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Encyclopedia > Repnin Sejm

Repnin Sejm (Polish: Sejm Repninowski) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This Sejm was a response to the Sejms of 1764 to 1766, where the newly elected king of Poland, Stanislaw II Poniatowski, attempted with some successes to push through reforms to strengthen the government of the Commonwealth. Such reforms were viewed as dangerous by Polish neighbours, who were content with a powerless Commonwealth and did not want to see it grow stronger. This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ...


The Russian Empire's Minister to Warsaw, ambassador and Prince Nicholas Repnin (for whom the Sejm was named) received orders from Russian Empress Catherine the Great to bribe and coerce the Sejm deputies in order to push legislation favourable to Russia, in effect "a carefuly drafted plan for destroying the republic"[1]. In his preparations Repnin fostered unrest among the religious minorities (Protestants and Eastern Orthodox), who wanted to have equal rights with the Roman Catholics[2]. In order to further Russian goals, he encouraged the formation of two protestant konfederacjas (of Sluck and Torun) and later, one Catholic (Radom Confederation, led by Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł) [3]. Repnin's power and influence in Polish captial were so great that he ordered the arrest of four vocal opponents of his policies[4] [5] [6], namely bishop of Kiev Józef Andrzej Załuski[7], bishop of Cracow Kajetan Sołtyk[8], and hetman Wacław Rzewuski with his son Seweryn. All of them members of Senate of Poland, they were arrested on October 13, 1767 [9]and imprisoned in Kaluga for 5 years. Image File history File links Nikolai_Vasilyevich_Repnin. ... Image File history File links Nikolai_Vasilyevich_Repnin. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Prince Nicholas Repnin Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (March 11, 1734 N.S. — May 12, 1801 N.S.) was a Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the downfall of Polish statehood. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Konfederacja (Polish for confederation) was a temporary association formed by Polish nobility (szlachta), clergy or cities in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims. ... Slutsk (Belarusian: Слу́цак, Слуцк; Polish Słuck; Russian: Слуцк) is a predominantly jewish town in Belarus, located on the Sluc river, 105 km south of Minsk. ... Toruń (pronounce: [:tɔruɲ], Kashubian: Torń, German Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Noble Family RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Coat of Arms TrÄ…by Parents MichaÅ‚ Kazimierz RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Urszula Franciszka WiÅ›niowiecka Consorts Maria Karolina Lubomirska Teresa Karolina Rzewuska Children none Date of Birth February 27, 1734 Place of Birth NieÅ›wież Date of Death November 21, 1790 Place of Death BiaÅ‚a For other people... Bishop Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski, the founder of the first public library in Poland Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski (12 January 1702 - 7 January 1774) was a Polish catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, sponsor of science and culture, known bibliophile. ... The diocese of Kraków was created in 1000 and was made the archdiocese of Kraków on October 28, 1925. ... Hetman (from Czech: hejtman, German: Hauptmann, Old Slavonic vatamman, Turkish: Ataman) was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... WacÅ‚aw Rzewuski (1705-1779) was a Polish drama writer and poet as well as a military commander and a Grand Crown Hetman. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ...

Through the Polish nobles that he bribed (like Gabriel Podolski, primate of Poland[10]) or threatened by the presence of over 10,000 Russian soldiers in Warsaw[11], Repnin de facto dicated the terms of that Sejm[12] [13]. The intimidated Sejm, which met in October 1767 and adjourned till February 1768[14], appointed a commission (the so-called Delegated Sejm) which drafted a Polish-Russian treaty, approved in "silent session" (without debate) on February 27th 1768 [15]. The legislation undid some of the reforms of 1764 under Stanislaw II and pushed through legislation which ensured that the political system of the Commonwealth would be ineffective and easy to control by its foreign neighbours. The liberum veto, free election, neminem captivabimus, rights to form the confederation and rokosz—in other words, all the important old priviliges of the nobility, which made the Commonwealth political system (the Golden Liberty) so ungovernable[16]—were guaranteed as unalterable parts in the cardinal laws. [17] Polish szlachcic. ... Archbishops of Gniezno and simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1412. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Neminem captivabimus is a legal term in Polish historical law. ... Rokosz was a privilege of szlachta in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to refuse the Kings orders and legally act against him if the monarch were to break the laws and privileges of the szlachta. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of Lublin...

The Sejm, however, also passed some more beneficial reforms. Russia, which had used the pretext of increased religious freedoms for the Protestant and Orthodox Christians to destablize the Commonwealth in the first place, now had to push those reforms through the Sejm to save face. Thus the legislation of the Sejm granted those religious minorities the same status as that of the previously dominant Roman Catholics, and some priviliges of the Catholic clergy were limited. In addition, the penalty for killing a peasant was increased from a fine to death, liberum veto was abolished on sejmiks (local parliaments), and a mint was created. All those reforms were guaranteed by the Russian Empress, Catherine II[18]. Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... A fine is money paid as a financial punishment for the commission of minor crimes or as the settlement of a claim. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ...

Repnin Sejm marked one of the important milestones in increasing Polish dependence on the Russian Empire, and turning it into a protectorate. This dependent position was bluntly spelled out in Nikita Ivanovich Panin's letter to king Poniatowski, in which he made it clear that Poland was now in the Russian sphere of influence.[19] A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which... Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Russian: ) (September 18, 1718–March 31, 1783) was an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first eighteen years of her reign. ... A sphere of influence (or SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political power. ...

The resulting reaction among Poland's Roman Catholic leadership to the laws granting priviliges to the Protestants, as well as the deep resentment of Russia's meddling in the Commonwealth's domestic affairs, led to the War of the Confederation of Bar (1768 to 1772)[20], directed against Poniatowski and Russia, which ended with Rusian victory and the first partition of Poland. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Prayer of the Bar Confederates. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...



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