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Encyclopedia > Renewable energy in Scotland
Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotland's renewable energy potential.

The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.[1] The natural resource base for renewables is extraordinary by European, and even global standards. In addition to an existing installed capacity[a] of 1.3 Gigawatts (GW) of hydro-electric schemes, Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of wind and 7.5 GW of tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for the European Union and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[2][3] The renewable electricity generating capacity may be 60 GW or more, considerably greater than the existing capacity from all Scottish fuel sources of 10.3 GW.[2][4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (1009 × 660 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ruhrfisch and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (1009 × 660 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ruhrfisch and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat. ... Proportion of renewable energy in the EU countries, 2004 The countries of the European Union are currently the leading world power in the development and application of renewable energy. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Hydroelectricity is the worlds leading renewable energy source. ... This article is about the country. ... An example of a wind turbine, this 3 bladed turbine is the classic design of modern wind turbines Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides, or the movement of water caused by the tidal flow. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ...


Much of this potential remains untapped, but continuing improvements in engineering are enabling more of the renewable resources to be utilised. Fears regarding 'Peak Oil' and climate change have driven the subject high up the political agenda and are also encouraging the use of various biofuels. Although the finances of many projects remain either speculative or dependent on subsidies, it is probable that there has been a significant, and in all likelihood long-term change, in the underpinning economics.[5] A natural resource qualifies as a renewable resource if it is replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to its rate of consumption by humans or other users. ... As first expressed in Hubbert peak theory, Peak Oil is the point or timeframe at which the maximum global petroleum production rate is reached. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


In addition to planned increases in both large-scale generating capacity and microsystems using renewable sources, various related schemes to reduce carbon emissions are being researched.[6] Although there is significant support from the public, private and community-led sectors, concerns about the effect of the technologies on the natural environment have been expressed. There is also an emerging political debate about the relationship between the siting, and the ownership and control of these widely distributed resources.[7] Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...

Renewable energy

Contents

Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is the use of geothermal heat to generate electricity. ... Hydroelectricity is the worlds leading renewable energy source. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides, or the movement of water caused by the tidal flow. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine, this 3 bladed turbine is the classic design of modern wind turbines Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ...

Realisation of the potential

In January 2006 the total installed electrical generating capacity from all forms of renewable energy was less than 2 GW, about a fifth of the total electrical production.[4] By January 2007 wind power capacity, which has been growing rapidly, reached 1 GW capacity, and the total for renewables had grown to over 2.3 GW.[8] By the end of the year renewables are expected to contribute 19% of total electrical production,[9] about 4% of all energy usage.[10] It should be borne in mind that electricity production is only part of the overall energy use budget. In 2002, Scotland consumed a total of 175 Terawatt-hours (TWh)[11] of energy in all forms, some 2% less than 1990. Of this, only 20% was consumed in the form of electricity by end users, the great majority of energy utilised being from the burning of oil (41%) and gas (36%).[12][13] The watt-hour (symbol W·h) is a unit of energy. ...


Scotland also has significant quantities of fossil fuel deposits, including 62.4% of the EU's proven reserves of oil, 12.5% of the EU's proven reserves of gas and 69% of UK coal reserves.[3] Nonetheless, the Scottish Executive have set ambitious targets for renewable energy production. The aim is for 18% of Scotland's electricity production to be generated by renewable sources by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020.[14] Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[1] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of years[2]. The theory that hydrocarbons were formed from these... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ...


An important reason for pursuing this ambition is growing international concern about human-induced climate change. The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's proposal that carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by 60% were incorporated into the UK government's 2003 Energy White Paper.[2] The 2006 Stern Review proposed a 55% reduction by 2030.[15] The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report[16] has further increased the profile of the issue.[17] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in the United Kingdom was created under Royal Warrant in 1970 to advise the Queen, Government, Parliament and the public on environmental issues. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... Sir Nicholas Stern, author of the report. ...


Wind power

Main article: Wind power in Scotland
Further information: Wind power
5 MW wind turbine under construction at Nigg fabrication yard on the Cromarty Firth

Wind power is a renewable technology and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, although inevitably some are produced during construction and transport. The precise amounts involved are a matter of controversy. Manufacturers typically state that carbon emissions are 'paid back' within 3–18 months of production, but recent research claims that turbines located on peat bogs create incidental emissions that may increase this to 8 years or more.[18] Wind power in Scotland is an area of considerable activity. ... An example of a wind turbine, this 3 bladed turbine is the classic design of modern wind turbines Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ... Image File history File links Wind_turbine_at_Nigg. ... Image File history File links Wind_turbine_at_Nigg. ... External link Cromarty Firth Port Authority Categories: 1911 Britannica | UK geography stubs | Geography of Scotland | Special protection areas in the UK | Ports and harbours of the UK ... An example of a wind turbine, this 3 bladed turbine is the classic design of modern wind turbines Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


The siting of turbines has become a controversial issue amongst those concerned about the value of natural landscapes.[19], particularly since the best sites for wind generation tend to be in scenic mountain and oceanside areas.


Wind turbines are the fastest growing of the renewable energy technologies in Scotland. Most turbines in the EU produce electricity at an average of 25% of their rated maximum power due to the intermittency of wind resources,[20] but Scotland's wind regime provides average of 40% or higher on the west and northern coasts. A small wind farm on Shetland with three Vestas V47 660 kW turbines recently achieved a world record of 58% capacity over the course of a year.[21] Horizontal-axis wind turbine, the Enercon model E-66 wind energy converter, in Germany. ... Intermittent power sources are sources of power generation, primarily electricity, whose power output is either variable or intermittent. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ... Vestas is a Danish company that designs, manufactures, and sells wind turbines. ...


There are now numerous large on-shore power stations including Black Law rated at over 96 MW, Hadyard Hill, which is the first wind farm in the UK able to generate over 100 MW, and Whitelee, a 322 MW project under construction.[22][23][24]


It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide 45 TWh of energy. More than double this amount exists on offshore sites[2] where mean wind speeds are greater than on land.[25] The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, which although more expensive to install, could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.[2] The first offshore turbines are under commissioning for Talisman Energy, who are erecting two large machines 25 kilometres (13 nmi) offshore adjacent to the Beatrice oilfield. These turbines are 88 metres (289 ft) high with the blades 63 metres (207 ft) long and will have a capacity of 5 MW each, making them the largest in the world.[26][27] Talisman Energy TSX: TLM is one of Canadas largest petroleum companies. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...


Wave power

Further information: Wave power

Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts. Ocean Power Delivery are an Edinburgh-based company whose Pelamis system has been tested off Orkney and Portugal. These devices are 150 metres (492 ft) long, 3.5 metres (11.5 ft) diameter floating tubes which capture the mechanical action of the waves. Future wave farm projects could involve an arrangement of interlinked 750 kW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.[28] Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is an emerging technology that will use the motion of ocean waves to create electricity. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ...


Another approach is used by the LIMPET 500 (Land Installed Marine Power Energy Transformer) energy converter installed on the island of Islay by Wavegen Ltd. It is a shore-based unit and generates power when waves run up the beach, creating pressure inside an inclined oscillating water column. This in turn creates pneumatic power which drives twin 250 kW the generators. LIMPET was opened in 2001 and is the world's first commercial scale wave-energy device. The manufacturers are now developing a larger system in the Faroe Islands.[29][30] Islay (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: , or ee-luh), a Scottish island, known as The Queen of the Hebrides, is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides. ...


The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based in Orkney is a new Scottish Executive-backed research facility. They have installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[31] Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ...


Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the Scottish Executive on February 22, 2007. It will be the world's largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines at a cost of over 4 million pounds.[32] The funding is part of a new £13 million funding package for marine power projects in Scotland that will also support developments to Aquamarine's Oyster and Ocean Power Technology's PowerBuoy wave systems, AWS Ocean Energy's sub-sea wave devices, ScotRenewables' 1.2 MW floating rotor device, Cleantechcom's tidal surge plans for the Churchill barriers between various Orkney islands, the Open Hydro tidal ring turbines, and further developments to the Wavegen system proposed for Lewis as well as a further £2.5 million for EMEC.[33] Pelamis machine pointing into the waves: it attenuates the waves, gathering more energy than its narrow profile suggests. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... Lewis (Scottish Gaelic: ) or The Isle of Lewis (), is the northern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer Hebrides (). The southern part of the island is called Harris (). The two names however refer to the two parts of the same island despite the use...


Tidal power

Further information: Tidal power
European Marine Energy Centre Tidal power test site on Eday under construction

Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source. However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are in the prototype stages. Today we know that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.[34] This is the current situation with regard to tidal power. Some systems capture energy from the tides in a vertical direction. The tide comes in and raises the water level in a basin. As the tide lowers the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine. Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. To date the only installed tidal power plant of any size is the 240 MW rated barrage scheme at the Rance Estuary in Brittany, which has been operating successfully for more than 25 years, although there are a number of other much smaller projects around the world.[35] Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides, or the movement of water caused by the tidal flow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Eday_EMEC_site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Eday_EMEC_site. ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides, or the movement of water caused by the tidal flow. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Rance tidal power plant Other view Scale model of the tidal power plant The Rance tidal power plant is the worlds first electrical generating station powered by tidal energy. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


The Pentland Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland has been described as the "Saudi Arabia of tidal power"[36] and may be capable of generating up to 10 GW.[37] Several other tidal sites with considerable potential exist in the Orkney archipelago.[38] Tidal races on the west coast at Kyle Rhea between Skye and Lochalsh, the Grey Dog north of Scarba, the Dorus Mor off Crinan and the Gulf of Corryvreckan also offer significant prospects.[37][39] The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Kyle of Lochalsh is a small village on the North-West coast of Scotland, which developed in the late 19th century with the arrival of the railway. ... Scarba shown within Argyll Na h- Urrachann, Isle of Scarba, looking North towards the Slate Islands. ... Crinan is a name of western Celtic origin and it has a number of contexts: Crinan is village located in Argyll in Scotland The Crinan Canal is a waterway in Scotland with one of its outlets at Crinan Crinan the Thane de Mormaer (Earl of) Dunkeld was a powerful Scottish... The Gulf of Corryvreckan (from the Gaelic Coirebhreacain meaning cauldron of the speckled seas), also called the Strait of Corryvreckan, is a narrow channel between the islands of Jura and Scarba, off the west coast of Scotland. ...


Hydro-electric power

Further information: Hydro power
A typical Highland hydro-electric dam at Loch Laggan

Scotland has 85% of the UK's hydro-electric energy resource,[40] much of it developed by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board in the 1950s. The ‘Hydro Board’, which brought 'power from the glens', was a nationalised industry at the time although it was privatised in 1989 and is now part of Scottish and Southern Energy plc. Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1209x1437, 299 KB) Laggan Dam, Scotland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1209x1437, 299 KB) Laggan Dam, Scotland. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Hydroelectricity is the worlds leading renewable energy source. ... The North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board (1943 - 1990) was founded to design, construct and manage hydroelectricity projects in the Highlands of Scotland. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Scottish & Southern Energy plc (SSE) is an energy company formed in 1998 following a merger of equals between Scottish Hydro-Electric plc and Southern Electric plc. ...


Numerous remote straths were flooded by these schemes, many of the largest of which involved tunneling through mountains as well as damming rivers. Emma Wood, the author of a study of these pioneers wrote: Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ...

I heard about drowned farms and hamlets, the ruination of the salmon-fishing and how Inverness might be washed away if the dams failed inland. I was told about the huge veins of crystal they found when they were tunnelling deep under the mountains.[41] , Inverness (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a city[2] in northern Scotland. ...

Current capacity is 1.33 GW[4] and includes major developments such as the 120 MW Breadalbane scheme and the 245 MW Tummel system. It is estimated that little more than another 0.3 GW remains available to develop.[2] There is further potential for new pump storage schemes that would work well with intermittent sources of power such as wind and wave. Examples include the 440 MW Ben Cruachan and 300 MW Falls of Foyers schemes.[42] The 100 MW Glen Doe project, currently under construction and Scotland's largest civil engineering project, is the first large scale scheme in Scotland for almost fifty years but is likely to be one of the last of its kind.[43][44] The Breadalbane hydro-electric power scheme for the generation of hydro-electric power is centred around Loch Lyon, Loch Tay and Loch Earn, in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, and lies approximately 22km north north west of Callander. ... The Tummel hydro-electric power scheme for the generation of hydro-electric power is located in the Grampian Mountains, between Loch Ericht, Loch Rannoch and Loch Tummel, in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. ... Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ... Ben Cruachan is a 1126 m mountain in Scotland giving its name to a pumped-storage hydroelectric power station. ... The Fall of Foyers is a waterfall on the River Foyers, which feeds Loch Ness, in Highland, Scotland. ...


There is certainly further potential for small-scale run of the river local schemes such as the existing one in Knoydart and planned for Kingussie,[45] but the total effect of such schemes, although important locally, will be tiny on a national basis. The production of hydro electricity has a long history in Scotland but given that the available catchment areas have practically all been exploited it is unlikely that there will be scope for the further development of significant amounts of new hydro generation.[46] Knoydart is a peninsula on the west coast of Scotland, in the UK, sandwiched between Loch Nevis and Loch Hourn—often translated as Heaven and Hell respectively. ... Kingussie is a small burgh in the Scottish Highlands adjacent to the A9 road, although the old route of the A9 served as the towns main street. ...


Biofuels

Further information: Biofuels

Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass _ recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ...

Biodiesel

Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject. Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fueled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets.[47] On a larger scale Argent Energy's plant in Motherwell recycles tallow and used cooking oil to produce 50 million litres of biodiesel per annum.[48] In some countries, filling stations sell biodiesel more cheaply than conventional diesel. ... Westray shown within Orkney Islands Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around 700 people. ... Development trusts are organisations which operate in the United Kingdom that are: - community based, owned and led - engaged in the economic, environmental and social regeneration of a defined area or community - independent but seek to work in partnership with other private, voluntary and public sector organisations - self-sufficient or aiming... Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, a popular take-away food, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes, traditionally sold wrapped in newspaper. ... High flats in Motherwell Brandon Parade, the main shopping street in Motherwell, on a typical Saturday Motherwell (Tobar na Màthar in Gaelic) is a large town and former burgh in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, south east of Glasgow. ...


A major benefit of biodiesel is lower carbon emissions, although the energy balance of liquid biofuels is a matter of controversy.[49] Research is being undertaken into converting rapeseed oil into biodiesel,[47] and the European biofuels directive intends to ensure that 5.75% Europe's transport fuel comes from renewable sources by 2010. However, there is only enough used vegetable oil in the UK to contribute 0.38% of current road fuel demand and if all the arable land in the UK were turned over to biofuel crops this would still only satisfy 22% of the existing requirement for road transport. Serious concerns regarding the ethics of growing biodiesel in developing countries and importing the fuel to Europe have been raised on the grounds that they may replace much needed food crops.[5] Converting any mainstream transport system to a renewable one also involves the conundrum that for consumers to use it the infrastructure must be in place, but high levels of use may be required to finance the infrastructure.[5] Developments are thus slow at present and renewably powered vehicles very much the exception. The Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, officially 2003/30/EC and popularly better known as the biofuels directive is a European Union directive for promoting the use of biofuels for EU transport. ...


Due to the relatively short growing season for sugar producing crops, ethanol is not commercially produced as a fuel in Scotland at present.[50] However there are encouraging developments in cellulosic decomposition that might enable grass or tree crops to be used to this end in future and which may prove to have lower net carbon emissions than other production techniques.[51][52] Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Anaerobic digestion and landfill gas

Biogas, or landfill gas, is a biofuel produced through the intermediary stage of anaerobic digestion consisting mainly of 45–90% biologically produced methane and carbon dioxide. In early 2007 a thermophilic anaerobic digesiton facility was commissioned in Stornoway in the Western Isles. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Renewable Energy Association are also leading the way towards the establishment of a digestate standard to facilitate the use of solid outputs from digesters on land. Anaerobic digestion and mechanical biological treatment facilities have been planned at a number of other locations in Scotland, such as Westray.[53] Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Lews Castle in Stornoway Stornoway (Steòrnabhagh in Scottish Gaelic) is a burgh on Lewis (Leòdhas), in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, with a population of approximately 5,600 people in the town itself, out of a total population of 26,370 for the whole of the Western Isles. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is a powerful non-departmental public body in Scotland sponsored by the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. ... Acidogenic digestate produced from mixed municipal waste Digestate is solid material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock. ... Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), or mechanical biological pre-treatment is a category of waste treatment technologies that enables recovery of the resources contained in waste. ...


It is estimated that 0.4 GW of generating capacity might be available from agricultural waste in Scotland.[2] The Scottish Executive and SEPA has funded seven small scale farm trial plants with the British anaerobic digestion company Greenfinch in Southwest Scotland.[54]


Landfill sites have the potential for a further 0.07 GW. Landfill sites such as the Avondale Landfill in Falkirk utilise landfill gas (biogas) to the maximum extent. The Avondale Landfill is a major Scottish landfill located in Falkirk, off junction 4 of the M9 motorway. ...


Solid biomass

Further information: Biomass

Wood fuel almost certainly exceeds hydroelectric and wind as the largest source of renewable energy at present. Scotland's forests, which currently make up 60% of the UK resource base,[55] could provide up to 1 million tonnes of wood fuel per annum.[30] The biomass energy supply in Scotland could reach 450 MW or higher in coming years, (predominantly from wood), with power stations requiring 4,500–5,000 oven dry tonnes per annum per megawatt of generating capacity.[55] The energy company E.ON has constructed a 44 MW biomass power station at Lockerbie using locally sourced crops[56] while the smaller but not insignificant EPR Westfield power plant in Fife produces 9.8 MW of output using chicken litter as fuel.[57] The Forestry Commission are developing a Scottish Biomass Action Plan in conjunction with the Scottish Executive, and the latter is expected to provide a £7.5 million grant scheme to support biomass energy. There is growing demand for automatic wood pellet boilers which can be as convenient to use as conventional central heating systems, and which may be cheaper to run as well as being carbon neutral.[30] See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... The Forestry Commission (established in 1919) is a non ministerial Government Department responsible for forestry in Great Britain. ... “GBP” redirects here. ...


There is also local potential for energy crops such as short-rotation willow or poplar coppice, michanthus energy grass, agricultural wastes such as straw and manure, and forestry residues.[30][58] These crops could provide 0.8 GW of generating capacity.[2]


Micro systems

Whisky distilleries have a role to play in keeping Scots warm.

The Energy Savings Trust estimate that micro-generation could provide 30–40% of the UK's electricity demand by 2050[13] although the current Scottish output is trivial. In May 2006 Communities Minister Malcolm Chisholm launched a Planning Advice Note aimed at promoting micro-renewables.[59] Small-scale 'wind2heat' projects in remoter rural areas have proven to be successful[60] as have various other local schemes such as air source heat pumps.[61] Image File history File links Glenfiddich_Distillery_stills. ... Image File history File links Glenfiddich_Distillery_stills. ... Malcolm Chisholm (born 7 March 1949) is a Scottish politician, and Minister for Health and Community Care in the Scottish Executive. ...


Whisky distilleries may have a locally important part to play. Caithness Heat and Power have announced plans to tackle fuel poverty in Wick by utilising a wood chip CHP scheme in partnership with the Old Pulteney Distillery.[62] On the island of Islay, a swimming pool is heated using waste heat from the Bowmore distillery [63] For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Location within the British Isles Noted point: Designer musician Douglas More hails from Wick! Wick (Inbhir Uige in Gaelic) is an estuary town in Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland, on the main highway (the A99-A9 road) linking John O Groats with southern Britain. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. ... Islay (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: , or ee-luh), a Scottish island, known as The Queen of the Hebrides, is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides. ... Image:Bowmore Scotch Whisky 18 Year old. ...


Solar energy

Further information: Solar power
The Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh. Solar panels are just visible left of centre.

Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours, solar panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather.[64][65] The technology was developed in the 1970s and is well-established with various installers in place such as Solar Power Scotland of Montrose, although AES Solar based in Forres (who provided the panels for the Scottish Parliament building)[66] are Scotland's only manufacturer. Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 744 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 744 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A solar heater A laundromat in California with solar hot water panels on the roof. ... Montrose is a minor port and tourist resort in Angus, on the east coast of Scotland. ... Suenos Stone in Forres The Royal Burgh of Forres (Gaelic: Farrais), an ancient burgh, is situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ...


There are few examples of photovoltaic cells in Scotland as the price is not currently competitive. The largest installation in Scotland is a 21 kWp system at the Sir E. Scott secondary school in Tarbert, Harris.[67] The UK's practicable resource is estimated at 7.2 TWh per annum,[13] which in the Scottish context is the approximate equivalent of 0.07 GW or less of installed capacity. A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ...


Geothermal energy

Further information: Geothermal power

Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettleston, which uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses. Water in a coal mine 100 metres (328 ft) below ground level is heated by geothermal energy and maintained at a temperature of about 12 °C (54 °F) throughout the year. The warmed water is raised and passed through a heat pump, boosting the temperature to 55 °C (131 °F), and is then distributed to the houses providing heating to radiators.[68] Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is the use of geothermal heat to generate electricity. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... A diagram of a simple heat pumps vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor. ... Shettleston is a suburb in the east end of Glasgow in Scotland. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Although the pumps may not be powered from renewable sources, up to four times the energy used can be recovered. Installation costs can vary from £7,000 to £10,000, and grants may be available from the Scottish Community and Householders Renewables Initiative operated by HICEC for domestic properties up to a maximum of £4,000.[69] Perhaps up to 7.6 TWh of energy is available on an annual basis from this source.[70] The Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company or HICEC provides free advice, grant funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups in the north and west of Scotland. ...


Other means of reducing carbon emissions

It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required.[71] On the latter front, Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced in November 2006 that within a decade all new houses would have to be 'zero carbon'.[72] A variety of other options exist, most of which may affect development of renewable technologies even if they are not means of producing energy from renewable sources themselves. For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Similar or related terms: Near zero energy building, Zero energy house, Near zero energy house A zero energy building (ZEB) can be described as structure with a net energy consumption of zero over a typical year. ...


Other renewable options

Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversion, deep lake water cooling, and blue energy, have received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Deep lake water cooling uses cold water pumped from the bottom of a lake as a heat sink for climate control systems. ... Blue energy is the energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water with the use of osmosis or reverse electro dialysis (RED) with ion specific membranes. ...


Carbon offsetting

Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late.[73][74] Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ...


Nonetheless, a credible option may be to plant trees within the local bioregion and maintain the forest on a permanent basis, thus locking up carbon produced by burning fossil fuels. In British growing conditions this method can compensate for carbon at a rate of 200 tonnes per square kilometre (0.89 tons/acre) planted over a 100 year period. Thus a 4 square kilometre (988 acre) plantation could uptake 200 tonnes (220 tons) of carbon over twenty-five years.[75] This is the equivalent of 10,000 tonnes (11,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide.[76] The weaknesses of the approach include uncertainty as to whether the planting might have occurred anyway and who, in the future, will ensure permanence. However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one. A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


Challenges and opportunities offered by non-renewables

The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an important aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness. Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.


Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage, this technology involves the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a by-product of industrial processes through its injection into oil fields. It is not a form of renewable energy production, but it may be a way to significantly reduce the effect of fossil fuels whilst renewables are commercialised. It may also be an intermediate step towards a 'hydrogen economy' (see below), which could either enable further renewable development or conceivably out-compete it. The technology has been successfully pioneered in Norway[77] but is still a relatively untried concept. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Carbon dioxide sink. ...


'Clean coal' technology: It is has been estimated that it will be 2020 to 2025 before any commercial-scale clean coal power stations (coal-burning power stations with carbon capture and sequestration) are widely adopted.[78] Moreover, some have criticised the clean coal approach[79] and it is at best a means of ameliorating carbon emissions. It is not a form of renewable energy production, although like carbon sequestration it offers a significant commercial challenge to renewable developments.[80][81]


Nuclear power: Renewable energy as a concept generally excludes nuclear power[82][83] although this stance has been challenged.[84][85] For fusion power, see Fusion power. ...


Incineration: There is a successful waste-to-energy incineration plant at Lerwick in Shetland which burns 22,000 tonnes (24,250 tons) of waste every year and provides district heating to over 600 customers.[86] Although such plants generate carbon emissions through the combustion of the biological material and plastic wastes (which derive from fossil fuels), they also reduce the damage done to the atmosphere from the creation of methane in landfill sites. This is a much more damaging greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide the burning process produces,[5] although other systems which do not involve district heating may have a similar carbon footprint to straightforward landfill degradation.[87] Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill, also called energy recovery. ... For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ... Lerwick Lerwick is the only burgh and main port of the Shetland Islands in Scotland, found more than 100 miles (160 km) off the north coast of mainland Great Britain. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ...


Hydrogen

Hypod and windmills at the PURE site on Unst

Although hydrogen offers significant potential as an alternative to hydrocarbons as a carrier of energy, neither hydrogen itself nor the associated fuel cell technologies are sources of energy in themselves. Nevertheless, the combination of renewable technologies and hydrogen is of considerable interest to those seeking alternatives to fossil fuels.[88] There are a number of Scottish projects involved in this research, supported by the Scottish Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Association.[89] Image File history File linksMetadata PURE_Unst. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PURE_Unst. ... Unst shown within Shetland Islands The worlds most comfortable bus shelter? Unst is one of the North Isles of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


The PURE project on Unst in Shetland is a ground-breaking training and research centre which uses a combination of the ample supplies of wind power and fuel cells. Two 15 kW turbines are attached to a 'Hypod' fuel cell, which in turn provides power for heating systems, the creation of stored liquid hydrogen and an innovative fuel-cell driven car. The project is community-owned and part of the Unst Partnership, the community's development trust.[90] Unst shown within Shetland Islands The worlds most comfortable bus shelter? Unst is one of the North Isles of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. ... Development trusts are organisations which operate in the United Kingdom that are: - community based, owned and led - engaged in the economic, environmental and social regeneration of a defined area or community - independent but seek to work in partnership with other private, voluntary and public sector organisations - self-sufficient or aiming...


In the Western Isles a plan to enable a £10 million waste management plant into a hydrogen production facility was announced in June 2006. The Council have also agreed to purchase hydrogen-fuelled buses and hope the new plant, which will be constructed in partnership with the local Hydrogen Research Laboratory, will supply island filling stations and houses and the industrial park at Arnish.[91] The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ...


ITI Energy is a company with the aim of funding Research and Development programmes in the energy sector. It is a division of ITI Scotland, which also includes a life sciences and digital media division. ITI Energy has attracted the Alterg project, a French company that is developing technology for the cost-effective storage of hydrogen.[92][93]


A very different approach is proposed by BP in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy for the creation of a hydrogen-based power station at Peterhead. The project will take natural gas extracted from the North Sea, crack the gas to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, and burn the hydrogen as the fuel source to create electricity in a 475 MW power station. The CO2 will be returned to the Miller field reservoir more than 4 kilometres (2 mi) under the seabed in a process called carbon sequestration (see above). The scheme was expected to be in production by 2009 at a projected cost of $600 million, although there is considerable doubt that sufficient support will be forthcoming from the UK government to enable this to occur. If completed, the plant would be the first industrial-scale, hydrogen power station in the world.[6][94] This article is about the corporation named BP. For other uses, see BP (disambiguation). ... Scottish & Southern Energy plc (SSE) is an energy company founded in 1998 following a merger of equals between Scottish Hydro-Electric plc and Southern Electric plc. ... , There is also a suburb of Adelaide named Peterhead, South Australia Peterhead called Ceann Phadraig in Gaelic is a town in Scotland with a population of approximately 18,000. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ...


Local vs national concerns

"A battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists."

A significant feature of Scotland's renewable potential is that the resources are largely distant from the main centres of population. This is by no means co-incidental. The power of wind, wave and tide on the north and west coasts and for hydro in the mountains makes for dramatic scenery, but sometimes harsh living conditions. W. H. Murray described the Hebrides as "the Isles on the Edge of the Sea where men are welcome - if they are hard in body and in spirit tenacious."[95] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Hutchinson Murray (18 March 1913 - 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish mountain climbers, mainly from Clydeside, before and just after World War Two. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ...


This happenstance of geography and climate has created various tensions. There is clearly a significant difference between a renewable energy production facility of modest size providing an island community with all its energy needs, and an industrial scale power station in the same location that is designed to export power to far distant urban locations. Thus, plans for one of the world's largest onshore windfarms on the Hebridean island of Lewis, have generated considerable debate.[19] A related issue is the planned high-voltage Beauly-Denny power line which would bring electricity from renewable projects in the north and west to the cities of the south. The matter has gone to a public inquiry and has been described by Ian Johnston of The Scotsman as a "battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists and giant energy companies against aristocratic landowners and clan chiefs".[96] Lewis (Scottish Gaelic: ) or The Isle of Lewis (), is the northern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer Hebrides (). The southern part of the island is called Harris (). The two names however refer to the two parts of the same island despite the use... Beauly (pronounced Bewley; a corruption of Beaulieu), is a town of the Scottish county of Inverness-shire, on the River Beauly, 10 miles West of Inverness by the Far North railway line. ... Denny is a town in the Falkirk council area, Scotland, and formerly in the county of Stirlingshire. ... In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There is considerable support for community-scale energy projects.[97] For example, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland, has stated that "we can think big by delivering small" and aspires to have a "million Scottish households with access to their own or community renewable generation within ten years".[36] The John Muir Trust has also stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale, sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them,"[98] although even community-owned schemes can prove controversial.[99] The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... The John Muir Trust (JMT), is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals, plants and soils for the benefit of present and future generations. ...


A related issue is the position of Scotland within the United Kingdom. It has been alleged that UK transmission pricing structures are weighted against the development of renewables in Scotland,[100][101][102] a debate which highlights the contrast between the sparsely populated north of Scotland and the highly urbanised south and east of England. Although the ecological footprints of Scotland and England are similar the relationship between this footprint and the biocapacities of the respective countries are not. Scotland's biocapacity (a measure of the biologically productive area) is 4.52 global hectares (gha) per head, some 15% less than the current ecological effect.[103] In other words, with a 15% reduction in consumption, the Scottish population could live within the productive capacity of the land to support them. However, the UK ecological footprint is more than three times the biocapacity, which is only 1.6 gha head, amongst the lowest in Europe.[104][105] Thus, to achieve the same end in the UK context, consumption would have to be reduced by about 66%. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Carrying capacity usually refers to the biological carrying capacity of a population level that can be supported for an organism, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. ... A global hectare is a measurement defining an area of global average productivity. ...


The developed world's economy is presently very dependent on inexpensive 'point-source' fossil fuels. Scotland, as a relatively sparsely populated country with significant renewable resources, is in a unique position to demonstrate how the transition to a low-carbon, widely distributed energy economy may be undertaken. A balance will need to be struck between supporting this transition and providing exports to the economies of densely populated regions in the Central Belt and elsewhere, as they seek their own solutions. The tension between local and national needs in the Scottish context may therefore also play out on the wider UK and European stage.[106] World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... The Central Belt of Scotland is a common term used to describe the area of highest population density within Scotland. ...


Promotion of renewables

Growing national concerns regarding 'Peak Oil' and climate change have driven the subject of renewable energy high up the political agenda. Various public bodies and public-private partnerships have been created to develop the potential. The Scottish Renewables Forum is an important intermediary organisation for the industry, hosting the annual Green Energy Awards. The Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company (HICEC) provides advice, grant funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups in the north and west of Scotland. Areg is a public-private partnership created to identify and promote renewable energy opportunities for businesses in the north-east.[107]


The Forestry Commission is active in promoting the biomass potential. The Climate Change Business Delivery Group aims to act as a way for businesses to share best practice and address the climate change challenge. Numerous universities are playing a role in supporting energy research under the Supergen programme, including fuel cell research at St Andrews, marine technologies at Edinburgh, distributed power systems at Strathclyde[56] and biomass crops at the UHI Millennium Institute's Orkney College.[108] A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Strathclyde is a university in Glasgow, Scotland. ... UHI Millennium Institute (UHI) is a federation of 15 colleges and research institutions, in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland delivering higher education. ...


Recent events

New data appears on a regular basis and milestones in 2007 include the following.


In February the commissioning of the Braes of Doune wind farm took the UK renewables installed capacity up to 2GW.[109] Doune is a burgh in the district of Stirling, Scotland, on the River Teith. ...


In April, plans were announced for Biggar to become the first 'carbon-neutral' town in Scotland[110] and in the same month Findhorn Ecovillage confirmed that its ecological footprint is the lowest ever recorded in the industrialised world.[110] Biggar is a burgh in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... Findhorn Ecovillage is based at The Park, in Moray, Scotland near the village of Findhorn[1]. The projects main aim is to demonstrate a sustainable development in environmental, social, and economic terms. ...


In May Scottish Power announced that Alstom Power and Doosan Babcock had been commissioned to design plans for 'clean coal' technology at Longannet and Cockenzie power stations. If installed this would be the largest project of its kind in Europe.[111] Two months later Scottish Power announced that they wished to reduce carbon emissions by using biomass products such as willow or cereals at Longannet and Cockenzie power stations. This could save up to 300,000 tonnes (330,000 tons) of carbon emissions per annum. However, the challenge of replacing large scale power production with renewables was highlighted by the fact that to replace 5% of the fuel from these plants, fully 12% of Scotland's agricultural land would be required.[112] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cockenzie Power Station Cockenzie Power Station is a coal-fired power station sited in the town of Cockenzie and Port Seton on the shores of the Firth of Forth on the East coast of Scotland; 8 miles from the Scottish capital of Edinburgh. ... Scottish Power Limited is a vertically integrated energy company with its headquarters in Glasgow, Scotland, and a subsidiary of the Spanish utility Iberdrola. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cockenzie Power Station Cockenzie Power Station is a coal-fired power station sited in the town of Cockenzie and Port Seton on the shores of the Firth of Forth on the East coast of Scotland; 8 miles from the Scottish capital of Edinburgh. ...


In June, John Swinney, the new Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth in the Scottish Executive, announced plans for a Climate Change Bill that would include an intention to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050.[113] However, further controversy arose about Ofgem's proposed plans to increase transmission charges for distant generation. This was widely seen as placing renewable energy production in Scotland at a considerable disadvantage. Jason Ormiston, the chief executive of Scottish Renewables was quoted as saying "At a time when the UK government's chief scientific adviser has said that climate change is the greatest threat to humanity, here we have the industry regulator penalising renewable electricity generators for generating where the resource is greatest."[114] The issue was highlighted the following month when leaked Department of Trade and Industry documents indicated that, despite Scottish successes, under current policies Britain would miss the EU's 2020 target of 20% energy from renewables by a considerable margin.[115] John Swinney John Swinney is the former leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP). ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), working for the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority (GEMA), is the government regulator for the electricity and downstream natural gas markets in the United Kingdom. ...


In August, the Scottish Government announced the creation of a 'Saltire Prize' for innovation in industry, which will reward excellence in developing new renewable energy technologies.[116]


Summary of Scotland's resource potential

Technology Capacity in 2006 (GW) Potential capacity (GW) Potential energy (TWh)
Onshore wind 0.94 11.50 45.0
Offshore wind 0 25.00 82.0
Wave 0.00027 14.00 45.7
Tidal stream 0 7.50 33.5
Hydro 1.34 1.63 5.52
Wood 0.012 0.45 1.8?
Biomass (non wood)   0.84 6.6
Biodiesel   0.14 1.0
Landfill gas 0.061 0.07 0.6
Geothermal   1.50? 7.6
Solar     5.8
Total 2.4 62.63 236.6

See also

Energy Portal
Scotland Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... List of Power Stations in Scotland is a list of electricity generating power stations in Scotland, sorted by type and rating. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ... Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), or mechanical biological pre-treatment is a category of waste treatment technologies that enables recovery of the resources contained in waste. ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Proportion of renewable energy in the EU countries, 2004 The countries of the European Union are currently the leading world power in the development and application of renewable energy. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which energy is stored and transported as hydrogen (H2), particularly as an energy carrier for vehicle applications (e. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... As first expressed in Hubbert peak theory, Peak Oil is the point or timeframe at which the maximum global petroleum production rate is reached. ... This is a List of renewable energy topics by country: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Notes

a. ^  Note on 'installed capacity' and 'potential energy'. The former is an estimate of the maximum productive output of a given technology or individual generation station at a single point in time.[citation needed] The latter takes into account the likely intermittency of energy supply and is a measure of output over a period of time.[citation needed] Thus, for example, individual wind turbines may have a 'capacity factor' of between 15% and 45% depending on their location, with a higher capacity factor giving a greater potential energy output for a given installed capacity. The 'potential energy' column is thus an estimate based on a variety of assumptions including the installed capacity. Although 'potential energy' is in some ways a more useful method of comparing the current output and future potential of different technologies, using it would require cumbersome explanations of all the assumptions involved in each example, so installed capacity figures are generally used.[citation needed]


b. Table notes and sources:

Total capacity from all sources in 2006 was estimated at 10.3 GW[4] and 9.8 GW.[3] It is estimated by RSPB Scotland et al (February 2006)[2] that electricity output would decline from the current total of 50 TWh per annum to about a third of this figure by 2020 due to decommissioning of existing non-renewable capacity if no new capacity was installed. In 2006 total energy demand was 177.8 TWh.[117] Electricity makes up 20% of total energy use, but about 15 TWh are exported or lost in transmission.[2]
All figures above are from RSPB Scotland et al (February 2006)[2] except as otherwise identified below. The main source assumes grid capacity is available. Without this the potential drops significantly to circa 33 TWh.
Current renewable capacity source:[8] From this document 'Biomass electricity' of 12 MW is entered above as 'Wood' and 'Energy from Waste' of 61 MW as 'Landfill gas'.
The tidal potential of the Pentland Firth alone is estimated elsewhere at over 10 GW.[37]
Potential hydro production source: extrapolated from 2004 data in[40]
Potential wood production source:[55]
Potential geothermal energy source:[70]
Potential biomass energy is also estimated at 13.5 TWh[70]
Potential solar energy source:[70]
Potential Energy: '?' indicates an unsourced estimate based on potential capacity. Conversely, geothermal potential capacity is estimated from potential output.
Micro generation (including solar) is estimated as having the potential of producing up to 40% of current electrical demand by 2050 i.e. circa 14 TWh[13] The above figures assume 12% by 2020.
Blank entries mean no data is available. In the cases of the current capacity of biomass, biodiesel and geothermal these will have been very small.

Main references

  • Monbiot, George (2006) Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London. Allen Lane.
  • RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
  • Scottish Executive (2005) Choosing Our Future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy. Edinburgh.
  • Scottish Renewables Forum. Market and Planning Reports (various).
  • The Role of Nuclear Power in a Low Carbon Economy. (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
  • Royal Society of Edinburgh (June 2006) Inquiry into Energy Issues for Scotland. Final Report. Edinburgh. RSE.

Citations

  1. ^ See for example: Scottish Executive (2005) Choosing Our Future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy. Edinburgh.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
  3. ^ a b c A Scottish Energy Review. (November 2005) Scottish National Party Framework Paper. Edinburgh.
  4. ^ a b c d Scottish Renewables (January 2006) Market and Planning Report. Issue No 4.
  5. ^ a b c d Monbiot, George (2006) Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London. Allen Lane.
  6. ^ a b Peterhead hydrogen project. BP. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  7. ^ HICEC. (2006) Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company Annual Review. (PDF). Inverness. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Green Energy Awards - Review No.33" (PDF). Scottish Renewables (December 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  9. ^ "Scottish Renewables FAQ". Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  10. ^ The bulk of electricity production is derived from gas and oil. 2002 figures used in RSPB Scotland et al (2006) op cit are gas (34%), oil (28%), coal (18%) and nuclear (17%), with renewables 3% (principally hydro-electric), prior to the substantial growth in wind power output.
  11. ^ A Gigawatt (GW) is a measure of productive capacity. Terawatt-hours (TWh) measure actual output. Thus, an 8GW power station operating ten hours per day will produce 8x10=80 TWh of electricity. Whenever possible this article refers to predictions of maximum output in GW. Using energy productions in TWh might be more useful in some ways but would tend to obscure the underlying assumptions unless every reference included a measure for maximum output, capacity factor and assumed production, which might prove cumbersome. See also Summary of Scotland's resource potential Note a.
  12. ^ AEA Technology. (January 2006) Scottish Energy Study. Summary Report for the Scottish Executive. ISBN 0 7559 1308 6
  13. ^ a b c d The role of nuclear power in a low carbon economy. (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London. (PDF)
  14. ^ Scotland's Renewable Energy Potential: Realising the 2020 Target - Future Generation Group Report (2005) Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland (FREDS). Edinburgh. ISBN 0 7559 4721 5
  15. ^ Stern, Sir Nicholas (2006) The Economics of Climate Change. London. HM Treasury. ISBN 0-521-70080-9
  16. ^ "Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Working Group 1. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  17. ^ The press reports are voluminous. See for example: "A Winter Wonderland" (10 December 2006) Edinburgh. Scotland on Sunday.; "Final Warning" (3 February 2007) London. The Independent.
  18. ^ Douglas E. (8 July 2006) "Gone with the Wind". London. New Scientist.
  19. ^ a b "Wind power dilemma for Lewis". BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  20. ^ de Noord, M. et al. Potentials and Costs for Renewable Electricity Generation: A data overview (PDF). ECN. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  21. ^ Burradale Wind Farm Shetland Islands. REUK.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. This record is claimed by Burradale wind farm, located just a few miles outside Lerwick and operated by Shetland Aerogenerators Ltd. Since opening in 2000, the turbines at this wind farm have had an average capacity factor of 52% and, according to this report, in 2005 averaged a world record 57.9%.
  22. ^ "Scotland Starts Work on 140-Turbine Onshore Windfarm" RenewableEnergyAccess.com (13 October 2006) Retrieved on 29 August 2007
  23. ^ "Hadyard Hill becomes the first wind farm in the UK to generate over 100 MW of power." BWEA News press release (11 April 2006) Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  24. ^ "UK's most powerful wind farm could power Paisley." (January 2006) BWEA News press release. Retrieved on 29 August 2007
  25. ^ Archer, Cristina L. and Jacobson, Mark Z. (2005) Evaluation of global wind power. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. Retrieved on 30 January 2006.
  26. ^ "Beatrice Wind Farm Demonstrator Project FAQ". Talisman Energy. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  27. ^ "Worlds Largest Wind Turbine". REUK.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  28. ^ "Pelamis wave power". Ocean Power Delivery. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  29. ^ Wavegen LIMPET system. Wavegen. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  30. ^ a b c d "Energy from our trees and forests". renewscotland. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  31. ^ European Marine Energy Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  32. ^ "Orkney to get 'biggest' wave farm" BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
  33. ^ Johnston, Ian (21 February 2007) "Scotland seas into the future". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  34. ^ See for example Bannister, W.S. and Gair, S. The Development of a Straight-bladed Vertical-axis Wind Turbine in Twidell, John (1981) Energy for Rural and Island Communities. Oxford. Pergamon.
  35. ^ Shaw, T.L.. "La Rance Tidal Power Barrage: Ecological Observations relevant to a Severn Barrage Project" (PDF). DTI. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  36. ^ a b "Small Country Thinks Big" in "Scottish Renewables Review No 32" (PDF). Scottish Renewables (November 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  37. ^ a b c "Marine Briefing" (December 2006) Scottish Renewables Forum. Glasgow.
  38. ^ "Orkney Renewable Energy Forum: Marine Energy". Orkney Renewable Energy Forum. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  39. ^ Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen.
  40. ^ a b Renewable Energy Statistics Database for the United Kingdom. Restats. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  41. ^ Wood, Emma (2004) The Hydro Boys: Pioneers of Renewable Energy. Edinburgh. Luath Press. ISBN 1 84282 047 8
  42. ^ "Power Stations in the United Kingdom (operational at the end of May 2004)" (PDF). Powerstationeffects.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  43. ^ "Glendoe Hydro scheme" Scottish and Southern Energy. Retrieved on 28 August 2007.
  44. ^ HI-energy newsletter (December 2006) " Eliza Jane gets into her stride" (PDF) HIE. Inverness. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  45. ^ "Hydro Scheme project on the River Gynack" Kingussie Community Development company (KCDC). Retrieved on 28 August 2007.
  46. ^ "Evidence Received for Renewable Energy in Scotland Inquiry" (10 February 2004) Enterprise and Culture Committee. Scottish Executive. Edinburgh.
  47. ^ a b "Reinvigorating Communities through Renewable Energy": Report to RSE Inquiry (PDF). Westray Development Trust. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  48. ^ "About Biodiesel". Argent Energy. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  49. ^ See for example Pimentel, David and Patzek, Tad W. (2005) "Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower" Natural Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 and "Root for ethanol now" American Coalition for Ethanol Science Journal (January 2006). Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  50. ^ Martin, P.J., French, J., Wishart, J. and Cromarty, A. (2005) "Report to Westray Development Trust On Biofuel Crops Research At Orkney College During 2004/5". Agronomy Institute, Orkney College. This study indicated that in Scottish growing conditions oilseed rape provided significantly better relative yields of biodiesel than were available via ethanol from sugar beet.
  51. ^ See for example "In the mix: Iogen a long-standing forerunner in cellulosic ethanol production" Industrial Biotechnology. 2006, 2(1): 11-13. Retrieved on 26 August 2007.
  52. ^ Rhigelato, Renton, and Spracklen, D.V. (August 2007) "Carbon Mitigation by Biofuels or by Saving and Restoring Forests?" Science. Vol: 317.
  53. ^ "Westray Zero Waste Centre: Project Summary" Transformingwastescotland.org.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2007. This project was later abandoned however.
  54. ^ "Farm Biogas Plants" Greenfinch. Retrieved on 22 February 2007.
  55. ^ a b c "Promoting and Accelerating the Market Penetration of Biomass Technology in Scotland". Scottish Executive Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  56. ^ a b Royal Society of Edinburgh (June 2006) Inquiry into Energy Issues for Scotland. Final Report. Edinburgh. RSE.
  57. ^ "Biomass Energy". Highland and Islands Enterprise. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  58. ^ "Biomass fuels Related to forestry and agriculture". Macauley Institute. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  59. ^ "Advice on micro-renewables" (11 November 2006). Scottish Executive press release. Retreived on 31 August 2007.
  60. ^ "Case Study: Dochas Gallery, Lochgilphead" (PDF). HICEC. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  61. ^ "Renewables". Changeworks. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  62. ^ "Caithness Heat and Power". Caithness.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  63. ^ "Communities' spirits are high with sportscotland funding". Sportscotland. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  64. ^ "Solar electricity". Energy Saving Trust. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  65. ^ Talbott, John. (1993) Simply Build Green. Moray. Findhorn Foundation.
  66. ^ "Scottish Renewables Economics Impact Report 07" (PDF). Scottish Renewables Forum Limited. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  67. ^ "Scotland's largest Sun Energy system installed in Western Isles" (2 November 2004) Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Press release. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  68. ^ "Geothermal Energy". John Gilbert Architects. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  69. ^ "Ground Source". SEPA. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  70. ^ a b c d McLoughlin, Nicola (12 July 2006) "Geothermal Heat in Scotland". (PDF). Edinburgh. Scottish Executive. SPICe briefing 06/54. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  71. ^ See for example: "Wind Power: Your questions answered" (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
  72. ^ Gibson, Mike (19 January 2007) "Neutral Grounds". Sheffield. New Start.
  73. ^ See for example Hamilton, Alan (29 January 2007) "Efforts at an ecological code upset by trains, planes and automobiles". London. The Times, and Swinford, Steven (21 January 2007) "G8 summit 'carbon offset' was hot air" London. Sunday Times. Retrieved 31 August 2007
  74. ^ Monbiot (2006) op cit page 210 states "I will not attempt to catalogue the land seizures, conflicts with local people, double counting and downright fraud that has attended some of these schemes" and points to other sources which do so.
  75. ^ Taylor, Peter (August 2005) "Carbon offsets, local renewables and nature conservation – realising the links" (PDF) In Carbon and Conservation ECOS - Quarterly Review of the British Association of Nature Conservationists. Volume 26 No.2. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  76. ^ Page, Alan C. "CO2 Recovery in Managed Forests: Options for the Next Century". Prodigy.net. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  77. ^ "Sequestration science is far ahead of needed policy". (8 September 2006) MIT Technology Review. Retrieved on 24 June 2007. The report notes that the Sleipner natural gas field has been successfully sequestering carbon dioxide underground for 10 years.
  78. ^ David Brockway, Chief of the Energy Technology Division, CSIRO, quoted by Crikey.com.au Retrieved on 20 February 2007.
  79. ^ "Myths and facts of "clean coal" technologies". Greenpeace. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  80. ^ Doosan Babcock Energy Limited (aka 'Mitsui Babcock') based in Renfrew (and elsewhere in the UK) have conducted research into the clean coal concept e.g. "Clean Coal Technology and the Energy Review". Mitsui Babcock. Retrieved on 2007-02-10., and recently secured a contract with Scottish and Southern Energy plc for the retrofit installation of a 'supercritical clean coal boiler' in a 500 MW power station at Ferrybridge in England. Such a boiler is one part of a clean coal approach and it could save up to 500,000 tonnes (551,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide a year compared to current performance.
  81. ^ "Carbon capture-ready clean coal power". The Engineer online (31 May 2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  82. ^ "Renewables in Global Energy Supply" fact sheet (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  83. ^ "History of Support for Renewable Energy in Germany" in "Renewable Energy Policy in Germany: An Overview and Assessment". The Joint Global Change Research Institute. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  84. ^ Cohen, Bernard. Facts from Cohen and others: How long will nuclear energy last?. Retrieved on 2007-04-06. Extract from "Breeder reactors: A renewable energy source". American Journal of Physics, vol. 51, (1), Jan. 1983.
  85. ^ "Minister declares nuclear 'renewable' ". Powerswitch.org, quoting The Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  86. ^ "Shetland Heat Energy & Power Ltd.". Shetland Heat Energy & Power Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  87. ^ EPR Policies and Product Design: Economic Theory and Selected Case Studies" - ENV/EPOC/WGWPR(2005)9/FINAL (PDF) (2005) EU Working Group on Waste Prevention and Recycling. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  88. ^ Romm, J.R. (2004) The Hype About Hydrogen. London. Island Press.
  89. ^ "Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Map". Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association Ltd. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  90. ^ PURE project. Pure Energy Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  91. ^ Harrell, E. (20 June 2006) "Waste plant set to become green fuel factory for islands". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  92. ^ "Hydrogen research shows Scots heading in right direction". (28 August 2005) The Sunday Herald. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  93. ^ "Hydrogen Handling Materials". ITI Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  94. ^ There are ongoing attempts to keep the project alive - see for example Perry, David (25 May 2007) "Last-ditch fight on to save green gas project". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  95. ^ Murray, W.H. (1966) The Hebrides. London. Heinemann. Page 232. Murray was born in 1913 and his use of the masculine may seem inappropriate now, although the harsh climate and lack of employment opportunities are very much an issue in the 21st century. See for example Ross, David (8 February 2007) "Western Isles set to pay its women to stay". The Herald. This report notes the local council's concerns about the long term decline in the population of women of child bearing age.
  96. ^ Johnston, Ian (6 February 2007) "Scotland sits at a green crossroads". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  97. ^ See for example: Energy4All Ltd. (2006) Empowering Communities: A Step By Step Guide to Financing A Community Renewable Energy Project. Inverness. HICEC
  98. ^ What's Your View on Wild Land? (2006) John Muir Trust. Pitlochry. See also "John Muir Trust responses to issues". John Muir Trust. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  99. ^ For example, a small-scale scheme proposed by North Harris development trust has been supported by the John Muir Trust, but opposed by Scottish Natural Heritage. The objection "caused outrage" and was withdrawn in September 2007. See Ross, David, (04 September 2007) "Heritage body in U-turn over island wind farm". Glasgow. The Herald.
  100. ^ Perry, David (22 November 2006) "Backing for North Sea Super-Grid plans". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  101. ^ Dinning, R. J. (2006) "A response to the Scottish National Party Energy Review". (Microsoft Word document) London. Energy Institute. Retrieved 31 August 2007. This report notes "we are aware this topic has been contentious amongst Scottish generators and apparently perverse in that it acts against renewable energy in the remote areas where it is most abundant (the same is true for shore access to areas in which CO2 might be stored). However we have to observe the engineering logic surrounding the current regime – that generation be encouraged to deploy in areas, which avoid the wasted energy incurred in transmission losses". Nonetheless, Scottish Power have expressed concern that the current regime penalises the adoption of renewables.
  102. ^ Akildade, Anthony (11 February 2007) "Osborne steps into row over green targets". Glasgow. Sunday Herald. This article outlines fears that subsidies for renewables will be targeted at offshore wind "which is more viable in England" than in Scotland where the technology "has yet to prove itself" because of the deeper waters off the coasts.
  103. ^ Chambers, N. et al (2004) Scotland’s Footprint. Oxford. Best Foot Forward.
  104. ^ "The Ecological Footprint: A resource accounting framework for measuring human demand on the biosphere". European Environment Agency. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  105. ^ Global biocapacity averages 1.8 global hectares per person (excluding biodiversity considerations). Chambers (2004) op cit. Thus the UK is more typical than Scotland, which although having a high level of consumption, is relatively thinly populated.
  106. ^ See for example, Lowson, Mike (4 June 2007). "Halting the rush to blight Scotland's scenic landscape". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  107. ^ "Angus To Join Moray In Green Energy Initiative". (27 January 2007) Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  108. ^ Peter Martin; Geoff Sellers and John Wishart. "Short Rotation Coppice:A potential biomass crop for the Highlands and Islands of Scotland" (PDF). Orkney College. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  109. ^ "UK wind power portfolio reaches new milestone: UK becomes 7th country in world to install over 2 gigawatts of wind energy". British Wind Energy Association (February 7, 2007) BWEA News press release. Retrieved on 15 February 2007.
  110. ^ a b Johnston, Ian (20 April 2007). "Biggar and better as Lanarkshire town bids to be Scotland's first carbon-neutral community" Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 27 April 2007.
  111. ^ Dalton, Alistair (18 May 2007). " 'Dinosaur' power stations in line for £1bn green revamp". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  112. ^ "Crop energy power plan unveiled". BBC online (July 19, 2007). Retrieved on 27 July 2007.
  113. ^ Schofield, Kevin (22 June 2007). "Scotland could be ‘world leader’ in fighting climate change". Glasgow. The Herald. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  114. ^ Johnston, Ian (27 July 2007). " 'Mad' fines of £200,000 jeopardise Scots green energy sector". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 27 July 2007.
  115. ^ "Revealed: cover-up plan on energy target". London. Guardian Unlimited (13 August 2007). Retrieved on 13 August 2007.
  116. ^ "Green energy excellence to be rewarded": John Swinney announces Saltire Prize Hi-Energy (15 August 2007) Press release. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  117. ^ Delivering the New Generation of Energy (PDF). Scottish Renewables. ISBN 0-95533750-05 Retrieved on 6 April 2007.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Hutchi(n)son Murray (18 March 1913 - 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish mountain climbers, mainly from Clydeside, before and just after World War II. // Murray did much of his most influential climbing in the period just before WW2. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Renfrew (Rinn Friù in Scottish Gaelic) is a small town and former royal burgh in the Renfrewshire region of Scotland (see main article on the town of Renfrew, Scotland). ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ... Development trusts are organisations which operate in the United Kingdom that are: - community based, owned and led - engaged in the economic, environmental and social regeneration of a defined area or community - independent but seek to work in partnership with other private, voluntary and public sector organisations - self-sufficient or aiming... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

External links

  • Scottish Renewables Forum
  • Scottish Sustainable Development Forum
  • European Marine Energy Centre - EMEC
  • PURE
  • Use Wood Fuel
  • How are we doing on renewables? - BBC News

 
 

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