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Encyclopedia > Renier of Montferrat

Renier of Montferrat (11621183) was the fifth son of William III of Montferrat. He became son-in-law of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus and Caesar in 1179, and was later murdered in a Byzantine power-struggle. Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... William III of Montferrat (it. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Caesar (p. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is...


It was Manuel who suggested the marriage of his daughter Maria to a son of William III. The only eligible son was the youngest, 17-year-old Renier. With his marriage to the 30-year-old princess, Renier was given the title Caesar, renamed "John", and (it is believed) granted Thessalonica as an estate for life, a pronoia. Maria was second in line to the throne, and had only been deprived of the succession by the birth of her much younger half-brother Alexius. Thus, Renier became entangled in the perpetual power struggle around the Byzantine throne. Caesar (p. ... Pronoia (plural pronoiai, Greek for provisions) refers to a system of land grants in the Byzantine Empire. ... Alexius II Comnenus (1167-1183), Byzantine emperor (1180-1183), was the son of emperor Manuel I Comnenus and Maria, daughter of Raymund, prince of Antioch, and was born at Constantinople on September 10, 1167. ...


With the death of Manuel I in September 1180, the throne fell to the boy Alexius II, with his mother, the empress dowager Maria, acting as regent. Maria caused a scandal by taking the protosebastos Alexius as a lover. This, combined with her Latin-friendly views triggered a plot to overthrow the Emperor, and install Maria and Renier on the throne. The plot was discovered, and several conspirators arrested. Maria and Renier sought refuge in the Hagia Sofia cathedral with some 150 of their followers. Fighting ensued, later dubbed the Holy War as it took place in that most holy church. Eventually, the conspirators were offered an amnesty to end the hostilities. Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. ... The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ... Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994 The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Christian church, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. ... Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion) is an act of grace by which the supreme power in a state restores those who may have been guilty of any offence against it to the position of innocent persons. ...


Both the Emperor and the conspirators fell victims to another usurper though, as Andronicus Comnenus returned from his exile with an army in support. Alexius II was forced to recognice Andronicus as his co-Emperor, and was later murdered. Renier, as a contender to the throne, shared his fate, as did Maria. Andronicus' takeover was marred by the massacre of the Latin population that followed. It is believe that this massacre was one of the reasons later used as an excuse by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade. Renier's surviving older brother Boniface seems to have based his claim to Thessalonica on his late brother's title. Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor, son of prince Isaac Comnenus, and grandson of Alexius I Comnenus, was born about the beginning of the 12th century. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, conquered the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... Boniface of Montferrat (c. ...


References

  • Haberstumpf, Walter. Dinastie europee nel Mediterraneo orientale. I Monferrato e i Savoia nei secoli XII–XV, 1995 (external link to downloadable text).
  • Donald E. Queller and Thomas F. Madden, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople (2nd Edition, 1999) ISBN 0812217136
  • Usseglio, Leopoldo. I Marchesi di Monferrato in Italia ed in Oriente durante i secoli XII e XIII, 1926.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Emperors DIR Alexius II Comnenus (2527 words)
They were tried and condemned, Maria and her husband Renier of Montferrat seeking refuge in the Great Church of Hagia Sophia (before Easter, 5 April 1181).
Then Renier led a sally forth from the Great Church, and held his own, but further fighting had to be left aside due to the lateness in the day.
This was granted, and the megas doux Andronicus Contostephanus and the megas hetaireiarches John Ducas sent to negotiate with Renier and Maria.
Forename Index: R (4047 words)
Lord of Castellar and Forcalq; (many sources show him and 'brother' Renier as same person)
- 1200+?) ; aka Raimond (Renier I) d' UZES; Sn.
Reinira Anna Gertruyde van LINTELLO (tot de MARSCH) ; aka Reinira Anna Geertruida van LINTELO
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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