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Encyclopedia > Reptile
"Sauropsida" redirects here.
Reptiles
Fossil range: Carboniferous - Recent
A Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus
A Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Sauropsida*
Goodrich, 1916
Subclasses
Synonyms

Reptiles are air-breathing, cold-blooded vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers. They are tetrapods (having or having descended from vertebrates with four limbs) and amniotes, whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane. Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica, and are represented by four living orders: Reptile and reptilia could refer to several things: Reptile, an animal of the taxonomic class Reptilia, including: crocodilians, snakes, lizards, and turtles. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... This file or image is copyrighted. ... For the experimental music band, see Tuatara (band). ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Edwin Stephen Goodrich (b. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (December 4, 1735 - February 17, 1805) was an Austrian naturalist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Groups See text. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating tissue which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ...

The majority of reptile species are oviparous (egg-laying) although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. This is achieved, either through ovoviviparity (egg retention), or viviparity (offspring born without use of calcified eggs). Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from the newly-discovered Jaragua Sphaero, at 1.6 cm (0.6 in), to the Saltwater Crocodile, at up to at least 7 m (23 feet). black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), sometimes called the Indian gharial or gavial, is one of two surviving members of the family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodile-like reptiles with long, narrow jaws. ... Genera Alligator Caiman Melanosuchus Paleosuchus Alligators and caimans are reptiles closely related to the crocodiles and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... Families Gephyrosauridae Pleurosauridae Sphenodontidae Sphenodontia is an order of lizard-like reptiles that includes only one living genus, the tuatara (Sphenodon). ... For the experimental music band, see Tuatara (band). ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Families Amphisbaenidae Trogonophidae Bipedidae Suborder Amphisbaenia is a group of peculiar legless squamates distantly related to lizards and snakes, in spite of their resemblance to worms (due to their pink color and scales arranged in rings). ... Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Hatch may refer to: Common nickname for gentlemen named Prachet Hatch, Utah Hatch, New Mexico Orrin Hatch Richard Hatch A hatch (door) is a door in a floor or ceiling. ... Binomial name Sphaerodactylus ariasae Hedges & Thomas, 2001 The Jaragua Sphaero (Sphaerodactylus ariasae) is a gecko species in the Sphaerodactylus (dwarf gecko) genus. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ...

Contents

Classification

History of classification

Reptiles are a paraphyletic group. The group can be made monophyletic by including the birds (Aves).
Reptiles are a paraphyletic group. The group can be made monophyletic by including the birds (Aves).

From the classical standpoint, reptiles included all the amniotes except birds and mammals. Thus reptiles were defined as the set of animals that includes crocodiles, alligators, tuatara, lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and turtles, grouped together as the class Reptilia (Latin repere, "to creep"). This is still the usual definition of the term. However, in recent years, many taxonomists have begun to insist that taxa should be monophyletic, that is, groups should include all descendants of a particular form. The reptiles as defined above would be paraphyletic, since they exclude both birds and mammals, although these also developed from the original reptile. Colin Tudge writes: Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For the experimental music band, see Tuatara (band). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Families Amphisbaenidae Trogonophidae Bipedidae Suborder Amphisbaenia is a group of peculiar legless squamates distantly related to lizards and snakes, in spite of their resemblance to worms (due to their pink color and scales arranged in rings). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...

Mammals are a clade, and therefore the cladists are happy to acknowledge the traditional taxon Mammalia; and birds, too, are a clade, universally ascribed to the formal taxon Aves. Mammalia and Aves are, in fact, subclades within the grand clade of the Amniota. But the traditional class reptilia is not a clade. It is just a section of the clade Amniota: the section that is left after the Mammalia and Aves have been hived off. It cannot be defined by synamorphies, as is the proper way. It is instead defined by a combination of the features it has and the features it lacks: reptiles are the amniotes that lack fur or feathers. At best, the cladists suggest, we could say that the traditional Reptila are 'non-avian, non-mammalian amniotes'.[1]
By the same token, the traditional class Amphibia becomes Amphibia*, because some ancient amphibian or other gave rise to all the amniotes; and the phylum Crustacea becomes Crustacea*, because it may have given rise to the insects and myriapods (centipedes and millipedes). If we believe, as some (but not all) zoologists do, that myriapods gave rise to insects, then they should be called Myriapoda*....by this convention Reptilia without an asterisk is synonymous with Amniota, and includes birds and mammals, whereas Reptilia* means non-avian, non-mammalian amniotes.[1]

The terms "Sauropsida" ("Lizard Faces") and "Theropsida" ("Beast Faces") were coined in 1916 by E.S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards, birds, and their relatives on one hand (Sauropsida) and mammals and their extinct relatives (Theropsida) on the other. Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, and other features such as the structure of the forebrain. According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, the Protosauria ("First Lizards") which included some Paleozoic amphibians as well as early reptiles.[2] It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Edwin Stephen Goodrich (b. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...


In 1956 D.M.S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged very early in reptilian history, and so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria among them. He also reinterpreted the Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Eosuchia, Millerosauria, Chelonia (turtles), Squamata (lizards and snakes), Rhynchocephalia, Crocodilia, "thecodonts" (paraphyletic basal Archosauria), non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and sauropyterygians.[3] David Meredith Seares Watson FRS (18 June 1886–23 July 1973) was the Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, London from 1921 to 1951. ... Families Procolophonoidea Owenettidae Procolophonidae ?Sclerosauridae Pareiasauroidea ?Rhipaeosauridae Pareiasauridae The Procolophonia are an suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period. ... Eosuchians are an extinct order of diapsid reptiles. ... The milleretids is an extinct group of anapsids that lived in South Africa during the Upper Permian. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Species Sphenodon punctatus Sphenodon guntheri The tuatara is the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia (modernly known as either Sphenodontia or Sphenodontida), an order that has survived virtually unchanged for 200 million years. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ... Clades Crurotarsi Aetosauria Crocodilia (crocodiles) Phytosauria Rauisuchia Ornithodira Aves (birds) Dinosauria Pterosauria Archosaurs (Greek for ruling lizards) are a group of diapsid reptiles that is represented today by birds and crocodiles and which also included the dinosaurs. ... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Families Ichthyosauridae Leptonectidae Mixosauridae Ophthalmosauridae Shastasauridae Stenopterygiidae Teretocnemidae Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ...


This classification supplemented, but was never as popular as, the classification of the reptiles (according to Romer's classic Vertebrate Paleontology[4]) into four subclasses according to the positioning of temporal fenestrae, openings in the sides of the skull behind the eyes. Those divisions were: Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 _ November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution. ... Vertebrate Paleontology is an advanced textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Alfred Sherwood Romer, published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Temporal fenestræ refer to cranial holes. ...

  • Anapsida - no fenestrae
  • Synapsida - one low fenestra (no longer considered true reptiles)
  • Euryapsida - one high fenestra (now included within Diapsida)
  • Diapsida - two fenestrae

All of the above but Synapsida fall under Sauropsida. Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Euryapsida are a group of tetrapod animals that are distinguished by a single opening behind the orbit (temporal fenestra). ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...


Taxonomy

Classification to order level, after Benton, 2004.[5]

Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Groups Caseasauria Eothyrididae Caseidae Eupelycosauria Varanopseidae Ophiacodontidae Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida The pelycosaurs (from Greek pelyx, bowl + sauros, lizard) were smallish to large (up to 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsids. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Suborders Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Eotheriodontia Anomodontia Gorgonopsia Therocephalia Cynodontia Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are an order of synapsids. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Superclasses Anapsida Eurapsida Diapsida Reptilia was an old kingdom or phylum classification that has since been divided into 4 classes. ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Genera (see text) Synonyms Araeoscelida Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards. ... A replacement for the taxon Eosuchia, proposed by Alfred Romer in 1947. ... Taxonomy See text Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ... Families Paraplacodontidae Placodontidae Henodontidae Cyamodontidae Placochelyidae Placodonts (Tablet teeth) were a group of marine reptiles that lived during the Triassic period, becoming extinct at the end of the period. ... Suborders Suborder Pachypleurosauria Pachypleurosauridae Suborder Nothosauria Simosauridae Germanosauridae Nothosauridae Nothosaurs (order Nothosauria) were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches. ... Families Cryptoclididae Elasmosauridae Plesiosauridae Pliosauridae Plesiosaurs (PLEE-see-oh-SORES) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Species Sphenodon punctatus Sphenodon guntheri The tuatara is the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia (modernly known as either Sphenodontia or Sphenodontida), an order that has survived virtually unchanged for 200 million years. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Orders See text Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling lizard forms) is an Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian and became more common during the Triassic. ... Families See text Prolacertiformes (sometimes called Protorosaurs) were a bizarre order of diapsid reptiles that lived during the Permian and Triassic Periods. ... Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... Subtaxa Phytosauridae Prestosuchidae Ornithosuchidae Stagonolepididae Rauisuchidae Poposauridae Crocodylomorpha     Sphenosuchia     Crocodilia Crurotarsi (cross-ankles) is a node-based taxon created by Paul Sereno in 1991 to supplant the old term Pseudosuchia. ... Groups see taxonomy The Crocodylomorpha are an important group of archosaurs that include the living crocodilians and their extinct relatives. ... Subfamilies Family Crocodylidae    Crocodylinae    Alligatorinae    Gavialinae Crocodylia (or crocodylians) is an order of large reptiles that scientists believe branched off from class Reptilia about 220 million years ago. ... Avemetatarsalia (bird feet) is a group name established by Benton in 1999 for the clade consisting of Scleromochlus and Ornithodira. ... Superorders Dinosauromorpha    Lagosuchians    Dinosauria Pterosauromorpha    Pterosauria    Scleromochlus    Sharovipteryx Ornithodira is a division of the Archosauromorpha (and perhaps Archosauria) clade. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (TEH-row-sore, winged lizards) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ...

Phylogeny

The cladogram presented here illustrates the "family tree" of reptiles, and follows a simplified version of the relationships found by Laurin and Gauthier (1996), presented as part of the Tree of Life Web Project.[6] Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... The Tree of Life Web Project is an ongoing Internet project and providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth. ...

Amniota

Synapsida Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ...


Reptilia
unnamed
Anapsida

Mesosauridae Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Genera Brasileosaurus Stereosternum Mesosaurus Mesosaur (middle lizards) were an order of small marine reptiles that lived during the early Permian period, roughly 320 to 280 million years ago. ...


unnamed

Millerettidae The milleretids is an extinct group of anapsids that lived in South Africa during the Upper Permian. ...


unnamed

Lanthanosuchidae


unnamed

Nyctiphruretia


unnamed

Pareiasauria Genera Bradysaurus Nochelesaurus Embrithosaurus Deltavjatia Velosauria Shihtienfenia Pareiasuchus Pareiasaurus Scutosaurus Elginia Nanopareia The Pareiasaurs - family Pareiasauridae - are a group of medium-sized to large (60 cm to 3 meters long), stocky, early, reptilian herbivores, that flourished during the Permian period. ...



Procolophonoidea




?Testudines (turtles, tortoises and terrapins) Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ...






Romeriida

Captorhinidae Genera See text Captorhinidae (also known as cotylosaurs, or stem reptiles) were the earliest and most primitive reptiles. ...


unnamed

Protorothyrididae* Protorothyrididae was a clade of small, lizard-like reptiles, possibly the ancestors of turtles and tortoises. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Diapsida

Araeoscelidia Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Genera (see text) Synonyms Araeoscelida Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards. ...


unnamed

Younginiformes A replacement for the taxon Eosuchia, proposed by Alfred Romer in 1947. ...


Sauria

?Ichthyosauria Sauria is also the name of a science fiction book by Arrand Pritchard about a planet that is inhabitant by smart reptiles (and later colonised by space travelling humans) Subgroups Lepidosauromorpha Archosauromorpha Sauria is a clade of reptiles that includes all living diapsids, as well as their common ancestor and... Taxonomy See text Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ...



?Sauropterygia Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ...



Lepidosauromorpha (lizards, snakes, tuatara, and their extinct relatives) Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ...



Archosauromorpha (crocodiles, birds, and their extinct relatives) Orders See text Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling lizard forms) is an Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian and became more common during the Triassic. ...










Evolution

The early reptile Hylonomus
The early reptile Hylonomus

Hylonomus is the oldest-known reptile, and was about 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) long. Westlothiana has been suggested as the oldest reptile, but is for the moment considered to be more related to amphibians than amniotes. Petrolacosaurus and Mesosaurus are other examples. The earliest reptiles were found in the swamp forests of the Carboniferous, but were largely overshadowed by bigger labyrinthodont amphibians such as Proterogynrius. It was only after the small ice age at the end of the Carboniferous that the reptiles grew to big sizes, producing species such as Edaphosaurus and Dimetrodon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x337, 18 KB) Summary I draw it with macromedia flash 29 oct 2005 Mateus Zica Mateus Zica 22:08, 29 October 2005 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x337, 18 KB) Summary I draw it with macromedia flash 29 oct 2005 Mateus Zica Mateus Zica 22:08, 29 October 2005 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Hylonomus lyelli was an early reptile. ... Hylonomus lyelli was an early reptile. ... Westlothiana was a tetrapod and was reptile-like in appearance. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Binomial name Petrolacosaurus kansensis Petrolacosaurus was a small diapsid reptile, one of the earliest known. ... Mesosaurus is an extinct genus of anapsid reptile from the Permian period. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... A Labyrinthodont (Greek, maze-toothed) is any member of an extinct suborder (Labyrinthodontia) or subclass of amphibians that constituted the dominant animals of Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic times (about 350 to 210 million years ago). ... Edaphosaurus was much like the Dimetrodon but ate plants and screeched in a high pitched tone that often sounded like Boris, dont touch me there! ... Species Dimetrodon grandis skeleton at the National Museum of Natural History Dimetrodon () (two measures of teeth), was a predatory synapsid (mammal-like reptile) genus that flourished during the Permian Period, living between 280 and 265 million years ago. ...


The first true "reptiles" (Sauropsids) are categorized as Anapsids, having a solid skull with holes only for nose, eyes, spinal cord, etc. Turtles are believed by some to be surviving Anapsids, as they also share this skull structure; but this point has become contentious lately, with some arguing that turtles reverted to this primitive state in order to improve their armor. Both sides have strong evidence, and the conflict has yet to be resolved. Orders Testudines (Turtles, tortoises & terrapins) Mesosauria - extinct Millerettidae - extinct Nyctiphruretidae - extinct Pareiasauridae - extinct Procolophonidae - extinct Captorhinida - extinct For the extinct fish, see Anaspid. ...


Shortly after the first reptiles, two branches split off, one leading to the Anapsids, which did not develop holes in their skulls. The other group, Diapsida, possessed a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes, along with a second pair located higher on the skull. The Diapsida split yet again into two lineages, the lepidosaurs (which contain modern snakes, lizards and tuataras, as well as, debatably, the extinct sea reptiles of the Mesozoic) and the archosaurs (today represented by only crocodilians and birds under dinosaurs, but also containing pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs). Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata The Lepidosauria are reptiles with overlapping scales. ... Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ...


The earliest, solid-skulled amniotes also gave rise to a separate line, the Synapsida. Synapsids developed a pair of holes in their skulls behind the eyes (similar to the diapsids), which were used to both lighten the skull and increase the space for jaw muscles. The synapsids eventually evolved into mammals, and are often referred to as mammal-like reptiles, though they are not true members of Sauropsida. (A preferable term is "stem-mammals".) Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


Systems

Circulatory

Thermographic image of a monitor lizard.
Thermographic image of a monitor lizard.

Most reptiles have closed circulation via a three-chamber heart consisting of two atria and one, variably-partitioned ventricle. There is usually one pair of aortic arches. In spite of this, because of the fluid dynamics of blood flow through the heart, there is little mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the three-chamber heart. Furthermore, the blood flow can be altered to shunt either deoxygenated blood to the body or oxygenated blood to the lungs, which gives the animal greater control over its blood flow, allowing more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic species. There are some interesting exceptions among reptiles. For instance, crocodilians have an anatomically four-chambered heart that is capable of becoming a functionally three-chamber heart during dives (Mazzotti, 1989 pg 47). Also, it has been discovered that some snake and lizard species (e.g., monitor lizards and pythons) have three-chamber hearts that become functional four-chamber hearts during contraction. This is made possible by a muscular ridge that subdivides the ventricle during ventricular diastole and completely divides it during ventricular systole. Because of this ridge, some of these squamates are capable of producing ventricular pressure differentials that are equivalent to those seen in mammalian and avian hearts (Wang et al, 2003). Image File history File links Wiki_varano. ... Image File history File links Wiki_varano. ... Species Many, see text. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) refers to a chamber or space. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Cardiac events occuring in a single cardiac cycle Cardiac cycle is the term referring to all or any of the events related to the flow of blood that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next. ... Systole can mean the following: Systole (medicine) is a term describing the contraction of the heart. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ...


Respiratory

All reptiles breathe using lungs. Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and some species have modified their cloaca to increase the area for gas exchange (Orenstein, 2001). Even with these adaptations, breathing is never fully accomplished without lungs. Lung ventilation is accomplished differently in each main reptile group. In squamates the lungs are ventilated almost exclusively by the axial musculature. This is also the same musculature that is used during locomotion. Because of this constraint, most squamates are forced to hold their breath during intense runs. Some, however, have found a way around it. Varanids, and a few other lizard species, employ buccal pumping as a complement to their normal "axial breathing." This allows the animals to completely fill their lungs during intense locomotion, and thus remain aerobically active for a long time. Tegu lizards are known to possess a proto-diaphragm, which separates the pulmonary cavity from the visceral cavity. While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the lungs (Klein et al, 2003). Crocodilians actually have a muscular diaphragm that is analogous to the mammalian diaphragm. The difference is that the muscles for the crocodilian diaphragm pull the pubis (part of the pelvis, which is movable in crocodilians) back, which brings the liver down, thus freeing space for the lungs to expand. This type of diaphragmatic setup has been referred to as the "hepatic piston." Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Buccal pumping is a method of respiration using the throat muscles. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ...


How turtles and tortoises breathe has been the subject of much study. To date, only a few species have been studied thoroughly enough to get an idea of how turtles do it. The results indicate that turtles & tortoises have found a variety of solutions to this problem. The problem is that most turtle shells are rigid and do not allow for the type of expansion and contraction that other amniotes use to ventilate their lungs. Some turtles such as the Indian flapshell (Lissemys punctata) have a sheet of muscle that envelopes the lungs. When it contracts, the turtle can exhale. When at rest, the turtle can retract the limbs into the body cavity and force air out of the lungs. When the turtle protracts its limbs, the pressure inside the lungs is reduced, and the turtle can suck air in. Turtle lungs are attached to the inside of the top of the shell (carapace), with the bottom of the lungs attached (via connective tissue) to the rest of the viscera. By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and down, resulting in effective respiration, since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs (indeed, many of the muscles expand into the limb pockets during contraction). Breathing during locomotion has been studied in three species, and they show different patterns. Adult female green sea turtles do not breathe as they crutch along their nesting beaches. They hold their breath during terrestrial locomotion and breathe in bouts as they rest. North American box turtles breathe continuously during locomotion, and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb movements (Landberg et al., 2003). They are probably using their abdominal muscles to breathe during locomotion. The last species to have been studied is red-eared sliders, which also breathe during locomotion, but they had smaller breaths during locomotion than during small pauses between locomotor bouts, indicating that there may be mechanical interference between the limb movements and the breathing apparatus. Box turtles have also been observed to breathe while completely sealed up inside their shells (ibid). For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ...


Most reptiles lack a secondary palate, meaning that they must hold their breath while swallowing. Crocodilians have evolved a bony secondary palate that allows them to continue breathing while remaining submerged (and protect their brains from getting kicked in by struggling prey). Skinks (family Scincidae) also have evolved a bony secondary palate, to varying degrees. Snakes took a different approach and extended their trachea instead. Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from asphyxiation. The secondary palate exists in species with separate nasal cavities and oral cavities, in order to separate the two. ...


Excretory

Excretion is performed mainly by two small kidneys. In diapsids uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product; turtles, like mammals, mainly excrete urea. Unlike the kidneys of mammals and birds, reptile kidneys are unable to produce liquid urine more concentrated than their body fluid. This is because they lack a specialized structure present in the nephrons of birds and mammals, called a Loop of Henle. Because of this, many reptiles use the colon to aid in the reabsorption of water. Some are also able to take up water stored in the bladder. Excess salts are also excreted by nasal and lingual salt-glands in some reptiles. The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle is the portion of the nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... In physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the flow of glomerular filtrate from the proximal tubule of the nephron into the peritubular capillaries. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ...


Nervous

The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are slightly larger. Most typical sense organs are well developed with certain exceptions most notably the snakes lack of external ears (middle and inner ears are present). All reptilians have advanced visual depth perception compared to other animals.[citation needed] There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[1] ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ...


Reproductive

Most reptiles reproduce sexually, though some are capable of asexual reproduction. All reproductive activity occurs with the cloaca, the single exit/entrance at the base of the tail where waste is also eliminated. Tuataras lack copulatory organs, so the male and female simply press their cloacas together as the male excretes sperm.[7] Most reptiles, however, have copulatory organs, which are usually retracted or inverted and stored inside the body. In turtles and crocodilians, the male has a single median penis, while squamates including snakes and lizards possess a pair of hemipenes. In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... An everted hemipene of a North American rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) Hemipenes are the paired reproductive organs of male snakes and lizards. ...


Most reptiles lay amniotic eggs covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion and allantois are present during embryonic life. There are no larval stages of development. Viviparity and ovoviviparity have only evolved in Squamates, and a substantial fraction of the species utilize this mode of reprduction, including all boas and most vipers. The degree of viviparity varies: some species simply retain the eggs until just before hatching, others provide maternal nourishment to supplement the yolk, while still others lack any yolk and provide all nutrients via a placenta. A drawing of the amniotic sac from Grays Anatomy. ... Allantois is a part of a developing animal embryo. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ...


Asexual reproduction has been identified in squamates in six families of lizards and one snake. In some species of squamates, a population of females are able to produce a unisexual diploid clone of the mother. This asexual reproduction called parthenogenesis occurs in several species of gecko, and is particularly widespread in the teiids (especially Aspidocelis) and lacertids (Lacerta). In captivity Komodo dragons (varanidae) have reproduced by parthenogenesis. Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... Genera Ameiva Aspidoscelis Callopistes Cnemidophorus Crocodilurus Dicrodon Dracaena Kentropyx Teius Tupinambis Teiidae is a family jgh gljljljof lizards, generally known as whiptails, that includes the parthenogenic genera Cnemidophorus and Aspidoscelis and the non-parthenogenic Tegus. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Lacerta, being Latin for Lizard, is one of the 88 official constellations acknowledged by the International Astronomical Union. ... Binomial name Ouwens, 1912 Komodo dragon distribution The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo Monitor[1], Komodo Island Monitor[1], Ora (to the natives of Komodo[2]), or simply Komodo, is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2-3 metres (approximately...


Parthenogenetic species are also suspected to occur among chameleons, agamids, xantusiids, and typhlopids . For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... Genera Many: see text Agamas or Agamids are the Agamidae family of lizards, containing more than 300 species in Africa, Asia, Australia and a few in Southern Europe. ... Subfamilies See text. ... Genera Acutotyphlops Cyclotyphlops Ramphotyphlops Rhinotyphlops Typhlops Xenotyphlops TYPHLOPIDAE (blind snakes) This family contains 240 species in 3 genera. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Colin Tudge (2000). The Variety of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198604262. 
  2. ^ Goodrich, E.S. (1916). "On the classification of the Reptilia". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 89B: 261-276. 
  3. ^ Watson, D.M.S. (1957). "On Millerosaurus and the early history of the sauropsid reptiles". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 240 (673): 325-400. 
  4. ^ Romer, A.S. (1933). Vertebrate Paleontology. University of Chicago Press. , 3rd ed., 1966.
  5. ^ Benton, Michael J. (2004). Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.. ISBN 0632056371. 
  6. ^ Laurin, M. and Gauthier, J.A. (1996). "Amniota. Mammals, reptiles (turtles, lizards, Sphenodon, crocodiles, birds) and their extinct relatives." Version 01 January 1996. http://tolweb.org/Amniota/14990/1996.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  7. ^ Lutz, Dick (2005), Tuatara: A Living Fossil, Salem, Oregon: DIMI PRESS, ISBN 0-931625-43-2
  • Colbert, Edwin H. (1969). Evolution of the Vertebrates, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.. ISBN 0471164666. 
  • Klein, Wilfied; Abe, Augusto; Andrade, Denis; Perry, Steven (2003). Structure of the posthepatic septum and its influence on visceral topology in the tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae (Teidae: Reptilia). Journal of Morphology 258 (2): 151-157. 
  • Landberg, Tobias; Mailhot, Jeffrey; Brainerd, Elizabeth (2003). Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina. Journal of Experimental Biology 206 (19): 3391-3404. 
  • Mazzotti, Frank; Ross, Charles (ed) (1989). "Structure And Function" Crocodiles and Alligators. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2174-0. 
  • Orenstein, Ronald (2001). Turtles, Tortoises & Terrapins: Survivors in Armor. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55209-605-X. 
  • Pianka, Eric; Vitt, Laurie (2003). Lizards Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, 116-118. ISBN 0-520-23401-4. 
  • Pough, Harvey; Janis, Christine; Heiser, John (2005). Vertebrate Life. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-145310-6. 
  • Wang, Tobias; Altimiras, Jordi; Klein, Wilfried; Axelsson, Michael (2003). Ventricular haemodynamics in Python molurus: separation of pulmonary and systemic pressures. The Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 4242-4245. 

Colin Tudge (born 22 April 1943) is a biologist by training and a British science writer who is the author of numerous works on food, agriculture, genetics, and species diversity. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia on one of the following topics: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ... Edwin H. Colbert (1905 – 2001) was a distinguished vertebrate paleontologist and prolific researcher and author. ...

See also

This is a list of extant reptiles by family, spanning three subclasses. ... The following are the regional reptiles lists by continent. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Reptile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2258 words)
Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane.
Reptiles are found on every continent except for Antarctica, although their main distribution comprises the tropics and subtropics.
Thus reptiles were defined as the set of animals that includes crocodiles, alligators, tuatara, lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and turtles, grouped together as the class Reptilia (Latin repere, "to creep").
Reptile (552 words)
Reptile, group (traditionally ranked as a class) of VERTEBRATE animals derived from AMPHIBIANS and ancestral to birds and mammals.
The key to reptile success in invading the land was the amniote egg with a protective shell and embryonic membranes.
Reptiles are not economically important in Canada, except as predators, such as the rodent-consuming snakes.
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