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Encyclopedia > Remediation
Environmental science
Environmental technology

Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. In this article, the term refers to the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. Remediation is generally subject to an array of regulatory requirements, and also can be based on assessments of human health and ecological risks where no legislated standards exist or where standards are advisory. jecca is very beautiful!! Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related due to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Environmental technology is the subset of technologies concerned with preserving the natural environment by recycling waste products produced by human activities. ... Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. ... Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins). ...   The Recycling symbol. ... The international symbol for recycling. ... Sewage Treatment Plant used to create the Wonga Wetlands Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes which treat and remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants from water following human use. ... Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption. ... Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes, and geothermal heat flow. ... A remedy is the solution or amelioration of a problem or difficulty. ... Water pollution Pollution is the release of chemical, physical, biological or radioactive contaminants to the environment. ... Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ...


Remediation in terms of new media, is the representation of one medium in another (Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin 1999). New Media is a relatively new field of study that has developed around cultural practices with the computer playing a central role as the medium for production, storage and distribution. ...

Contents

 


Remediation standards

In the USA the most comprehensive set of Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) is from the EPA Region 9, although the Canadian EPA also has a comprehensive spreadsheet of PRG's. A set of standards used in Europe exist and is often called the Dutch standards. The European Union (EU) is rapidly moving towards European wide standards, although most of the industrialised nations in Europe have their own standards at present EPA redirects here. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Dutch Standard reference values for environmental investigation, clean up and remediation. ...


Site assessment

Once a site is suspected of being contaminated there is a need to assess the contamination. The historical use of the site and the materials used and produced on site will guide the assessment strategy and type of sampling and chemical testing to be done. Often nearby sites owned by the same company or which are nearby and have been reclaimed, levelled or filled are also contaminated even where the current land use seems innocuous. For example, a car park may have been levelled by using contaminated waste in the fill. Also important is to consider off site contamination or nearby sites often through decades of emissions to soil, groundwater, and air. Ceiling dust, topsoil, surface and groundwater of nearby properties should also be tested, both before and after any remediation. This is a controversial step as: A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... Sampling may refer to: Digital sampling of audio Sampling (information theory) Sampling (music) Sampling (signal processing) Sampling (statistics) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... In civil engineering, a Fill is an artificial ridge or dam of earth or gravel constructed to support a prepared right-of-way such as a railroad or highway across a valley or depression. ... Soil is the material on the surface of a lithosphere subject to weathering, and especially the earthy portion of that material. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ...

  1. No one wants to have to pay for the clean up of the site;
  2. If nearby properties are found to be contaminated it may have to be noted on their property title, potentially affecting the value;
  3. No one wants to pay for the cost of assessment.

Often corporations which do voluntary testing of their sites are protected from the reports to environmental agencies becoming public under Freedom of Information Acts, however a Freedom Of Information inquiry will often produce other documents that are not protected or will produce references to the reports. // Use of the term In common usage, property means ones own thing and refers to the relationship between individuals and the objects which they see as being their own to dispense with as they see fit. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ...


Funding remediation

In the US there has been a mechanism for taxing polluting industries to form a Superfund to remediate abandoned sites, or to litigate to force corporations to remediate their contaminated sites. Other countries have other mechanisms and commonly sites are rezoned to "higher" uses such as high density housing, to give the land a higher value so that after deducting clean up costs there is still an incentive for a developer to purchase the land, clean it up, redevelop it and sell it on, often as apartments (home units). A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ...


Remediation technologies

Remediation technologies are many and varied. The more traditional remediation approach (used almost exclusively on contaminated sites from the 1970s to the 1990s) consists primarily of soil excavation and disposal (through thermal desorption), and groundwater "pump and treat". The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Excavation or dredging

"Excavation" processes can be as simple as hauling the contaminated soil to a regulated disposal site, but can also involve aerating the excavated material in the case of volatile organic contaminants. If the contamination affects a river or bay bottom, then dredging of bay mud or other silty clays containing contaminants may be conducted. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ...


Pump and Treat

"Pump and treat" involves pumping out contaminated groundwater with the use of a submersible or vacuum pump, and allowing the extracted groundwater to be purified by slowly proceeding through a series of vessels that contain materials designed to adsorb the contaminants from the groundwater. For petroleum impacted sites this material is usually activated carbon in granular form. Chemical reagents such as flocculants and sand filters may also be used to decrease the contamination of groundwater. Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption. ... Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... A flocculant is a chemical which causes the particles in a colloidal dispersal to clump together and form flocs. Flocculants are commonly used to facilitate the removal by filtration of particles of impurity from a liquid which would otherwise be too fine to be caught by a filter. ... A sand filter is a basic tool water purification. ...


Depending on geology and soil type, "pump and treat" may be a good method to quickly reduce high concentrations of pollutants. It is more difficult to reach sufficiently low concentrations to satisfy remediation standards, due to the equilibrium of absorption/desorption processes in the soil. The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ...


In Situ Oxidation

New "in situ oxidation" technologies have become popular, for remediation of a wide range of soil and groundwater contaminants. Remediation by chemical oxidation involves the injection of strong oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone gas, potassium permanganate or persulfates. An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is an inorganic chemical compound composed of potassium (K+) and permanganate (MnO4−) ions. ...


Oxygen gas or ambient air can also be injected as a more mild approach. One disadvantage of this approach is the possibility of less contaminant destruction by natural attenuation if the bacteria which normally live in the soil prefer a reducing environment. The injection of gases into the groundwater may also cause contamination to spread faster than normal depending on the site's hydrogeology. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Attenuation is the decrease of the amount, force, magnitude, or value of something. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of rocks) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust (commonly in aquifers). ...


Soil Vapor Extraction

Soil vapor extraction and oxidation (or incineration) can also be an effective remediation technology. This approach is somewhat controversial because of the risks of dioxins released in the atmosphere through the exhaust gases. Controlled, high temperature incineration with filtering of exhaust gases however should not pose any risks. Two different technologies can be employed to oxidize the contaminants of an extracted vapor stream. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Structure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) Dioxin is the popular name for the family of halogenated organic compounds, the most common consisting of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... The word exhaust can mean:- A verb meaning tire out, as in After the long gallop, his horse was exhausted. ...

  1. thermal oxidation which uses a system that acts as a furnace and maintains temperatures ranging from 1350°F to 1500°F (730°C-815°C).
  2. catalytic oxidation which uses a catalyst on a support to facilitate a lower temperature oxidation. This system usually maintains temperatures ranging from 600°F to 800°F (315°C-430°C).

Thermal oxidation is more useful for higher concentration influent vapor streams(which require less natural gas usage) than catalytic oxidation. In chemistry, a catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytēs) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) or ease of a chemical reaction (see also catalysis) without itself being changed at the end of the chemical reaction. ...


For low level concentrations, extracted vapors can also be treated by allowing them to flow through a series of vessels designed for vapor flow. These vessels contain materials designed to adsorb the contaminants from the vapors. The adsorbant is usually activated carbon in granular form. Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Other Technologies

The treatment of environmental problems through biological means is known as bioremediation and the specific use of plants for example by using phytoremediation. Bioremediation is sometimes used in conjunction with a pump and treat system. In bioremediation, either naturally occurring or specially bread bacteria are used to consume contaminants from extracted groundwater. This is sometimes referred to as a bio-gac system. Many times the groundwater is recycled to allow for continuously flowing water and enhanced bacteria population growth. Occasionally the bacteria can build up to such a point that they can affect filtration and pumping. The vessel should then be partially drained. Care must be taken to ensure that a sharp change in the groundwater chemistry does not kill the bacteria (such as a sudden change in pH). Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants. ... The title of this article should be pH. The initial letter is capitalized due to technical restrictions. ...


Dual-phase extraction utilizes a soil vapor extraction system that produces a high vacuum resulting in the extraction of both contaminated vapors as well as a limited amount of contaminated groundwater. This method is somewhat inefficient due to large amount of energy required by pulling water by vacuum compared to pushing water with a submersible pump.


Community consultation and information

In preparation for any significant remediation there should be extensive community consultation. The proponent should both present information to and seek information from the community. The proponent needs to learn about "sensitive" (future) uses like childcare, schools, hospitals, and playgrounds as well as community concerns and interests information. Consultation should be open, on a group basis so that each member of the community is informed about issues they may not have individually thought about. An independent chairperson acceptable to both the proponent and the community should be engaged (at proponent expense if a fee is required). Minutes of meetings including questions asked and the answers to them and copies of presentations by the proponent should be available both on the internet and at a local library (even a school library) or community centre.


Incremental health risk

Incremental Health Risk is the increased risk that a receptor (normally a human being living nearby) will face from (the lack of) a remediation project. The use of incremental health risk is based on carcinogenic and other (e.g., mutagenic, teratogenic) effects and often involves value judgements about the acceptable projected rate of increase in cancer. In some jurisdictions this is 1 in 1,000,000 but in other jurisdictions the acceptable projected rate of increase is 1 in 100,000. A relatively small incremental health risk from a single project is not of much comfort if the area already has a relatively high health risk from other operations like incinerators or other emissions, or if other projects exist at the same time causing a greater cumulative risk or an unacceptably high total risk. An analogy often used by remediators is to compare the risk of the remediation on nearby residents to the risks of death through car accidents or tobacco smoking. Risk is the potential impact (positive or negative) to an asset or some characteristic of value that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... In law, jurisdiction from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak, is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted body or to a person to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility. ... The result of excessive speed, this cement truck rolls over into the front garden of a house. ... Various smoking equipment including different pipes, mothe lungs. ...


Emissions standards

Standards are set for the levels of dust, noise, odour, emissions to air and groundwater, and discharge to sewers or waterways of all chemicals of concern or chemicals likely to be produced during the remediation by processing of the contaminants. These are compared against both natural background levels in the area and standards for areas zoned as nearby areas are zoned and against standards used in other recent remediations. Just because the emission is emanating from an area zoned industrial does not mean that in a nearby residential area there should be permitted any exceedances of the appropriate residential standards.


Monitoring for compliance against each standards is critical to ensure that exceedances are detected and reported both to authorities and the local community.


Enforcement is necessary to ensure that continued or significant breeches result in fines or even a jail sentence for the polluter. In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ...


Penalties must be significant as otherwise fines are treated as a normal expense of doing business. Compliance must be cheaper than to have continuous breeches.


Transport and emergency safety assessment

Assessment should be made of the risks of operations, transporting contaminated material, disposal of waste which may be contaminated including workers' clothes, and a formal emergency response plan should be developed. Every worker and visitor entering the site should have a safety induction personalised to their involvement with the site.


Impacts of funding remediation

The rezoning is often resisted by local communities and local government because of the adverse impacts on the local amenity of the remediation and the new development. The main impacts during remediation are noise, dust, odour and incremental health risk. Then there is the noise, dust and traffic of developments. Then there is the impact on local traffic, schools, playing fields, and other public facilities of the often vastly increased local population.


Example of a major remediation project

For an example of a complete rezoning by a state government over the opposition of local government and local communities of former chemical plants to fund remediation to allow for redevelopment for high density residential, retail and office development in Australia see http://rhodesnsw.org


In this case the proposed rezoning, remediation and redevelopment has a wealth of material available through the internet from:

List of sources of publicly available material, most accessible through the internet and from http://rhodesnsw.org:
  1. Numerous investigations and reports by Australian and International consultants
  2. For the former Union Carbide site, a previous remediation by excavation and containment in a clay capped sarcophagus, separated from the Bay by a bentonite wall.
  3. A Parliamentary Inquiry by the Upper House of the Parliament of New South Wales, a state of Australia;
  4. Two Commissions of Inquiry, one for each of the major dioxin contaminated sites, both contaminated by the operations of Union Carbide;
  5. Resolutions by the relevant local government bodies (originally Concord council and after the Municipality of Concord was merged with Drummoyne Council to form the City of Canada Bay, by that Council);
  6. Campaigns by local residents' groups, Greenpeace Australia, Nature Conservation Council of NSW, and Inner West (of Sydney branch of the) Greens
  7. published submissions by Planning NSW and Environmental Protection Agency of NSW;
  8. Comprehensive Environmental Impact studies published in digital format and available on CD from Planning NSW.

This rezoning, remediation and redevelopment of land contaminated by Union Carbide, ICI and others also involves the remediation of a strip of dioxin contaminated sediments in Homebush Bay, New South Wales. The Homebush Bay area was home to the main events of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics. The soil contamination was addressed in the Commission of Inquiry into the Lednez site formerly owned by Union Carbide, but not to the satisfaction of local community activists. Union Carbide Corporation, headquartered in Danbury, Connecticut, is a United States chemical manufacturer, now a subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company. ... Bentonite - USGS Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite, (Na,Ca)0. ... Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea Speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo Gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus Viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ... Canada Bay is a Local Government Area of New South Wales, Australia and located in the metropolitan area of Sydney. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ... The Sydney Opera House is one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, and since its opening it has become an international symbol of Sydney Sydney (pronounced ) is the state capital of New South Wales, located on the east coast of Australia. ... Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) is a British chemical company, based in London. ... Homebush Bay is a suburb of Sydney, Australia, adjacent to the newly developed suburb of Newington. ... The Sydney Opera House is one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, and since its opening it has become an international symbol of Sydney Sydney (pronounced ) is the state capital of New South Wales, located on the east coast of Australia. ... The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The remediation of Homebush Bay is important because of its impact on the food chain which extends through benthos not only to local protected and threatened species of birds, but also to JAMBA and CAMBA protected species and species which use other Ramsar-protected wetlands. Ultimately human health is impacted through the food chain. Homebush Bay has a complete fishing ban, there is a commercial fin fishing ban west of the Gladesville Bridge, and based on submissions of the remediator and NSW Waterways and EPA the complete fishing ban ought be extended to the whole of the Parramatta River west of Homebush Bay and at least as far East as the Ryde Traffic Bridge. Food chains and food webs or food networks describe the feeding relationships between so the plank species in a biotic community. ... In oceanography, marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... The Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) is a treaty between Australia and Japan to minimise harm to the major areas used by birds which migrate between the two countries. ... The China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement os a treaty between China to minimise harm to the major areas used by birds which migrate between the two countries. ... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ... Gladesville Bridge: The span of the bridge is 305 m (1,000 ft) and at its highest point gives a clearance of 61 m (200 ft). ... The Parramatta River, New South Wales, Australia, is the main tributary of Sydney Harbour, along with the smaller Lane Cove and Duck Rivers. ...


See also

Wikipedia links

Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. ... In chemistry and biology, degradation is the decomposition of a chemical compound by stages, with well-defined intermediate products. ... Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ environmental movement. ... Attenuation is the decrease of the amount, force, magnitude, or value of something. ... Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In situ oxidation is a technique used remediating envionmental contaminants. ...

Legislation about remediation

Checking the status of a cleanup site CERCLA is an acronym for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675 (commonly known as the Superfund), which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11, 1980 in response to the Love Canal... Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea Speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo Gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus Viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ... Emblems: Floral - Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii); Mammal - Numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus); Bird - Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Const. ...

Environmental groups with information

  • CHEJ (US - Grew out of Love Canal controversy)
  • Greenpeace (International organisation with National sites)

Love Canal (1981) Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, located at (43. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ...

Environmental protection agencies

EPA redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... Environment Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of wildlife. ...

Major remediation projects

  • http://rhodesnsw.org (Rhodes, NSW, Australia - Union Carbide - dioxin - High density residential, retail offices, open space)

External links


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