FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Renal failure
Renal failure
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 N17.-N19.
ICD-9 584-585
DiseasesDB 26060
MeSH C12.777.419.780.500

Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. It is divided in acute and chronic forms; either form may be due to a large number of other medical problems. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // N00-N39 - Diseases of the genitourinary system: urinary system (N00-N08) Glomerular diseases Prefixes: .2 Diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis (N00) Acute nephritic syndrome (N01) Rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome (N02) Recurrent and persistent haematuria (N03) Chronic nephritic syndrome (N04) Nephrotic syndrome Lipoid nephrosis (N05) Unspecified nephritic syndrome (N06) Isolated proteinuria with specified... // N00-N39 - Diseases of the genitourinary system: urinary system (N00-N08) Glomerular diseases Prefixes: .2 Diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis (N00) Acute nephritic syndrome (N01) Rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome (N02) Recurrent and persistent haematuria (N03) Chronic nephritic syndrome (N04) Nephrotic syndrome Lipoid nephrosis (N05) Unspecified nephritic syndrome (N06) Isolated proteinuria with specified... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Biochemically, it is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine. In the science of physiology, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. When the kidneys malfunction, problems frequently encountered are abnormal fluid levels in the body, deranged acid levels, abnormal levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, and (in the longer term) anemia. Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...

Contents

Classification

Renal failure can broadly be divided into two categories: acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease. In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ...


The type of renal failure (acute vs. chronic) is determined by the trend in the serum creatinine. Other factors which may help differentiate acute and chronic kidney disease include the presence of anemia and the kidney size on ultrasound. Long-standing, i.e. chronic, kidney disease generally leads to anemia and small kidney size. This article discusses the medical condition. ... Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize internal organs, their size, structure and their pathological lesions. ...


Acute renal failure

Main article: Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) is, as the name implies, a rapidly progressive loss of renal function, generally characterized by oliguria (decreased urine production, quantified as less than 400 mL per day in adults,[1] less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children or less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants); body water and body fluids disturbances; and electrolyte derangement. An underlying cause must be identified to arrest the progress, and dialysis may be necessary to bridge the time gap required for treating these fundamental causes. ARF can result from a large number of causes. In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Oliguria and anuria are the decreased or absent production of urine, respectively. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... A significant fraction of the human body is water. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ...


Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can either develop slowly and show few initial symptoms, be the long term result of irreversible acute disease or be part of a disease progression. There are many causes of CKD. The most common cause is diabetes mellitus. Stage 1 CKD is mildly diminished renal function, with few overt symptoms. Stage 5 CKD is a severe illness and requires some form of renal replacement therapy (dialysis or renal transplant). Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... The donor kidney is typically placed inferior of the normal anatomical location. ...


Acute on chronic renal failure

Acute renal failure can be present on top of chronic renal failure. This is called acute-on-chronic renal failure (AoCRF). The acute part of AoCRF may be reversible and the aim of treatment, as with ARF, is to return the patient to their baseline renal function, which is typically measured by serum creatinine. AoCRF, like ARF, can be difficult to distinguish from chronic renal failure, if the patient has not been monitored by a physician and no baseline (i.e., past) blood work is available for comparison. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Use of the term uremia

Before the advancement of modern medicine, renal failure was often referred to as uremic poisoning. Uremia was the term used to describe the contamination of the blood with urine. Starting around 1847, this term was used to describe reduced urine output, that was thought to be caused by the urine mixing with the blood instead of being voided through the urethra.[citation needed] The term uremia is now used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure.[2] Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ...


References

  1. ^ Klahr S, Miller S (1998). "Acute oliguria.". N Engl J Med 338 (10): 671-5. PMID 9486997.  Free Full Text.
  2. ^ Meyer TW and Hostetter, TH (2007). "Uremia". N Engl J Med 357 (13): 1316. PMID 17898101.  Full text.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Renal failure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (395 words)
Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly.
Physiologically, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.
End-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the ultimate consequence, in which case dialysis is generally required until a donor for a renal transplant is found.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Acute kidney failure (1085 words)
Renal failure - acute; Kidney failure; Kidney failure - acute; Renal failure; ARF
Acute renal failure is sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes.
Renal angiography (renal arteriography) may be used to diagnose causes within the blood vessels of the kidney.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m