FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Renaissance" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Renaissance
"The School of Athens" by Raphael
Renaissance
Topics

Architecture
Dance
Literature
Music
Painting
Philosophy
Science
Technology
Warfare New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... The term renaissance usually refers to the Renaissance, the cultural movement and time period in the History of Europe, comprising the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Modern Age, or parts of that period: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance English Renaissance Polish Renaissance... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x720, 186 KB) The School of Athens - fresco by Raffaello Sanzio (w) From the web gallery of art wga. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance Renaissance dances belong to the broad group of historical dances. ... The creation of the printing press encouraged authors to write in the local vernacular rather than in the classical languages of Greek and Latin, widening the reading audience and promoting the spread of Renaissance ideas Some famous authors of the literary movement of the Renaissance are Dante (writer of The... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... Renaissance philosophy is the period of the history of philosophy in Europe that falls roughly during the between the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and customs, spanning roughly the 14th through the 16th century. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ...

Regions

England
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Northern Europe
Poland
Spain The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ...

The Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento; Spanish: Renacimiento), was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. It encompassed the revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly and papal patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and advancements in science.[1] The Renaissance had wide-ranging consequences in all intellectual pursuits, but is perhaps best known for its artistic aspect and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who have inspired the term "Renaissance men".[2][3] The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... A cube in two-point perspective. ... “Literati” redirects here. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Renaissance Man (disambiguation). ...


There is a general — though by no means unchallenged — consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence in the fourteenth century.[4] Various theories have been proposed to explain its origin and characteristics, focusing on an assortment of factors, including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at this time including its political structure and the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici. This article is about the city in Italy. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has always been debate among historians as to the usefulness of the Renaissance as a term and as a historical age.[1] Some have called into question whether the Renaissance really was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age.[5] While nineteenth-century historians were keen to emphasise that the Renaissance represented a clear "break" from Medieval thought and practice, some modern historians have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras.[6] Indeed, it is now usually considered incorrect to classify any historical period as "better" or "worse", leading some to call for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism.[7] The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Byzantine Renaissance. Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Presentism is a mode of historical analysis in which present-day ideas and perspectives are anachronistically introduced into depictions or interpretations of the past. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... During the 12th century, the civilization of the Byzantine Empire experienced a period of intense change and development. ...

Contents

Overview

Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man shows clearly the effect writers of antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius's De architectura, da Vinci tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man.
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man shows clearly the effect writers of antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius's De architectura, da Vinci tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man.

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual enquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 441 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2258 × 3070 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 441 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2258 × 3070 pixel, file size: 5. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ...


Renaissance thinkers sought out learning from ancient texts, typically written in Latin or ancient Greek. Scholars scoured Europe's monastic libraries, searching for works of antiquity which had fallen into obscurity. In such texts they found a desire to improve and perfect their worldly knowledge; an entirely different sentiment to the transcendental spirituality stressed by medieval Christianity.[1][not in citation given] They did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life.[8] Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... ...


Artists such as Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, and to improve government on the basis of reason. In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the invention of printing, this would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible.[9] Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. ... Linear perspective is the art of representing three-dimensional constructions on a two-dimensional surface. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


The Renaissance's origins

Further information: Renaissance of the 12th century and Italian Renaissance

Most historians agree that the ideas that characterized the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri (12651321) and Francesco Petrarch (13041374), as well as the painting of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337).[10] Yet it remains unclear why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... From the c. ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ...


Assimilation of Greek and Arabic knowledge

Further information: Latin translations of the 12th century

The Renaissance was so called because it was a "rebirth" of certain classical ideas that had long been lost to Europe. It has been argued that the fuel for this rebirth was the rediscovery of ancient texts that had been forgotten by Western civilization, but were preserved in some monastic libraries and in the Islamic world, and the translations of Greek and Arabic texts into Latin.[11] Renaissance scholars such as Niccolò de' Niccoli and Poggio Bracciolini scoured the libraries of Europe in search of works by such classical authors as Plato, Cicero and Vitruvius.[12] Additionally, as the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic Moors progressed, numerous Greek and Arabic works were captured from educational institutions such as the library at Córdoba, which claimed to have 400,000 books.[13] The works of ancient Greek and Hellenistic writers (such as Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, and Plotinus) and Muslim scientists and philosophers (such as Geber, Abulcasis, Alhacen, Avicenna, Avempace, and Averroes), were imported into the Christian world, providing new intellectual material for European scholars. Image File history File links Cicero. ... Image File history File links Cicero. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Monastery of St. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Niccolò de Niccoli (1364 - 1437) was an Italian Renaissance humanist. ... This article or section should be merged with Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini Gianfrancesco (or Giovanni Francesco) Poggio Bracciolini (February 11, 1380 - October 10, 1459) was one of the most important Italian Renaissance humanists. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (ابن سينا) (c. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


Greek and Arabic knowledge were not only assimilated from Spain, but also directly from the Middle East. The study of mathematics was flourishing in the Middle East, and mathematical knowledge was brought back by crusaders in the 13th century.[14] The decline of the Byzantine Empire after 1204 - and its eventual fall in 1453 - led to an exodus of Greek scholars to the West. These scholars brought with them texts and knowledge of the classical Greek civilization which had been lost for centuries in the West.[15] This article is about the medieval crusades. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Social and political structures in Italy

A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494.
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494.

The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence. Italy did not exist as a political entity in the early modern period. Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: the kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States the center, the Genoese and the Milanese the north and west, and the Venetians the east. Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe.[16] Many of its cities stood among the ruins of ancient Roman buildings; it seems likely that the classical nature of the Renaissance was linked to its origin in the Roman Empire's heartlands.[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1629x2282, 977 KB) What: Italy about 1494 Source: Historical Atlas by William Shepherd from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1629x2282, 977 KB) What: Italy about 1494 Source: Historical Atlas by William Shepherd from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin http://www. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics, including the Republic of Florence and the Republic of Venice. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.[18] Likewise, the position of Italian cities such as Venice as great trading centres made them intellectual crossroads. Merchants brought with them ideas from far corners of the globe, particularly the Levant. Venice was Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk and jewelry. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned and individuals had more leisure time for study.[18] A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... The Levant Levant or in Arabic الشام, Ash-Shām is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ...


The Black Death

One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation caused by the Black Death in Florence (and elsewhere in Europe) resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th century Italy. Italy was particularly badly hit by the plague, and it has been speculated that the familiarity with death that this brought thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spirituality and the afterlife.[19] It has also been argued that the Black Death prompted a new wave of piety, manifested in the sponsorship of religious works of art.[20] However, this does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred specifically in Italy in the 14th century. The Black Death was a pandemic that affected all of Europe in the ways described, not only Italy. The Renaissance's emergence in Italy was most likely the result of the complex interaction of the above factors.[21] This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ...


Cultural conditions in Florence

Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts.

It has long been a matter of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have noted several features unique to Florentine cultural life which may have caused such a cultural movement. Many have emphasized the role played by the Medici family in patronizing and stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de' Medici devoted huge sums to commissioning works from Florence's leading artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti.[12] Image File history File links Lorenzo_de'_Medici-ritratto. ... Image File history File links Lorenzo_de'_Medici-ritratto. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ...


The Renaissance was certainly already underway before Lorenzo came to power, however. Indeed, before the Medici family itself achieved hegemony in Florentine society. Some historians have postulated that Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance as a result of luck, i.e. because "Great Men" were born there by chance.[22] Da Vinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo were all born in Tuscany. Arguing that such chance seems improbable, other historians have contended that these "Great Men" were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.[23] The Great man theory is a theory held by some that aims to explain history by the impact of Great men, or heroes: highly influential individuals, either from personal charisma, genius intellects, or great political impact. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ...


The Renaissance's characteristics

Humanism

Main article: Renaissance humanism

Humanism was not a philosophy per se, but rather a method of learning. In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence. Humanist education was based on the study of poetry, grammar, ethics and rhetoric. Above all, humanists asserted "the genius of man... the unique and extraordinary ability of the human mind."[24] Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... This article is about the art form. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Humanist scholars shaped the intellectual landscape throughout the early modern period. Political philosophers such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers, and applied them in critiques of contemporary government. Theologians, notably Erasmus and Martin Luther, challenged the Aristotelian status quo, introducing radical new ideas of justification and faith (for more, see Religion below). Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ...


Art

Main articles: Italian Renaissance painting, Renaissance painting, and Renaissance architecture
Raphael's School of Athens depicts illustrious contemporaries as Classical scholars, with Leonardo central as Plato.
Raphael's School of Athens depicts illustrious contemporaries as Classical scholars, with Leonardo central as Plato.

One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) is credited with first treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the writings of architects Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique.[25] The development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts (for more, see Renaissance Classicism).[26] To that end, painters also developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and, famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy. Underlying these changes in artistic method was a renewed desire to depict the beauty of nature, and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics, with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles that were to be much imitated by other artists.[27] Raphael, The Betrothal of the Virgin. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x720, 186 KB) The School of Athens - fresco by Raffaello Sanzio (w) From the web gallery of art wga. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x720, 186 KB) The School of Athens - fresco by Raffaello Sanzio (w) From the web gallery of art wga. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The painting School of Athens (italian: La scuola di Atene) its a fresco from Raphael Sanzio that shows renaissance thinkers who are situated with Greek and Roman scholars. ... Leonardo may refer to: Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer and painter Leonardo DiCaprio, an American actor In fiction: Leonardo (TMNT), fictional character in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series Leonardo Acropolis, fictional painter in Blackadder, Series Two (Money) Leonardo Leonardo, ficional character in... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian architect, engineer and one of the first architects to be associated with the Italian Renaissance in Florence. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... Leonardo may refer to: Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer and painter Leonardo DiCaprio, an American actor In fiction: Leonardo (TMNT), fictional character in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series Leonardo Acropolis, fictional painter in Blackadder, Series Two (Money) Leonardo Leonardo, ficional character in... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


Concurrently, in the Netherlands, a particularly vibrant artistic culture developed, the work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck having particular influence on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and stylistically in terms of naturalism in representation. (for more, see Renaissance in the Netherlands). Later, the work of Pieter Brueghel the Elder would inspire artists to depict themes of everyday life.[28] Hugo van der Goes (c. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Renaissance in the Netherlands coincides with a very turbulent period in the region. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ...


In architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi was foremost in studying the remains of ancient Classical buildings, and with rediscovered knowledge from the 1st century writer Vitruvius and the flourishing discipline of mathematics, formulated the Renaissance style. Brunelleschi's major feat of engineering was the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral.[29] The outstanding architectural work of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, combining the skills of Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Sangallo and Maderno. This article is about building architecture. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian architect, engineer and one of the first architects to be associated with the Italian Renaissance in Florence. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Side view of Santa Maria del Fiore. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Sangallo is the surname of a Florentine family, several members of which became distinguished in the fine arts, including: Giuliano da Sangallo (1445-1516) Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (1455?-1534), younger brother of Giuliano. ... Maderno can refer to: Carlo Maderno, Italian 17th century architect. ...


Science

The upheavals occurring in the arts and humanities were mirrored by a dynamic period of change in the sciences. Some have seen this flurry of activity as a "scientific revolution," heralding the beginning of the modern age.[30] Others have seen it merely as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day.[31] Regardless, there is general agreement that the Renaissance saw significant changes in the way the universe was viewed and the methods with which philosophers sought to explain natural phenomena.[32] Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


Science and art were very much intermingled in the early Renaissance, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. Yet the most significant development of the era was not a specific discovery, but rather a process for discovery, the scientific method.[32] This revolutionary new way of learning about the world focused on empirical evidence, the importance of mathematics, and discarding the Aristotelian "final cause" in favor of a mechanical philosophy. Early and influential proponents of these ideas included Copernicus and Galileo. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Purpose is deliberately thought-through goal-directedness. ... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht...


The new scientific method led to great contributions in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, and anatomy. With the publication of Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica, a new confidence was placed in the role of dissection, observation, and a mechanistic view of anatomy.[32] Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Andreas Vesalius (Brussels, December 31, 1514 - Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). ... The title page of the Fabrica. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ...


Religion

Alexander VI, a Borgia pope infamous for his corruption.
Main articles: Reformation and Counter-Reformation

It should be emphasized that the new ideals of humanism, although more secular in some aspects, developed against an unquestioned Christian backdrop, especially in the Northern Renaissance. Indeed, much (if not most) of the new art was commissioned by or in dedication to the Church.[8] However, the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God.[8] Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Alexander VI ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Alexander VI ... Alexander VI, né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Borja (better known by the Italian spelling of the name, Borgia) was an influential Spanish family during the Renaissance. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. The late Middle Ages saw a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy, culminating in the Western Schism, in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome.[33] While the schism was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414), the fifteenth century saw a resulting reform movement know as Conciliarism, which sought to limit the pope's power. While the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical matters by the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1511), it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI, who was accused variously of simony, nepotism and fathering four illegitimate children whilst Pope, whom he married off to gain more power.[34] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general council. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ...


Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament.[8] Indeed, it was Luther who in October 1517 published the 95 Theses, challenging papal authority and criticizing its perceived corruption, particularly with regard to its sale of indulgences. The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts. Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... The word Testament can mean more than one thing: Old Testament; contains and describes the written terms and conditions of the oral Old Covenant, between the patriarch Abram from Ur in Mesopotamia, renamed Abraham, and his descendants; and YHWH, the God of the Hebrew tribe; part of which was mediated... The 95 Theses. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Renaissance self-awareness

By the fifteenth century, writers, artists and architects in Italy were well aware of the transformations that were taking place and were using phrases like modi antichi (in the antique manner) or alle romana et alla antica (in the manner of the Romans and the ancients) to describe their work. The term "la rinascita" first appeared, however, in its broad sense in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani (The Lives of the Artists, 1550, revised 1568).[35][36] Vasari divides the age into three phases: the first phase contains Cimabue, Giotto, and Arnolfo di Cambio; the second phase contains Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello; the third centers on Leonardo da Vinci and culminates with Michelangelo. It was not just the growing awareness of classical antiquity that drove this development, according to Vasari, but also the growing desire to study and imitate nature.[37] Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, or Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori as it was originally known in Italian, is a series of artist biographies written by 16th century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered perhaps the most famous... Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... The tabernacle over the high altar of St. ... Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


The Renaissance spreads

In the 15th century the Renaissance spread with great speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe. The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local culture. In the twentieth century, scholars began to break the Renaissance into regional and national movements, including: The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...

The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... This article is about the cultural movement known as the French Renaissance. ... The Renaissance in the Netherlands coincides with a very turbulent period in the region. ... The Polish Renaissance, whose influence originated in Italy, started spreading in Poland in the 15th and 16th century. ... The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain, originating from the Italian Renaissance in Italy, that spread during the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Renaissance architecture was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence and then Rome and other parts of Italy as the result of Humanism and a revived interest in Classical architecture. ...

The Northern Renaissance

Main article: Northern Renaissance

The Renaissance as it occurred in Northern Europe has been termed the "Northern Renaissance". It arrived first in France, imported by King Charles VIII after his invasion of Italy. Francis I imported Italian art and artists, including Leonardo Da Vinci, and at great expense built ornate palaces. Writers such as François Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2777, 366 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renaissance Jan van Eyck Early Renaissance painting Early Netherlandish painting The Arnolfini portrait Giovanni Arnolfini Wikipedia:List of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2777, 366 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renaissance Jan van Eyck Early Renaissance painting Early Netherlandish painting The Arnolfini portrait Giovanni Arnolfini Wikipedia:List of... The Arnolfini Portrait (full title: Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife) is a 1434 painting by Jan van Eyck. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... Pierre de Ronsard Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 – December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... Portrait : Joachim du Bellay Joachim du Bellay (c. ... Michel Eyquem de Montaigne-Delecroix (IPA pronunciation: []) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ... François I of France - Jean and François Clouet (c. ... Jean Mouton (c. ...


In the second half of the 15th century, Italians brought the new style to Poland and Hungary. After the marriage in 1476 of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, to Beatrix of Naples, Buda became the one of the most important artistic centres of the Renaissance north of the Alps.[38] The most important humanists living in Matthias' court were Antonio Bonfini and Janus Pannonius.[38] In 1526 the Ottoman conquest of Hungary put an abrupt end to the short-lived Hungarian Renaissance. Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antonio Bonfini (1427-1503) Italian humanist and poet who spent the last years of his career as a court historian in Hungary with King Matthias Corvinus. ... Janus Pannonius (Latin: Janus Pannonius, Hungarian: János Csezmicei or Kesencei, Croatian: Ivan ÄŒesmički), was a Hungarian-Croatian humanist, poet (all in latin), diplomat and Bishop of Pécs. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


An early Italian humanist who came to Poland in the mid-15th century was Filip Callimachus. Many Italian artists came to Poland with Bona Sforza of Milano, when she married King Zygmunt I of Poland in 1518.[39] This was supported by temporarily strengthened monarchies in both areas, as well as by newly-established universities.[40] Filip Callimachus, (lat. ... Bona Sforza in her youth Bona Sforza in 1517 Bona Sforza (February 2, 1494 - November 19, 1557) was a member of the Milanese Sforza dynasty, was a queen of Poland, Grand Duchess of Lithuania, and became the second wife of Sigismund I of Poland in 1518. ... Reign From December 8, 1506 until April 1, 1548 Coronation On January 24, 1507 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Katarzyna Telniczanka Barbara Zapolya Bona Sforza Children with Katarzyna Telniczanka Jan Regina Katarzyna with Barbara Zapolya Jadwiga...


The spirit of the age spread from France to the Low Countries and Germany, and finally by the late 16th century to England, Scandinavia, and remaining parts of Central Europe. In these areas humanism became closely linked to the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, and the art and writing of the German Renaissance frequently reflected this dispute.[41] It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... “Reformation” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In England, the Elizabethan era marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, John Milton, and Edmund Spenser, as well as great artists, architects (such as Inigo Jones), and composers such as Thomas Tallis, John Taverner, and William Byrd. “Elizabethan” redirects here. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... Thomas Tallis Thomas Tallis (c 1505–23 November 1585) was an English composer. ... John Taverner (around 1490 – October 18, 1545) is regarded as the most important English composer of his era. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ...

Poznań City Hall rebuilt from the Gothic style by Giovanni Batista di Quadro (1550-1555).
Poznań City Hall rebuilt from the Gothic style by Giovanni Batista di Quadro (1550-1555).

The Renaissance arrived in the Iberian peninsula through the Mediterranean possessions of the Aragonese Crown and the city of Valencia. Early Iberian Renaissance writers include Ausiàs March, Joanot Martorell, Fernando de Rojas, Juan del Encina, Garcilaso de la Vega, Gil Vicente and Bernardim Ribeiro. The late Renaissance in Spain saw writers such as Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora and Tirso de Molina, artists such as El Greco and composers such as Tomás Luis de Victoria. In Portugal writers such as Sá de Miranda and Luís de Camões and artists such as Nuno Gonçalves appeared. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 588 KB) Town Hall of PoznaÅ„, wiev from Woźna Str. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 588 KB) Town Hall of PoznaÅ„, wiev from Woźna Str. ... Loggia of PoznaÅ„s Town Hall The PoznaÅ„ City Hall is a structure in PoznaÅ„ that was used as the citys administration building till 1939. ... Town hall, PoznaÅ„ Sign of G. B. di Quadro on town hall in PoznaÅ„ Giovanni Battista di Quadro (pol. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Ausiàs March (c. ... Joanot Martorell (1413–1468) was the Valencian author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, which is written in Valencian (Catalan). ... Fernando de Rojas (c. ... Juan del Encina (1469-c. ... Garcilaso de la Vega (c. ... Gil Vicente (c. ... Bernardim Ribeiro (1482 - 1552) was a Portuguese poet and writer. ... “Cervantes” redirects here. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Luis de Góngora, in a portrait by Diego Velázquez. ... Tirso de Molina (October, 1571 - March 12, 1648) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... Francisco de Sá de Miranda (1485-1558), pron. ... Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Nuno Gonçalves was a 15th century Portuguese artist credited for the painting of the paineis de São Vicente de Fora (Saint Vincent Panels). ...


While Renaissance ideas were moving north from Italy, there was a simultaneous southward spread of innovation, particularly in music.[42] The music of the 15th century Burgundian School defined the beginning of the Renaissance in that art and the polyphony of the Netherlanders, as it moved with the musicians themselves into Italy, formed the core of what was the first true international style in music since the standardization of Gregorian Chant in the 9th century.[42] The culmination of the Netherlandish school was in the music of the Italian composer, Palestrina. At the end of the 16th century Italy again became a center of musical innovation, with the development of the polychoral style of the Venetian School, which spread northward into Germany around 1600. Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Composer Guillaume Dufay (left) and Gilles Binchois (right), Martin le Franc, Champion des Dames The Burgundian School is a term used to denote a group of composers active in the 15th century in what is now eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, centered on the court of the Dukes of... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... San Marco in the evening. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The paintings of the Italian Renaissance differed from those of the Northern Renaissance. Italian Renaissance artists were among the first to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the purely religious art of medieval painters. At first, Northern Renaissance artists remained focused on religious subjects, such as the contemporary religious upheaval portrayed by Albrecht Dürer. Later on, the works of Pieter Bruegel influenced artists to paint scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes. It was also during the northern Renaissance that Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck perfected the oil painting technique, which enabled artists to produce strong colors on a hard surface that could survive for centuries.[43] Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... The Flemish Primitives were a group of painters active primarily in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and early 16th centuries. ... Hubert van Eyck (also Huybrecht van Eyck) (?1366 — 1426) was a Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ...


The Renaissance's historiography

Conception

It was not until the nineteenth century that the French word Renaissance achieved popularity in describing the cultural movement that began in the late 13th century. The Renaissance was first defined by French historian Jules Michelet (1798-1874), in his 1855 work, Histoire de France. For Michelet, the Renaissance was more a development in science than in art and culture. He asserted that it spanned the period from Columbus to Copernicus to Galileo; that is, from the end of the fifteenth century to the middle of the seventeenth century.[44] Moreover, Michelet distinguished between what he called, "the bizarre and monstrous" quality of the Middle Ages and the democratic values that he, as a vocal Republican, chose to see in its character.[21] A French nationalist, Michelet also sought to claim the Renaissance as a French movement.[21] The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, (1818-1897) in his Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries. He saw in the Renaissance the emergence of the modern spirit of individuality, which had been stifled in the Middle Ages.[45] His book was widely read and was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.[46] However, Buckhardt has been accused of setting forth a linear Whiggish view of history in seeing the Renaissance as the origin of the modern world.[6] Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ...


More recently, historians have been much less keen to define the Renaissance as a historical age, or even a coherent cultural movement. As Randolph Starn has put it,

Rather than a period with definitive beginnings and endings and consistent content in between, the Renaissance can be (and occasionally has been) seen as a movement of practices and ideas to which specific groups and identifiable persons variously responded in different times and places. It would be in this sense a network of diverse, sometimes converging, sometimes conflicting cultures, not a single, time-bound culture.

—Randolph Starn[6]

For better or for worse?

Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois.
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois.

Much of the debate around the Renaissance has centered around whether the Renaissance truly was an "improvement" on the culture of the Middle Ages. Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the "modern age". Burckhardt likened the change to a veil being removed from man's eyes, allowing him to see clearly. Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On the other hand, many historians now point out that most of the negative social factors popularly associated with the "medieval" period - poverty, warfare, religious and political persecution, for example - seem to have worsened in this era which saw the rise of Machiavelli, the Wars of Religion, the corrupt Borgia Popes, and the intensified witch-hunts of the 16th century. Many people who lived during the Renaissance did not view it as the "golden age" imagined by certain 19th-century authors, but were concerned by these social maladies.[47] Significantly, though, the artists, writers, and patrons involved in the cultural movements in question believed they were living in a new era that was a clean break from the Middle Ages.[35] Some Marxist historians prefer to describe the Renaissance in material terms, holding the view that the changes in art, literature, and philosophy were part of a general economic trend away from feudalism towards capitalism, resulting in a bourgeois class with leisure time to devote to the arts.[48] Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Borja (better known by the Italian spelling of the name, Borgia) was an influential Spanish family during the Renaissance. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...

In the Middle Ages both sides of human consciousness--that which was turned within as that which was turned without-- lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith, illusion, and childish prepossession, through which the world and history were seen clad in strange hues.
Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

Johan Huizinga (18721945) acknowledged the existence of the Renaissance but questioned whether it was a positive change. In his book The Waning of the Middle Ages, he argued that the Renaissance was a period of decline from the High Middle Ages, destroying much that was important.[5] The Latin language, for instance, had evolved greatly from the classical period and was still a living language used in the church and elsewhere. The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Robert S. Lopez has contended that it was a period of deep economic recession. Meanwhile George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was slowed. Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... Johan Huizinga (b. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Lynn Thorndike (1882–1965) was an American historian, born in Lynn, Massacusetts. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


James Franklin has argued that the idea of an European Renaissance around the 15th century is a myth.[49] He claims that the gap between 1453 and 1564 was in fact a period when thought declined significantly, bringing to an end a period of advance near the end of the Middle Ages. He sees the medieval Twelfth-century Renaissance as the "real, true, and unqualified renaissance", noting for example that the rediscovery of ancient knowledge, which the later Italian humanists claimed for themselves, was actually accomplished in the twelfth century. Franklin concedes that painting was an area where the Renaissance really did excel, but unfortunately, he says, the skill of the Renaissance in art covered up its incompetence at anything else. James Franklin, Australian historian of ideas and philosopher, was born in 1953 in Sydney, Australia, and educated at St. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


Historians have begun to consider the word Renaissance as unnecessarily loaded, implying an unambiguously positive rebirth from the supposedly more primitive "Dark Ages" (Middle Ages). Many historians now prefer to use the term "Early Modern" for this period, a more neutral designation that highlights the period as a transitional one between the Middle Ages and the modern era.[50] Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ...


Other Renaissances

The term Renaissance has also been used to define time periods outside of the 15th and 16th centuries. Charles H. Haskins (1870–1937), for example, made a convincing case for a Renaissance of the 12th century.[51] Other historians have argued for a Carolingian Renaissance in the eighth and ninth centuries, and still later for an Ottonian Renaissance in the tenth century.[52] Other periods of cultural rebirth have also been termed "renaissances", such as the Bengal Renaissance or the Harlem Renaissance. Charles Homer Haskins (1870-1937) was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to US President Woodrow Wilson. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Church of St Michael, Hildesheim. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... The Harlem Renaissance (also known as the Black Literary Renaissance and New Negro Renaissance) refers to the blooming of African American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. ...


References and sources

References and notes
  1. ^ a b c d Open University, Looking at the Renaissance: Defining the Renaissance (Retrieved 10-05-2007)
  2. ^ BBC Science & Nature, Leonardo da Vinci (Retrieved on May 12, 2007)
  3. ^ BBC History, Michelangelo (Retrieved on May 12, 2007)
  4. ^ P. Burke, The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries (Blackwell, Oxford 1998)
  5. ^ a b Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1919, trans. 1924)
  6. ^ a b c Randolph Starn, "Renaissance Redux" The American Historical Review Vol.103 No.1 p.124 (Subscription required for JSTOR link)
  7. ^ The Idea of the Renaissance, Richard Hooker, Washington State University Website (Retrieved on May 2, 2007)
  8. ^ a b c d Open University, Looking at the Renaissance: Religious Context in the Renaissance (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  9. ^ Open University, Looking at the Renaissance: Urban economy and government (Retrieved May 15, 2007)
  10. ^ See below, under "Sources".
  11. ^ Hugh Bibbs, The Islamic Foundation of the Renaissance, (Northwest and Pacific, 1999) (Retrieved on 10-05-2007)
  12. ^ a b Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (2003) p81-90, p172-197
  13. ^ The Islamic World to 1600, University of Calgary Website (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  14. ^ History of Medieval Mathematics University of South Australia Website (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  15. ^ History of the Renaissance, HistoryWorld (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  16. ^ Julius Kirshner, "Family and Marriage: A socio-legal perspective" Italy in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300-1550, ed. John M. Najemy (Oxford University Press, 2004) p.89 (Retrieved on 10-05-2007)
  17. ^ Jacob Burckhardt, "The Revivial of Antiquity," The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878)
  18. ^ a b Jacob Burckhardt, "The Republics: Venice and Florence," The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878)
  19. ^ For more, see Barbara Tuchman's book, A Distant Mirror
  20. ^ The End of Europe's Middle Ages: The Black Death University of Calgary website. (Retrieved on 5 April 2007)
  21. ^ a b c J. Brotton, The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction (OUP, 2006)
  22. ^ Jacob Burckhardt, "The Development of the Individual," The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878)
  23. ^ J. Stephens, "Individualism and the cult of creative personality", The Italian Renaissance (New York, 1990) pp. 121
  24. ^ As asserted by Gianozzo Manetti in On the Dignity and Excellence of Man. Cited in Clare, J, Italian Renaissance.
  25. ^ John D. Clare & Dr. Alan Millen, Italian Renaissance (London, 1994) p14
  26. ^ David G. Stork, Optics and Realism in Renaissance Art (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  27. ^ Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, trans. George Bull, Penguin Classics,(1965), ISBN 0-14-044-164-6
  28. ^ Peter Brueghel Biography, Web Gallery of Art (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  29. ^ Richard Hooker, Architecture and Public Space (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  30. ^ Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800, p. viii
  31. ^ Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1996), p. 1.
  32. ^ a b c J. Brotton, "Science and Philosophy", The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2006)
  33. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Western Schism (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  34. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Alexander VI (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  35. ^ a b Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art, (New York: Harper and Row, 1960)
  36. ^ The Open University Guide to the Renaissance, Defining the Renaissance (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  37. ^ Philip Sohm, Style in the Art Theory of Early Modern Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
  38. ^ a b Lóránt Czigány, A History of Hungarian Literature, "The Renaissance in Hungary" (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  39. ^ History of Poland on Polish Government's website (Retrieved on April 4-2007)
  40. ^ For example, the re-establishment of Jagiellonian University in 1400.
  41. ^ Review of Lewis Spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Review by Gerald Strauss, English Historical Review, Vol. 80, No. 314, p.156. Available on JSTOR (subscription required).
  42. ^ a b Paul Henry Láng, "The So Called Netherlands Schools," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1. (Jan., 1939), pp. 48-59. (Subscription required for JSTOR link.)
  43. ^ Painting in Oil in the Low Countries and Its Spread to Southern Europe, Metropolitan Museum of Art website. (Retrieved April 5-2007)
  44. ^ Jules Michelet, History of France, trans. G. H. Smith (New York: D. Appleton, 1847)
  45. ^ Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. S.G.C Middlemore, London, 1878)
  46. ^ Peter Gay, Style in History. (New York: Basic Books 1974).
  47. ^ Savonarola's popularity is a prime example of the manifestation of such concerns. Other examples include Phillip II of Spain's censorship of Florentine paintings, noted by Edward L. Goldberg, "Spanish Values and Tuscan Painting", Renaissance Quarterly (1998) p.914
  48. ^ Renaissance Forum at Hull University, Autumn 1997 (Retrieved on 10-05-2007)
  49. ^ Franklin , J., "The Renaissance myth", Quadrant 26 (11) (Nov, 1982), 51-60. (Retrieved on-line at 06-07-2007)
  50. ^ S. Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (University of Chicago Press, 1980)
  51. ^ Charles Homer Haskins. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927).
  52. ^ Jean Hubert. L’Empire Carolingien (English: The Carolingian Renaissance, Translated by James Emmons (New York: G. Braziller, 1970).

is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Johan Huizinga (b. ... The Autumn of the Middle Ages, or The Waning of the Middle Ages, (published in 1919 as Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen and translated into English in 1924) is the best-known work by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) was a German art historian and essayist often credited with the founding of the academic iconography. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, ca 1498 Girolamo Savonarola (September 21, 1452–May 23, 1498), also translated as Jerome Savonarola or Hieronymous Savonarola, was a Dominican priest and, briefly, ruler of Florence, who was known for religious reformation and anti-Renaissance preaching and his book burning and destruction of... Philip II of Spain (1527 – September 13, 1598), King of Spain (r. ... The University of Hull, also known as Hull University, is an English university in East Yorkshire which was founded in 1927. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering...

Sources

Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... Charles Homer Haskins (1870-1937) was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to US President Woodrow Wilson. ... Johan Huizinga (b. ... The Autumn of the Middle Ages, or The Waning of the Middle Ages, (published in 1919 as Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen and translated into English in 1924) is the best-known work by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. ... Paul Strathern (1940-) is a British writer and academic. ... Lynn Thorndike (1882–1965) was an American historian, born in Lynn, Massacusetts. ... Roberto Weiss in Rome with his sister Roberto Weiss (21 January 1906–9 August 1969), Italian-British scholar, specialist in Italian-English cultural contacts during the period of Renaissance period and Renaissance humanism. ...

See also

Internal Links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... This is a list of notable people associated with the Renaissance. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... “Reformation” redirects here. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... The Renaissance, inspired by the rediscovery of the philosophy and art of the Classical period, was also a new dawn for homoerotic expression. ... In the history of ideas, the continuity thesis is the hypothesis that there was no radical discontinuity between the intellectual development of the high Middle Ages, and the developments in the Renaissance and early modern period. ...

External links

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Romantics redirects here. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso, 1910 Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas by Juan Gris Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas by Juan Gris Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... The Neue Künstlervereinigung München, abbreviated NKVM, (German:Munich New Artists Association) formed in 1909 in Munich. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Max Ernst. ... Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Exhibits Collection -- Renaissance (118 words)
"Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly describes the intellectual and economic changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries.
Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions.
Join us as we explore the Renaissance and discover the forces that drove this rebirth in Europe, and in Italy in particular.
WebMuseum: La Renaissance (1448 words)
The term Renaissance, adopted from the French equivalent of the Italian word rinascita, meaning literally "rebirth," describes the radical and comprehensive changes that took place in European culture during the 15th and 16th centuries, bringing about the demise of the Middle Ages and embodying for the first time the values of the modern world.
The term Renaissance, describing the period of European history from the early 14th to the late 16th century, is derived from the French word for rebirth, and originally referred to the revival of the values and artistic styles of classical antiquity during that period, especially in Italy.
The later Renaissance was marked by a growth of bureaucracy, an increase in state authority in the areas of justice and taxation, and the creation of larger regional states.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m