fact remains true, even if the story is less glorious. For this reason Tacitus' critique is only partially directed at Cicero, who learnt not less from Polybius and war heroes like Scipio, as from the more philosophical/utopian Greek writers.
  7. ^ Popper, Karl (1950) The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 1: The Spell of Plato, New York: Routledge, pp. 91-92.
  8. ^ Russell, B. (2004) History of Western Philosophy, end of Book I, part 2, ch. 14.
  9. ^ Adlington, Robert. Louis Andriessen: De Staat. Ashgate, 2004. ISBN 0-7546-0925-1 [1] - In 1992 a CD-recording by the Schoenberg Ensemble, conducted by Reinbert de Leeuw appeared [2] - In 1977 Andriessen had been awarded several prizes for this composition [3]

Lysias (d. ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ... Bertrand Russells A History of Western Philosophy : And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day has the ambitious goal of tracing Western philosophy from the earliest times to Russells modern day, which was the nineteen sixties. ... Polybius (c. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Latin pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ... Bertrand Russells A History of Western Philosophy : And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day has the ambitious goal of tracing Western philosophy from the earliest times to Russells modern day, which was the nineteen sixties. ...

References

  • Plato The Republic, (New CUP translation by Tom Griffith and G.R.F. Ferrari into English) ISBN 0-521-48443-X
  • Plato Respublica, (New OUP edition of Greek text) ISBN 0-19-924849-4
  • Bloom, Allan, The Republic of Plato translated, with notes, and an interpretive essay. 2nd ed. Basic Books: New York, 1991.
  • Bruell, Christopher, “On Plato’s Political Philosophy.” Review of Politics 56 (1994) 261-82.
  • Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy. Simon & Schuster: New York, 1946. - See: two chapters to Plato's Republic, plus a preliminary one on the origin of Plato's concepts: Book I, Part 2, Ch. 13-15.
  • Sallis, John, Being and Logos: Reading the Platonic Dialogues, 3rd edn. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 1996, ch. 5.
  • Strauss, Leo, 'Plato' History of Political Philosophy 3rd ed. University Of Chicago Press: Chicago, p. 34-68 1987.
  • Strauss, Leo, The City and Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
  • Voegelin, Eric, Plato and Aristotle, Louisiana University Press, Baton Rouge, 1956.

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ... John Sallis (born 1938) is an American philosopher. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ... Eric Voegelin, born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin, (January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a political philosopher. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Republic
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Study Guide:Plato has more about this subject:
Republic
  • Text of The Republic:
    • At Perseus Project: Paul Shorey's (1935) translation. Annotated and hyperlinked text (English and Greek)
    • At Libertyfund.org: Benjamin Jowett's final (1892) translation (with running comments & Stephanus numbers)
    • At Project Gutenberg: Benjamin Jowett's translation (with Introduction) : e-text
    • At filepedia.org: Benjamin Jowett's translation in pdf and word format
    • RSS version of The Republic
  • Ongoing discussion of Plato's text (and Popper's analysis):
    • On Bookshelved Wiki
    • On Meatball Wiki
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Ethics and Politics in The Republic
  • An audio book The Republic by Plato. A BitTorrent download, 50 MB, MP3 format

  Results from FactBites:
 
Republic (government) - MSN Encarta (1550 words)
Republic (government) (Latin res publica, literally “the public thing”), form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials.
Plato constructed his republic on what he considered the basic elements or characteristics of the human soul: the appetitive, the spirited, and the philosophical.
Accordingly, his ideal republic consisted of three distinct groups: a commercial class formed by those dominated by their appetites; a spirited class, administrators and soldiers, responsible for the execution of the laws; and the guardians or philosopher-kings, who would be the lawmakers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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