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Encyclopedia > Renewable energy

Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, and hydroelectricity to biomass and biofuels for transportation. About 13 percent of primary energy comes from renewables, with most of this coming from traditional biomass like wood-burning. Hydropower is the next largest source, providing 2-3%, and modern technologies like geothermal, wind, solar, and marine energy together produce less than 1% of total world energy demand.[1] The technical potential for their use is very large, exceeding all other readily available sources.[2] Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Tidal power is a means of electricity generation achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Ultraviolet imaging provides a dramatic sense of the Suns radiant energy resources. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass _ recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... Firewood, stacked to dry Bags of firewood logged from the Barmah Forest in Victoria Wood fuel is wood used as fuel. ...

Renewable energy sources worldwide in 2005 (2004 for items marked * or **). Off-grid electric and ground source heat pumps not included. Source: REN21[3]

Renewable energy technologies are sometimes criticised for being unreliable or unsightly, yet the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Wind power has a worldwide installed capacity of 74,223 MW and is widely used in several European countries and the USA.[4] The manufacturing output of the photovoltaics industry reached more than 2,000 MW per year in 2006,[5] and PV power plants are particularly popular in Germany.[6] Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.[7] The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW.[8] Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel.[9] Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x705, 18 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy World energy resources and consumption ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x705, 18 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy World energy resources and consumption ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... Several large photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. ... Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar power for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. ... Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) operates nine solar power plants which use parabolic trough solar thermal electric technology along with natural gas to generate electricity in the Mojave Desert. ... Extent of Mojave Desert. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ... Information on pump, California. ...


While there are many large-scale renewable energy projects, renewable technologies are also suited to small off-grid applications, sometimes in rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.[10] Kenya has the world's highest household solar ownership rate with roughly 30,000 small (20-100 watt) solar power systems sold per year.[11] A Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) is a system that provides electricity in remote locations, without requiring connection to an electricity distribution system. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices, peak oil and increasing government support are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. EU leaders reached agreement in principle in March that 20 percent of the bloc's energy should be produced from renewable fuels by 2020, as part of its drive to cut emissions of carbon dioxide, blamed in part for global warming. [12] Investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in 2006.[13] Some very large corporations such as BP, GE, Sharp, and Shell are investing in the renewable energy sector.[14][15] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Crude oil prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) U.S. Retail Gasoline prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day (black) and 2006 dollars (orange). ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... “GE” redirects here. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ...


The U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries created jobs for 8.5 million people in 2006, while generating more than a trillion dollars in sales, $100 billion in profits, and $150 billion in increased federal, state, and local government tax revenues, according to a new report from the American Solar Energy Society (ASES). The report notes that it's difficult to define the energy efficiency industry, but even focusing on the renewable energy industry, it found 196,000 people directly employed by the industry, a total of 452,000 jobs created, and revenues of $39.2 billion in 2006. [16]

Contents

Scenarios

Looking forward to 2030, the American Solar Energy Society report examines three scenarios: a "business as usual" scenario, with no major policy changes; a moderate scenario that includes incremental policy advances; and an advanced scenario of aggressive growth in renewable energy and energy efficiency.


In the "business as usual" scenario, the jobs created by renewable energy increase 190% by 2030, while jobs created by energy efficiency increase by 85%.


In the moderate scenario, the jobs created by renewable energy increase nearly 7-fold, while jobs created by energy efficiency more than double.


And in the advanced scenario, the jobs created by renewable energy increase 17-fold, while jobs created by energy efficiency quadruple. In the advanced scenario, renewable energy revenues increase to nearly $600 billion, while energy efficiency revenues increase to almost $4 trillion. [17] In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ...

Renewable energy
Environmental technology
Environmental science

For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Ultraviolet imaging provides a dramatic sense of the Suns radiant energy resources. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Air Pollution#Control devices. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by mans industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... The international recycling symbol. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ...

Main renewable energy technologies

Three energy sources
Three energy sources

The majority of renewable energy technologies are directly or indirectly powered by the sun. The Earth-Atmosphere system is in equilibrium such that heat radiation into space is equal to incoming solar radiation, the resulting level of energy within the Earth-Atmosphere system can roughly be described as the Earth's "climate." The hydrosphere (water) absorbs a major fraction of the incoming radiation. Most radiation is absorbed at low latitudes around the equator, but this energy is dissipated around the globe in the form of winds and ocean currents. Wave motion may play a role in the process of transferring mechanical energy between the atmosphere and the ocean through wind stress.[18] Solar energy is also responsible for the distribution of precipitation which is tapped by hydroelectric projects, and for the growth of plants used to create biofuels. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3222x2280, 872 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3222x2280, 872 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains: Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ... Geothermal heating is a method of heating and cooling a building. ... The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ...

"Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources." [19]

Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence how and where they are used.


Wind power

Main article: Wind power
Offshore wind turbines near Copenhagen
Offshore wind turbines near Copenhagen

Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600kW to up to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines, with rated output of 1.5-3 MW, have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically.[20] Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. An example of a wind turbine. ... Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ...


Wind power is the fastest growing of the renewable energy technologies,[20] though it currently provides less than 0.5% of global energy.[3][1] Over the past decade, global installed maximum capacity increased from 2,500 MW in 1992 to just over 40,000 MW at the end of 2003, at an annual growth rate of near 30%.[20] As wind power has become more prominent and viable, several public schools are incorporating sustainable wind power into the energy grid of their school in order to cut power costs.[21] Due to the intermittency of wind resources, most deployed turbines in the EU produce electricity an average of 25% of the hours in a year (a capacity factor of 25%),[22] but under favourable wind regimes some reach 35% or higher. Capacity factors are a function of seasonal wind fluctuations and may be higher in winter. It would mean that a typical 5 MW turbine in the EU would have an average output of 1.7 MW. Intermittent power sources are sources of power generation, primarily electricity, whose power output is either variable or intermittent. ...


Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require large amounts of land to be utilized for wind turbines, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy.[23] This number could also increase with higher altitude ground-based or airborne wind turbines.[24]


Wind strengths near the Earth's surface vary and thus cannot guarantee continuous power unless combined with other energy sources or storage systems. Some estimates suggest that 1,000 MW of conventional wind generation capacity can be relied on for just 333 MW of continuous power. While this might change as technology evolves, advocates have suggested incorporating wind power with other power sources, or the use of energy storage techniques, with this in mind. It is best used in the context of a system that has significant reserve capacity such as hydro, or reserve load, such as a desalination plant, to mitigate the economic effects of resource variability.


Wind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, such as carbon dioxide and methane. An example of a wind turbine. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


Water power

Main article: Hydropower

Energy in water (in the form of motive energy or temperature differences) can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air,[25][26] even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... The density of air, ρ (Greek: rho) (air density), is the mass per unit volume of Earths atmosphere, and is a useful value in aeronautics. ... For other uses, see Swell. ...


There are many forms of water energy:

  • Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams.
  • Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS). There are many of these installations around the world, including several delivering around 50 kW in the Solomon Islands.
  • Wave power uses the energy in waves. The waves will usually make large pontoons go up and down in the water, leaving an area with reduced wave height in the "shadow". Wave power has now reached commercialization.
  • Tidal power captures energy from the tides in a vertical direction. Tides come in, raise water levels in a basin, and tides roll out. Around low tide, the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine.
  • In November 2007, British company Lunar Energy announced that, in conjunction with E.On, they would be building the world's first tidal energy farm off the coast of Pembrokshire in Wales. it will be the world's first deep-sea tidal-energy farm and will provide electricity for 5,000 homes. Eight underwater turbines, each 25 metres long and 15 metres high, are to be installed on the sea bottom off St David's peninsula. Construction is due to start in the summer of 2008 and the proposed tidal energy turbines, described as "a wind farm under the sea", should be operational by 2010.
  • Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. Tidal stream power demonstration projects exist, and the first commercial prototype will be installed in Strangford Lough in September 2007.
  • Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between the warmer surface of the ocean and the colder lower recesses. To this end, it employs a cyclic heat engine. OTEC has not been field-tested on a large scale.
  • Deep lake water cooling, although not technically an energy generation method, can save a lot of energy in summer. It uses submerged pipes as a heat sink for climate control systems. Lake-bottom water is a year-round local constant of about 4 °C.
  • Blue energy is the reverse of desalination. This form of energy is in research.

Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Micro Hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... A Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) is a system that provides electricity in remote locations, without requiring connection to an electricity distribution system. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Strangford Lough from Portaferry, looking towards the narrows. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... Deep lake water cooling uses cold water pumped from the bottom of a lake as a heat sink for climate control systems. ... This article is about the substance or device. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Blue energy is the energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water with the use of osmosis or reverse electro dialysis (RED) with ion specific membranes. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...

Solar energy use

Main article: Solar energy
A photovoltaic (PV) module that is composed of multiple PV cells. Two or more interconnected PV modules create an array.

In this context, "solar energy" refers to energy that is collected from sunlight. Solar energy can be applied in many ways, including to: Ultraviolet imaging provides a dramatic sense of the Suns radiant energy resources. ... solar panel by BP solar at a german autobahn bridge. ... solar panel by BP solar at a german autobahn bridge. ...

A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. ... Schematic presentation of a Solar updraft tower This article is about a type of power plant. ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ... a solar oven A solar oven or solar cooker is a way of harnessing the suns power to cook food. ... Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solar Tower. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ...

Biofuel

Main article: Biofuel

Plants use photosynthesis to grow and produce biomass. Also known as biomatter, biomass can be used directly as fuel or to produce liquid biofuel. Agriculturally produced biomass fuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol and bagasse (often a by-product of sugar cane cultivation) can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers. Typically biofuel is burned to release its stored chemical energy. Research into more efficient methods of converting biofuels and other fuels into electricity utilizing fuel cells is an area of very active work. For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Bagasse (sometimes spelled bagass) is the biomass remaining after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ...


Liquid biofuel

Information on pump, California.
Information on pump, California.

Liquid biofuel is usually either a bioalcohol such as ethanol or a bio-oil such as biodiesel and straight vegetable oil. Biodiesel can be used in modern diesel vehicles with little or no modification to the engine and can be made from waste and virgin vegetable and animal oil and fats (lipids). Virgin vegetable oils can be used in modified diesel engines. In fact the Diesel engine was originally designed to run on vegetable oil rather than fossil fuel. A major benefit of biodiesel is lower emissions. The use of biodiesel reduces emission of carbon monoxide and other hydrocarbons by 20 to 40%. In some areas corn, cornstalks, sugarbeets, sugar cane, and switchgrasses are grown specifically to produce ethanol (also known as grain alcohol) a liquid which can be used in internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Ethanol is being phased into the current energy infrastructure. E85 is a fuel composed of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline that is sold to consumers. Biobutanol is being developed as an alternative to bioethanol. Image File history File links EthanolPetrol. ... Image File history File links EthanolPetrol. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... Some common lipids. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Binomial name Panicum virgatum L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ...


In the future, there might be bio-synthetic liquid fuel available. It can be produced by the Fischer-Tropsch process, also called Biomass-To-Liquids (BTL).[27] // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ...


Solid biomass

Sugar cane residue can be used as a biofuel
Sugar cane residue can be used as a biofuel

Direct use is usually in the form of combustible solids, either wood, the biogenic portion of municipal solid waste or combustible field crops. Field crops may be grown specifically for combustion or may be used for other purposes, and the processed plant waste then used for combustion. Most sorts of biomatter, including dried manure, can actually be burnt to heat water and to drive turbines. Sugar cane leaves File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sugar cane leaves File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


Sugar cane residue, wheat chaff, corn cobs and other plant matter can be, and are, burned quite successfully. The net carbon dioxide emissions that are added to the atmosphere by this process are only from the fossil fuel that is often currently consumed to plant, fertilize, harvest and transport the biomass. Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... A residue, broadly, is anything left behind by a reaction or event. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...


Processes to harvest biomass from short-rotation poplars and willows, and perennial grasses such as switchgrass, phalaris, and miscanthus, require less frequent cultivation and less nitrogen than from typical annual crops. Pelletizing miscanthus and co-firing it with coal for generating electricity is being studied and may be economically viable.[28] The higher heating value of cellulose is about 17.4 MJ/kg [1]. The estimated yield of ethanol from dry cellulose is about 0.2 kg of ethanol per kg of cellulose [2] (60 gal/ton). Since the higher heating value of ethanol is 29.7 MJ/kg of ethanol it would be 5.94 MJ/kg of the cellulose that it is made from. Thus the ethanol contains only about 1/3 as much energy as the cellulose that it was made from. Co-firing cellulose with coal would replace about three times as much fossil fuel as using the cellulose to make ethanol. The replaced coal would produce 0.0946 kg CO₂/MJ [3] while the replaced liquid fuel would produce only about 0.0733 kg CO₂/MJ so co-firing the cellulose with coal is about 3.8 times more effective at reducing CO₂ emissions than using it to make ethanol. This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 350, including: Salix alba - White Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix caprea- Goat Willow Salix caroliniana - Coastal Plain Willow Salix cinerea - Grey Sallow Salix fragilis - Crack Willow Salix herbacea - Dwarf Willow Salix lanata - Woolly Willow Salix... Binomial name Panicum virgatum L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ... For the genus of grass, see Phalaris (grass). ... Species See text. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ...


Solid biomass can also be gasified, and used as described in the next section. For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ...


Biogas

Main articles: Biogas and Anaerobic digestion

Biogas can easily be produced from current waste streams, such as: paper production, sugar production, sewage, animal waste and so forth. These various waste streams have to be slurried together and allowed to naturally ferment, producing methane gas. This can be done by converting current sewage plants into biogas plants. When a biogas plant has extracted all the methane it can, the remains are sometimes better suitable as fertilizer than the original biomass. Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ...


Alternatively biogas can be produced via advanced waste processing systems such as mechanical biological treatment. These systems recover the recyclable elements of household waste and process the biodegradable fraction in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Anaerobic digesters are used to create anaerobic, meaning without oxygen, conditions so that anaerobic bacteria can efficiently digest biomass, sewage or other organic matter. ...


Renewable natural gas is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to natural gas. By upgrading the quality to that of natural gas, it becomes possible to distribute the gas to the mass market via gas grid. Renewable natural gas is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to natural gas. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Geothermal energy

Main article: Geothermal energy
Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland

Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, usually from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core. The government of Iceland states: "It should be stressed that the geothermal resource is not strictly renewable in the same sense as the hydro resource." It estimates that Iceland's geothermal energy could provide 1700 MW for over 100 years, compared to the current production of 140 MW.[29] The International Energy Agency classifies geothermal power as renewable.[30] Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Krafla Geothermal Station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Krafla Geothermal Station. ... Krafla volcanic area Krafla is a volcanic system with a diameter of about 20 km in the north of Iceland in the Mývatn region. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ...


Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.


The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of the world such as Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total. Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. Holes at least 3 km deep are drilled into the earth. Some of these holes pump water into the earth, while other holes pump hot water out. The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks, which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the earths surface. Several companies in Australia are exploring this technology. Geothermal power technologies. ...


Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ...

Costs

Renewable energy systems encompass a broad, diverse array of technologies, and the current status of these can vary considerably. Some technologies are already mature and economically competitive (e.g. geothermal and hydropower), others need additional development to become competitive without subsidies. This can be helped by improvements to sub-components, such as electric generators. Generator redirects here. ...


The table shows an overview of costs of various renewable energy technologies. For comparison with the prices in the table, electricity production from a conventional coal-fired plant costs about 4¢/kWh.[31] Though in some G8 nations the cost can be significantly higher at 7.88p (~15¢/kWh).[32] Achieving further cost reductions as indicated in the table below requires further technology development, market deployment, and an increase in production capacities to mass production levels.[33] Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...

2001 energy costs Potential future energy cost
Electricity
Wind 4-8 ¢/kWh 3-10 ¢/kWh
Solar photovoltaic 25-160 ¢/kWh 5-25 ¢/kWh
Solar thermal 12-34 ¢/kWh 4-20 ¢/kWh
Large hydropower 2-10 ¢/kWh 2-10 ¢/kWh
Small hydropower 2-12 ¢/kWh 2-10 ¢/kWh
Geothermal 2-10 ¢/kWh 1-8 ¢/kWh
Biomass 3-12 ¢/kWh 4-10 ¢/kWh
Coal (comparison) 4¢/kWh
Heat
Geothermal heat 0.5-5 ¢/kWh 0.5-5 ¢/kWh
Biomass - heat 1-6 ¢/kWh 1-5 ¢/kWh
Low temp solar heat 2-25 ¢/kWh 2-10 ¢/kWh
All costs are in 2001 $-cent per kilowatt-hour.
Source: World Energy Assessment, 2004 update[33]

An example of a wind turbine. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria The CIS Tower, Manchester, England, was clad in PV panels at a cost of £5. ... Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass — recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... Geothermal heating is a method of heating and cooling a building. ... Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... The kilowatt-hour (symbol: kW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ...

Wind power market increase

Main article: Wind power
See also: Wind farm
Wind power: worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA
Wind power: worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA

Figures from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) show that 2006 recorded an increase in installed wind power capacity of 15,197 megawatts (MW), taking the total installed capacity to 74,223 MW, up from 59,091 MW in 2005.[4] Despite constraints facing supply chains for wind turbines, the annual market for wind continued to increase at the rate of 32% following the 2005 record year, in which the market grew by 41%.[4] In terms of economic value, the wind energy sector has become one of the important players in the energy markets, with the total value of new generating equipment installed in 2006 reaching €18 billion, or US$23 billion.[4] An example of a wind turbine. ... A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ... Image File history File links Wind_2006andprediction_en. ... Image File history File links Wind_2006andprediction_en. ... The Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) was established in 2005 to provide a credible and representative forum for the entire wind energy sector at an international level. ...


The countries with the highest total installed capacity are Germany (20,621 MW), Spain (11,615 MW), the USA (11,603 MW), India (6,270 MW) and Denmark (3,136 MW).[4] In terms of new installed capacity in 2006, the USA lead with 2,454 MW, followed by Germany (2,233 MW), India (1,840 MW), Spain (1,587 MW), China (1,347 MW) and France (810 MW).[4]


In the UK, a licence to build the world's largest offshore windfarm, in the Thames estuary, has been granted. The London Array windfarm, 12 miles off Kent and Essex, should eventually consist of 341 turbines, occupying an area of 90 square miles. This is a £1.5 billion, 1,000 megawatt project, which will power one-third of London homes. The windfarm will produce an amount of energy that, if generated by conventional means, would result in 1.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions every year. It could also make up to 10% of the Government's 2010 renewables target.[34]


New generation of solar thermal plants

The 11 megawatt PS10 solar power tower in Spain produces electricity from the sun using 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats.
The 11 megawatt PS10 solar power tower in Spain produces electricity from the sun using 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats.

Construction of the largest solar thermal power plant to be built in 15 years, in Boulder City, Nevada, is nearly complete. The 64MW Nevada Solar One power plant will generate enough power to meet the electricity needs of about 40,000 households and follows in the steps of the 354MW SEGS solar thermal power plants located in California’s Mojave Desert. While California’s solar plants have generated billions of kilowatt hours of electricity for the past two decades, the Nevada Solar One plant will use new technologies to capture even more energy from the sun.[35] This is a List of Solar thermal power stations which are operating or are under construction: Andasol 1 solar power station (Spain) Nevada Solar One (USA) PS10 solar power tower (Spain) Solar Energy Generating Systems (USA) Solar Tres Power Tower (Spain) Category: ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 455 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 455 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Europes first commercial concentrating PS10 solar power tower is operating near the sunny southern Spanish city of Seville. ... The major applications of solar thermal energy at present are heating swimming pools, heating water for domestic use, and space heating of buildings. ... Nevada Solar One is the third largest solar power plant in the world, generating 64MW, as of June 2007. ... Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) operates nine solar power plants which use parabolic trough solar thermal electric technology along with natural gas to generate electricity in the Mojave Desert. ...


The California Solar Initiative

As part of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Million Solar Roofs Program, California has set a goal to create 3,000 megawatts of new, solar-produced electricity by 2017 - moving the state toward a cleaner energy future and helping lower the cost of solar systems for consumers. This is a comprehensive $2.8 billion program.[36]


The California Solar Initiative offers cash incentives on solar PV systems of up to $2.50 a watt. These incentives, combined with federal tax incentives, can cover up to 50% of the total cost of a solar panel system.[36] There are many financial incentives to support the use of renewable energy in other US states.[37] The California Solar Initiative program pays incentives to solar photovoltaic (PV) projects in the three California Investor-Owned Utilities service territories. ...


World's largest photovoltaic power plants

Construction of a 40 MW solar generation power plant is underway in the Saxon region of Germany. The Waldpolenz Solar Park will consist of some 550,000 thin-film solar modules. The direct current produced in the modules will be converted into alternating current and fed completely into the power grid. Once completed in 2009, the project will be one of the largest photovoltaic projects ever constructed. Currently the biggest PV plant in the world has an output capacity of around 12 megawatts.[38] Building approval has been given for the Waldpolenz Solar Park, which will be the world’s biggest photovoltaic (PV) power system, at a former military air base to the east of Leipzig in Germany. ...

11 MW solar power plant near Serpa, Portugal. 38°1′51″N, 7°37′22″W

A large photovoltaic power project has been completed in Portugal. The Serpa solar power plant is located at one of Europe's sunniest areas.[39] The 11 megawatt plant covers 150 acres and is comprised of 52,000 PV panels. The panels are raised 2 metres off the ground and the area will remain productive grazing land. The project will provide enough energy for 8,000 homes and will save an estimated 30,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year.[40][41] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Solar power plant (Serpa, Portugal) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Solar power plant (Serpa, Portugal) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... Construction of the 11 megawatt Serpa solar power plant began in June 2006 and was completed as planned in January 2007. ...


A $420 million large-scale Solar power station in Victoria is to be the biggest and most efficient solar photovoltaic power station in the world. Australian company Solar Systems will demonstrate its unique design incorporating space technology in a 154MW solar power station connected to the national grid. The power station will have the capability to concentrate the sun by 500 times onto the solar cells for ultra high power output. The Victorian power station will generate clean electricity directly from the sun to meet the annual needs of over 45,000 homes with zero greenhouse gas emissions.[42] A large new Solar power station for Victoria is planned. ...


However, when it comes to renewable energy systems and PV, it is not just large systems that matter. Building-integrated photovoltaics or "onsite" PV systems have the advantage of being matched to end use energy needs in terms of scale. So the energy is supplied close to where it is needed.[43] The CIS Tower, Manchester, England, was clad in PV panels at a cost of £5. ...


Use of ethanol for transportation

Main article: Ethanol fuel

Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel. As a partial result, Brazil, which years ago had to import a large share of the petroleum needed for domestic consumption, recently reached complete self-sufficiency in oil.[44] Information on pump, California. ...


Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell “flexible-fuel” cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were approximately six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[45] The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date. Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and availability. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, which calls for 7.5 billion gallons of biofuels to be used annually by 2012, will also help to expand the market.[45] “Ford” redirects here. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds eighth largest car manufacturer. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ...


Wave farms expansion

Main article: Wave farm

Portugal now has the world's first commercial wave farm, the Aguçadora Wave Park, established in 2006. The farm will initially use three Pelamis P-750 machines generating 2.25 MW.[46][47] Initial costs are put at 8.5 million. Subject to successful operation, a further €70 million is likely to be invested before 2009 on a further 28 machines to generate 525 MW.[48] Pelamis machine pointing into the waves: it attenuates the waves, gathering more energy than its narrow profile suggests. ... Pelamis machine pointing into the waves: it attenuates the waves, gathering more energy than its narrow profile suggests. ... The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is an emerging technology that will use the motion of ocean waves to create electricity. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Funding for a wave farm in Scotland was announced in February, 2007 by the Scottish Executive, at a cost of over 4 million pounds, as part of a £13 million funding packages for ocean power in Scotland. The farm will be the world's largest with a capacity of 3MW generated by four Pelamis machines.[49] This article is about the country. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... GBP redirects here. ... Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotlands renewable energy potential. ...


Geothermal energy prospects

By the end of 2005 worldwide use of geothermal energy for electricity had reached 9.3 GWs, with an additional 28 GW used directly for heating.[3] If heat recovered by ground source heat pumps is included, the non-electric use of geothermal energy is estimated at more than 100 GWt (gigawatts of thermal power) and is used commercially in over 70 countries.([3] sec 1.2) During 2005 contracts were placed for an additional 0.5 GW of capacity in the United States, while there were also plants under construction in 11 other countries.[3] Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... A geothermal exchange heat pump, also known as a ground source heat pump (GSHP), is a heat pump that uses the Earth as either a heat source, when operating in heating mode, or a heat sink, when operating in cooling mode. ...


Future potential

While at present renewable energy sources only supply a fraction of current energy use (ca. 14% of primary energy use[50], mostly from traditional biomass), there is much potential that could be exploited in the future. As the table below illustrates, the technical potential of renewable energy sources is more than 18 times current global primary energy use and furthermore several times higher than projected energy use in 2100. Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ...

A laundromat in California with flat-plate solar water heating collectors on its roof.
A laundromat in California with flat-plate solar water heating collectors on its roof.
The Renewable Energy Resource Base (Exajoules a year)
Current use (2001) Technical potential Theoretical potential
Hydropower 9 50 147
Biomass energy 50 >276 2,900
Solar energy 0.1 >1,575 3,900,000
Wind energy 0.12 640 6,000
Geothermal energy 0.6 5,000 140,000,000
Ocean energy not estimated not estimated 7,400
Total 60 >7,600 >144,000,000
Current use is in primary energy equivalent.
For comparison, the current global primary energy use (2001) is 402 Exajoules a year.
Source: World Energy Assessment 2001[50]

There are many different ways to assess potentials. The theoretical potential indicates the amount of energy theoretically available for energy purposes, such as, in the case of solar energy, the amount of incoming radiation at the earth's surface. The technical potential is a more practical estimate of how much could be put to human use by considering conversion efficiencies of the available technology and available land area. To give an idea of the constraints, the estimate for solar energy assumes that 1% of the world's unused land surface is used for solar power. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1026x768, 1495 KB) Summary Photographed by Alan Mak on September 3rd, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1026x768, 1495 KB) Summary Photographed by Alan Mak on September 3rd, 2005. ... A laundromat in California powered by solar panels on the roof. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The joule (symbol: J) is the SI (metric) unit of energy, which is defined as the potential to do work. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... Ultraviolet imaging provides a dramatic sense of the Suns radiant energy resources. ... Energy conversion efficiency is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. ...


The technical potentials generally do not include economic or other environmental constraints, and the potentials that could be realized at an economically competitive level under current conditions and in a short time-frame is lower still.


Trends favoring renewables

The renewable market will boom when cost efficiency attains parity with other competing energy sources. The following trends are a few examples by which the renewables market is being helped to attain critical mass so that it becomes competitive enough vs fossil fuels:


Other than market forces, renewable industry often needs government sponsorship to help generate enough momentum in the market. Many countries and states have implemented incentives - like government tax subsidies, partial copayment schemes and various rebates over purchase of renewables - to encourage consumers to shift to renewable energy sources. [51] Government grants fund for research in renewable technology to make the production cheaper and generation more efficient. [52]


Development of loan programs that stimulate renewable favoring market forces with attractive return rates, buffer intial deployment costs and entice consumers to consider and purchase renewable technology. A famous example is the solar loan program sponsored by UNEP helping 100000 people finance solar power systems in India. [53] Success in India's solar program has led to similar projects in other parts of developing world like Tunisia, Morocco, Indonesia and Mexico. The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. ...


Imposition of high fossil fuel consumption / carbon taxes, and channel the revenue earned towards renewable energy development. [54] A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ...


Many think-tanks are warning that the world needs an urgency driven concerted effort to create a competitive renewable energy infrastructure and market. The developed world can make more research investments to find better cost efficient technologies, and manufacturing could be transferred to developing countries in order to use low labor costs. The renewable energy market could increase fast enough to replace and initiate the decline of fossil fuel dominance and the world could then avert the looming climate and peak oil crises. [55]


Most importantly, renewables is gaining credence among private investors as having the potential to grow into the next big industry. Many companies and venture capitalists are investing in photovoltaic development and manufacturing. This trend is particularly visible in Silicon valley, California, Europe, Japan. [56] [57] [58] For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Constraints and opportunities

Critics suggest that some renewable energy applications may create pollution, be dangerous, take up large amounts of land, or be incapable of generating a large net amount of energy. Proponents advocate the use of "appropriate renewables", also known as soft energy technologies, as these have many advantages. Soft energy technologies are not simply renewable energy technologies, as there are many renewable energy technologies which are not regarded as soft. Soft energy technologies may be seen as appropriate renewable technologies. ...


Availability

There is no shortage of solar-derived energy on Earth. Indeed the storages and flows of energy on the planet are very large relative to human needs.

  • The amount of solar energy intercepted by the Earth every minute is greater than the amount of energy the world uses in fossil fuels each year.
  • Tropical oceans absorb 560 trillion gigajoules (GJ) of solar energy each year, equivalent to 1,600 times the world’s annual energy use.
  • The energy in the winds that blow across the United States each year could produce more than 16 billion GJ of electricity—more than one and one-half times the electricity consumed in the United States in 2000.
  • Annual photosynthesis by the vegetation in the United States is 50 billion GJ, equivalent to nearly 60% of the nation’s annual fossil fuel use.

A criticism of some renewable sources is their intermittent nature. But a variety of renewable sources in combination can overcome this problem. As Amory Lovins explains: Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Look up gigajoule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Intermittent power sources are sources of power generation, primarily electricity, whose power output is either variable or intermittent. ... Amory Lovins Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947 in Washington, DC) was trained in physics and has worked professionally as an environmentalist. ...

"Stormy weather, bad for direct solar collection, is generally good for windmills and small hydropower plants; dry, sunny weather, bad for hydropower, is ideal for photovoltaics."[59]

The challenge of variable power supply may be further alleviated by energy storage. Available storage options include pumped-storage hydro systems, batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, and thermal mass. Initial investments in such energy storage systems can be high, although the costs can be recovered over the life of the system. Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Wave energy is continuously available, although wave intensity varies by season. A wave energy scheme installed in Australia generates electricity with an 80% availability factor.


Aesthetics

Both solar and wind generating stations have been criticized from an aesthetic point of view.[60] However, methods and opportunities exist to deploy these renewable technologies efficiently and unobtrusively: fixed solar collectors can double as noise barriers along highways, and extensive roadway, parking lot, and roof-top area is currently available; amorphous photovoltaic cells can also be used to tint windows and produce energy.[61] Advocates of renewable energy also argue that current infrastructure is less aethetically pleasing than alternatives, but sited further from the view of most critics.[62] A photovoltaic cell is a device that turns light into electric energy. ...


Environmental and social considerations

While most renewable energy sources do not produce pollution directly, the materials, industrial processes, and construction equipment used to create them may generate waste and pollution. Some renewable energy systems actually create environmental problems. For instance, older wind turbines can be hazardous to flying birds.[63]


Land area required

Another environmental issue, particularly with biomass and biofuels, is the large amount of land required to harvest energy, which otherwise could be used for other purposes or left as undeveloped land. However, it should be pointed out that these fuels may reduce the need for harvesting non-renewable energy sources, such as vast strip-mined areas and slag mountains for coal, safety zones around nuclear plants, and hundreds of square miles being strip-mined for oil sands. These responses, however, do not account for the extremely high biodiversity and endemism of land used for ethanol crops, particularly sugar cane. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ...


In the U.S., crops grown for biofuels are the most land- and water-intensive of the renewable energy sources. In 2005, about 12% of the nation’s corn crop (covering 11 million acres (45,000 km²) of farmland) was used to produce four billion gallons of ethanol—which equates to about 2% of annual U.S. gasoline consumption. For biofuels to make a much larger contribution to the energy economy, the industry will have to accelerate the development of new feedstocks, agricultural practices, and technologies that are more land and water efficient. Already, the efficiency of biofuels production has increased significantly[45] and there are new methods to boost biofuel production.[64]


Hydroelectric dams

The major advantage of hydroelectric systems is the elimination of the cost of fuel. Other advantages include longer life than fuel-fired generation, low operating costs, and the provision of facilities for water sports. Operation of pumped-storage plants improves the daily load factor of the generation system. Overall, hydroelectric power can be far less expensive than electricity generated from fossil fuels or nuclear energy, and areas with abundant hydroelectric power attract industry.


However, there are several major disadvantages of hydroelectric systems. These include: dislocation of people living where the reservoirs are planned, release of significant amounts of carbon dioxide at construction and flooding of the reservoir, disruption of aquatic ecosystems and birdlife, adverse impacts on the river environment, potential risks of sabotage and terrorism, and in rare cases catastrophic failure of the dam wall. (See Hydroelectricity article for details.) Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ...


Hydroelectric power is now more difficult to site in developed nations because most major sites within these nations are either already being exploited or may be unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.


Wind farms

Wind power is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of renewable energy
Wind power is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of renewable energy

A wind farm, when installed on agricultural land, has one of the lowest environmental impacts of all energy sources:[65] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 899 KB) Description: Wind turbines in Neuenkirchen, Dithmarschen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 899 KB) Description: Wind turbines in Neuenkirchen, Dithmarschen. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ...

  • It occupies less land area per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity generated than any other energy conversion system, apart from rooftop solar energy, and is compatible with grazing and crops.
  • It generates the energy used in its construction in just 3 months of operation, yet its operational lifetime is 20-25 years.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution produced by its construction are tiny and declining. There are no emissions or pollution produced by its operation.
  • In substituting for base-load coal power, wind power produces a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and a net increase in biodiversity.
  • Modern wind turbines are almost silent and rotate so slowly (in terms of revolutions per minute) that they are rarely a hazard to birds.[65]

Studies of birds and offshore wind farms in Europe have found that there are very few bird collisions.[66] Several offshore wind sites in Europe have been in areas heavily used by seabirds. Improvements in wind turbine design, including a much slower rate of rotation of the blades and a smooth tower base instead of perchable lattice towers, have helped reduce bird mortality at wind farms around the world. However older smaller wind turbines may be hazardous to flying birds.[67] Birds are severely impacted by fossil fuel energy; examples include birds dying from exposure to oil spills, habitat loss from acid rain and mountaintop removal coal mining, and mercury poisoning.[68]


Longevity issues

Though a source of renewable energy may last for billions of years, renewable energy infrastructure, like hydroelectric dams, will not last forever, and must be removed and replaced at some point. Events like the shifting of riverbeds, or changing weather patterns could potentially alter or even halt the function of hydroelectric dams, lowering the amount of time they are available to generate electricity.


Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down. It is likely that in these locations, the system was designed too large for the site, since there is only so much energy that can be stored and replenished in a given volume of earth. Some interpret this as meaning a specific geothermal location can undergo depletion.


Biofuels production

See also: Ethanol fuel energy balance

All biomass needs to go through some of these steps: it needs to be grown, collected, dried, fermented and burned. All of these steps require resources and an infrastructure. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Some studies contend that ethanol is "energy negative", meaning that it takes more energy to produce than is contained in the final product.[69] However, a large number of recent studies, including a 2006 article[70] in the journal Science offer the opinion that fuels like ethanol are energy positive. Furthermore, fossil fuels also require significant energy inputs which have seldom been accounted for in the past.


Additionally, ethanol is not the only product created during production, and the energy content of the by-products must also be considered. Corn is typically 66% starch and the remaining 33% is not fermented. This unfermented component is called distillers grain, which is high in fats and proteins, and makes good animal feed.[71] In Brazil, where sugar cane is used, the yield is higher, and conversion to ethanol is somewhat more energy efficient than corn. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production may improve yields even further.[72] Cellulosic ethanol is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. ...


According to the International Energy Agency, new biofuels technologies being developed today, notably cellulosic ethanol, could allow biofuels to play a much bigger role in the future than previously thought.[73] Cellulosic ethanol can be made from plant matter composed primarily of inedible cellulose fibers that form the stems and branches of most plants. Crop residues (such as corn stalks, wheat straw and rice straw), wood waste, and municipal solid waste are potential sources of cellulosic biomass. Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass, are also promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions of the United States.[74] The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ...


The ethanol and biodiesel production industries also create jobs in plant construction, operations, and maintenance, mostly in rural communities. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, the ethanol industry created almost 154,000 U.S. jobs in 2005 alone, boosting household income by $5.7 billion. It also contributed about $3.5 billion in tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels.[45]


Diversification

The U.S. electric power industry now relies on large, central power stations, including coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydropower plants that together generate more than 95% of the nation’s electricity. Over the next few decades uses of renewable energy could help to diversify the nation’s bulk power supply. Already, appropriate renewable resources (which excludes large hydropower) produce 12% of northern California’s electricity.[45]


Although most of today’s electricity comes from large, central-station power plants, new technologies offer a range of options for generating electricity nearer to where it is needed, saving on the cost of transmitting and distributing power and improving the overall efficiency and reliability of the system.[45]


Improving energy efficiency represents the most immediate and often the most cost-effective way to reduce oil dependence, improve energy security, and reduce the health and environmental impact of the energy system. By reducing the total energy requirements of the economy, improved energy efficiency could make increased reliance on renewable energy sources more practical and affordable.[45] Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ...


Other issues

Nuclear power

In 1983, physicist Bernard Cohen proposed that uranium could provide effectively inexhaustible energy.[75][76] Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Professor Bernard Cohen is Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Pittsburgh. ...

We thus conclude that all the world’s energy requirements for the remaining 5×109 yr of existence of life on Earth could be provided by breeder reactors without the cost of electricity rising by as much as 1% due to fuel costs. This is consistent with the definition of a “renewable” energy source in the sense in which that term is generally used.

Nuclear fusion, if developed, could have a similarly large potential and is expected to have fewer waste and waste-containment issues than fission.[77] The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...


Neither nuclear fission nor nuclear fusion are generally regarded as forms of renewable energy.[78][79]


Fossil fuels

Main article: Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels consist of deposits of once living organisms that took centuries to form. The energy comes mostly from hydrogen and carbon bonds. The non-renewability of these sources will most likely cause prices to rise up to a point where they are no longer economically feasible. This is to say that the Hubbert peak theory applies to all fossil fuels.[80] Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Renewable electricity

Renewable electricity is a term used for electricity primarily produced from the renewable resources (solar, eolic... energy). It is generally labeled as green energy. A solar trough array is an example of green energy Green energy is a term describing what is thought to be environmentally friendly sources of power and energy. ...


Transmission

If renewable and distributed generation were to become widespread, electric power transmission and electricity distribution systems might no longer be the main distributors of electrical energy but would operate to balance the electricity needs of local communities. Those with surplus energy would sell to areas needing "top ups". That is, network operation would require a shift from 'passive management' — where generators are hooked up and the system is operated to get electricity 'downstream' to the consumer — to 'active management', wherein generators are spread across a network and inputs and outputs need to be constantly monitored to ensure proper balancing occurs within the system. Some governments and regulators are moving to address this, though much remains to be done. One potential solution is the increased use of active management of electricity transmission and distribution networks. This will require significant changes in the way that such networks are operated. Distributed generation generates electricity from many small energy sources. ... Power line redirects here. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ...


However, on a smaller scale, use of renewable energy produced on site reduces burdens on electricity distribution systems. Current systems, while rarely economically efficient, have shown that an average household with an appropriately-sized solar panel array and energy storage system needs electricity from outside sources for only a few hours per week. By matching electricity supply to end-use needs, advocates of renewable energy and the soft energy path believe electricity systems will become smaller and easier to manage, rather than the opposite (see Soft energy technology). The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... Soft energy technologies are not simply renewable energy technologies, as there are many renewable energy technologies which are not regarded as soft. Soft energy technologies may be seen as appropriate renewable technologies. ...


Market development of renewable heat energy

Renewable heat is the generation of heat from renewable sources. Much current discussion on renewable energy focuses on the generation of electrical energy, despite the fact that many colder countries consume more energy for heating than as electricity. The United Kingdom consumes 350 TWh[81] of electric power, and 840 TWh of gas and other fuels for heating annually. The residential sector alone consumes a massive 550 TWh of energy for heating, mainly in the form of gas.[82] // Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy, namely the generation of heat from renewable sources. ... The terawatt hour (TW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ...


Renewable electric power is becoming cheap and convenient enough to place it, in many cases, within reach of the average consumer. By contrast, the market for renewable heat is mostly inaccessible to domestic consumers due to inconvenience of supply, and high capital costs. Heating accounts for a large proportion of energy consumption, however a universally accessible market for renewable heat is yet to emerge. Solutions such as geothermal heat pumps may be more widely applicable, but may not be economical in all cases. Also see renewable energy development. A geothermal heat pump system is a heating and/or an air conditioning system that utilizes the Earths ability to store heat in the ground and water thermal masses. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ...


See also

Energy Portal
Sustainable development Portal
Environment Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a List of large wind farms, which are operating or are under construction: Alinta Wind Farm, Western Australia (90 MW) (Australia) Altamont Pass Wind Farm (606 MW) (USA) Big Horn Wind Farm (200 MW) (USA) Brazos Wind Ranch (160 MW) (USA) Centennial Wind Farm (120 MW) (USA) Champion... This is a List of photovoltaics companies, who manufacture and/or supply solar cells and/or photovoltaic modules. ... This is a List of renewable energy topics by country: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This is a List of Solar thermal power stations which are operating or are under construction: Andasol 1 solar power station (Spain) Nevada Solar One (USA) PS10 solar power tower (Spain) Solar Energy Generating Systems (USA) Solar Tres Power Tower (Spain) Category: ... // Multibrid 5000 Prototype, north of Bremerhaven (Germany) Wakamatsu wind farm, Kitakyushu, Japan Wind turbines in Solano County, CA AAER Systems [1] (Canada) Acciona Energy [2] (Spain) AN Windenergie [3] (Germany) - bought by Siemens in 2005, now Siemens Wind Power GmbH A.Ayvazian & Associates (Iran) Bard Engineering [4](Germany) BOLTUN [5... Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... The environmental benefits of renewable energy technologies are widely recognised, but the contribution that they can make to energy security is less well known. ... The Eugene Green Energy Standard is an international standard to which national or international green electricity labelling schemes can be accredited to confirm that they provide genuine environmental benefits. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... Non-renewable energy is energy taken from finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve [1] as opposed to renewable energy sources, which are naturally replenished in a relatively short period of time. ... Several large photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. ... Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... This article includes information about renewable energies´ general legislation and incentives, by territory, not by concrete technology type. ... Soft energy technologies are not simply renewable energy technologies, as there are many renewable energy technologies which are not regarded as soft. Soft energy technologies may be seen as appropriate renewable technologies. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill, also called energy recovery. ...

References

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  2. ^ World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, chapter 7.
  3. ^ a b c d e Renewables 2006 Update
  4. ^ a b c d e f Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year
  5. ^ Solar Energy: Scaling Up Manufacturing and Driving Down Costs p. 30.
  6. ^ World's largest photovoltaic power plants
  7. ^ Solar Trough Power Plants
  8. ^ Calpine Corporation - The Geysers (http). Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  9. ^ America and Brazil Intersect on Ethanol
  10. ^ World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, p. 221.
  11. ^ What Solar Power Needs Now Renewable Energy Access, 13 August 2007.
  12. ^ news and Official EP resolution of 25 September 2007 on the Road Map for Renewable Energy in Europe
  13. ^ United Nations Environment Programme and New Energy Finance Ltd. (2007). Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries p. 3.
  14. ^ Two oil giants plunge into the wind business: Shell, BP intend to play major role
  15. ^ GE Energy
  16. ^ http://www.ases.org/ASES-JobsReport-Final.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.ases.org/ASES-JobsReport-Final.pdf
  18. ^ Renewable Energy, Sorensen, Elsevier 2004
  19. ^ Renewable energy... into the mainstream p. 9.
  20. ^ a b c EWEA Executive summary Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25. European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  21. ^ Sustainable Development Committee (2007). Sustainable Energy in our public schools
  22. ^ Potentials and costs for renewable electricity generation
  23. ^ "Offshore stations experience mean wind speeds at 80 m that are 90% greater than over land on average. Evaluation of global wind power
    "Overall, the researchers calculated winds at 80 meters [300 feet] traveled over the ocean at approximately 8.6 meters per second and at nearly 4.5 meters per second over land [20 and 10 miles per hour, respectively]." Global Wind Map Shows Best Wind Farm Locations (URL accessed January 30, 2006)
  24. ^ "High-altitude winds could provide a potentially enormous renewable energy source, and scientists like Roberts believe flying windmills could put an end to dependence on fossil fuels. At 15,000 feet, winds are strong and constant. On the ground, wind is often unreliable — the biggest problem for ground-based wind turbines." Windmills in the Sky (URL accessed January 30, 2006)
  25. ^ Richard Shelquist (18-Oct-2005). Density Altitude Calculator. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  26. ^ Water Density Calculator. CSG, Computer Support Group, Inc. and CSGNetwork.Com (Copyright© 1973 - 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  27. ^ Status And Perspectives of Biomass-To-Liquid Fuels in the European Union
  28. ^ Biomass Crops as a Source of Renewable Energy: European Experience with Miscanthus and Projections for Illinois
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  30. ^ Geodynamics says it has the "hottest rocks on earth"
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  34. ^ Windfarms to power a third of London homes
  35. ^ Largest solar power plant in a generation to be built in Nevada
  36. ^ a b The California Solar Initiative
  37. ^ Financial Incentives in the USA
  38. ^ Phase One of 40 MW German Solar Park Begun
  39. ^ Major solar power plant opens in Portugal
  40. ^ Portugal starts huge solar plant
  41. ^ World's largest solar photovoltaic power plant to be built
  42. ^ Solar Systems -- 154MW Victorian Project
  43. ^ Solar Integrated in New Jersey
  44. ^ America and Brazil Intersect on Ethanol
  45. ^ a b c d e f g American Energy: The Renewable Path to Energy Security (PDF). Worldwatch Institute (September 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  46. ^ Sea machine makes waves in Europe
  47. ^ Wave energy contract goes abroad
  48. ^ Primeiro parque mundial de ondas na Póvoa de Varzim
  49. ^ Orkney to get 'biggest' wave farm
  50. ^ a b , World Energy Assessment 2001, Chapter 5: Energy Resources (table 5.26), coordinating lead author Hans-Holger Rogner. Available for download at its UNDP site.
  51. ^ Solar incentives example - California
  52. ^ Solar nanotech research
  53. ^ Solar loan program in India
  54. ^ Is It Time for a New Tax on Energy
  55. ^ Power of green
  56. ^ Solar power shines bright in Silicon Valley
  57. ^ Betting on Solar Power
  58. ^ World events spark interest in solar cell energy start-ups
  59. ^ The fragility of domestic energy
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  61. ^ Denis Du Bois (May 22, 2006). Thin Film Could Soon Make Solar Glass and Facades a Practical Power Source. Energy Priorities. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
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  64. ^ Hyrogen injection could boost biofuel production
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  68. ^ What about offshore wind farms and birds?
  69. ^ Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower
  70. ^ Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals
  71. ^ University of Minnesota
  72. ^ Biofuels look to the next generation
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  74. ^ Industrial Biotechnology Is Revolutionizing the Production of Ethanol Transportation Fuel, pages 3-4.
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  77. ^ How Nuclear Fusion Reactors Work
  78. ^ Renewable and Alternative Fuels Basics 101
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  82. ^ Department of Trade and Industry, 2005 study on Renewable Heat (URL accessed Mar 18, 2006)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An airborne wind turbine is a design concept for a wind turbine that is supported in the air without a tower. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
  • Environmental impacts of nuclear power at EPA.gov
  • Renewable & Alternative Fuels data from Energy Information Administration (EIA).
  • Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC).
  • US Mandatory REC Markets (pdf)
  • 154MW PV power plant in Australia
  • New World Record achieved in solar cell technology
  • Wind & Renewable Power Operations
  • BBC news item: World tidal energy first for Northern Ireland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Renewable energy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5730 words)
Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, wave power, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes such as anaerobic digestion, and geothermal heat flow.
Renewable energy is a subset of sustainable energy.
Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy, namely the generation of heat from renewable sources.
Renewable Energy (283 words)
Renewable energy sources can be replenished in a short period of time.
Many important events have occurred during the history of using renewable sources to generate electricity - but the overall use of these fuels has declined by about 17 percent from their 1996 peak to about 6 quads in 2003.
The use of renewable energy is not new.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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